Ensemble Transformer for Efficient and Accurate Ranking Tasks: an Application to Question Answering Systems
Yoshitomo Matsubara | Luca Soldaini | Eric Lind | Alessandro Moschitti
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022
Large transformer models can highly improve Answer Sentence Selection (AS2) tasks, but their high computational costs prevent their use in many real-world applications. In this paper, we explore the following research question: How can we make the AS2 models more accurate without significantly increasing their model complexity? To address the question, we propose a Multiple Heads Student architecture (named CERBERUS), an efficient neural network designed to distill an ensemble of large transformers into a single smaller model. CERBERUS consists of two components: a stack of transformer layers that is used to encode inputs, and a set of ranking heads; unlike traditional distillation technique, each of them is trained by distilling a different large transformer architecture in a way that preserves the diversity of the ensemble members. The resulting model captures the knowledge of heterogeneous transformer models by using just a few extra parameters. We show the effectiveness of CERBERUS on three English datasets for AS2; our proposed approach outperforms all single-model distillations we consider, rivaling the state-of-the-art large AS2 models that have 2.7× more parameters and run 2.5× slower. Code for our model is available at https://github.com/amazon-research/wqa-cerberus.
Citations Beyond Self Citations: Identifying Authors, Affiliations, and Nationalities in Scientific Papers
Yoshitomo Matsubara | Sameer Singh
Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Mining Scientific Publications
The question of the utility of the blind peer-review system is fundamental to scientific research. Some studies investigate exactly how “blind” the papers are in the double-blind review system by manually or automatically identifying the true authors, mainly suggesting the number of self-citations in the submitted manuscripts as the primary signal for identity. However, related work on the automated approaches are limited by the sizes of their datasets and the restricted experimental setup, thus they lack practical insights into the blind review process. In this work, we train models that identify the authors, their affiliations, and their nationalities through real-world, large-scale experiments on the Microsoft Academic Graph, including the cold start scenario. Our models are accurate; we identify at least one of authors, affiliations, and nationalities of held-out papers with 40.3%, 47.9% and 86.0% accuracy respectively, from the top-10 guesses of our models. However, through insights from the model, we demonstrate that these entities are identifiable with a small number of guesses primarily by using a combination of self-citations, social, and common citations. Moreover, our further analysis on the results leads to interesting findings, such as that prominent affiliations are easily identifiable (e.g. 93.8% of test papers written by Microsoft are identified with top-10 guesses). The experimental results show, against conventional belief, that the self-citations are no more informative than looking at the common citations, thus suggesting that removing self-citations is not sufficient for authors to maintain their anonymity.
COVIDLies: Detecting COVID-19 Misinformation on Social Media
Tamanna Hossain | Robert L. Logan IV | Arjuna Ugarte | Yoshitomo Matsubara | Sean Young | Sameer Singh
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for COVID-19 (Part 2) at EMNLP 2020
The ongoing pandemic has heightened the need for developing tools to flag COVID-19-related misinformation on the internet, specifically on social media such as Twitter. However, due to novel language and the rapid change of information, existing misinformation detection datasets are not effective for evaluating systems designed to detect misinformation on this topic. Misinformation detection can be divided into two sub-tasks: (i) retrieval of misconceptions relevant to posts being checked for veracity, and (ii) stance detection to identify whether the posts Agree, Disagree, or express No Stance towards the retrieved misconceptions. To facilitate research on this task, we release COVIDLies (https://ucinlp.github.io/covid19 ), a dataset of 6761 expert-annotated tweets to evaluate the performance of misinformation detection systems on 86 different pieces of COVID-19 related misinformation. We evaluate existing NLP systems on this dataset, providing initial benchmarks and identifying key challenges for future models to improve upon.
- Sameer Singh 2
- Luca Soldaini 1
- Eric Lind 1
- Alessandro Moschitti 1
- Tamanna Hossain 1
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