Youngwook Kim


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ConPrompt: Pre-training a Language Model with Machine-Generated Data for Implicit Hate Speech Detection
Youngwook Kim | Shinwoo Park | Youngsoo Namgoong | Yo-Sub Han
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Implicit hate speech detection is a challenging task in text classification since no explicit cues (e.g., swear words) exist in the text. While some pre-trained language models have been developed for hate speech detection, they are not specialized in implicit hate speech. Recently, an implicit hate speech dataset with a massive number of samples has been proposed by controlling machine generation. We propose a pre-training approach, ConPrompt, to fully leverage such machine-generated data. Specifically, given a machine-generated statement, we use example statements of its origin prompt as positive samples for contrastive learning. Through pre-training with ConPrompt, we present ToxiGen-ConPrompt, a pre-trained language model for implicit hate speech detection. We conduct extensive experiments on several implicit hate speech datasets and show the superior generalization ability of ToxiGen-ConPrompt compared to other pre-trained models. Additionally, we empirically show that ConPrompt is effective in mitigating identity term bias, demonstrating that it not only makes a model more generalizable but also reduces unintended bias. We analyze the representation quality of ToxiGen-ConPrompt and show its ability to consider target group and toxicity, which are desirable features in terms of implicit hate speeches.

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Contrastive Learning with Keyword-based Data Augmentation for Code Search and Code Question Answering
Shinwoo Park | Youngwook Kim | Yo-Sub Han
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The semantic code search is to find code snippets from the collection of candidate code snippets with respect to a user query that describes functionality. Recent work on code search proposes data augmentation of queries for contrastive learning. This data augmentation approach modifies random words in queries. When a user web query for searching code snippet is too brief, the important word that represents the search intent of the query could be undesirably modified. A code snippet has informative components such as function name and documentation that describe its functionality. We propose to utilize these code components to identify important words and preserve them in the data augmentation step. We present KeyDAC (Keyword-based Data Augmentation for Contrastive learning) that identifies important words for code search from queries and code components based on term matching. KeyDAC augments query-code pairs while preserving keywords, and then leverages generated training instances for contrastive learning. We use KeyDAC to fine-tune various pre-trained language models and evaluate the performance of code search and code question answering via CoSQA and WebQueryTest. The experimental results confirm that KeyDAC substantially outperforms the current state-of-the-art performance, and achieves the new state-of-the-arts for both tasks.


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Generalizable Implicit Hate Speech Detection Using Contrastive Learning
Youngwook Kim | Shinwoo Park | Yo-Sub Han
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Hate speech detection has gained increasing attention with the growing prevalence of hateful contents. When a text contains an obvious hate word or expression, it is fairly easy to detect it. However, it is challenging to identify implicit hate speech in nuance or context when there are insufficient lexical cues. Recently, there are several attempts to detect implicit hate speech leveraging pre-trained language models such as BERT and HateBERT. Fine-tuning on an implicit hate speech dataset shows satisfactory performance when evaluated on the test set of the dataset used for training. However, we empirically confirm that the performance drops at least 12.5%p in F1 score when tested on the dataset that is different from the one used for training. We tackle this cross-dataset underperforming problem using contrastive learning. Based on our observation of common underlying implications in various forms of hate posts, we propose a novel contrastive learning method, ImpCon, that pulls an implication and its corresponding posts close in representation space. We evaluate the effectiveness of ImpCon by running cross-dataset evaluation on three implicit hate speech benchmarks. The experimental results on cross-dataset show that ImpCon improves at most 9.10% on BERT, and 8.71% on HateBERT.

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Modularized Transfer Learning with Multiple Knowledge Graphs for Zero-shot Commonsense Reasoning
Yu Jin Kim | Beong-woo Kwak | Youngwook Kim | Reinald Kim Amplayo | Seung-won Hwang | Jinyoung Yeo
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Commonsense reasoning systems should be able to generalize to diverse reasoning cases. However, most state-of-the-art approaches depend on expensive data annotations and overfit to a specific benchmark without learning how to perform general semantic reasoning. To overcome these drawbacks, zero-shot QA systems have shown promise as a robust learning scheme by transforming a commonsense knowledge graph (KG) into synthetic QA-form samples for model training. Considering the increasing type of different commonsense KGs, this paper aims to extend the zero-shot transfer learning scenario into multiple-source settings, where different KGs can be utilized synergetically. Towards this goal, we propose to mitigate the loss of knowledge from the interference among the different knowledge sources, by developing a modular variant of the knowledge aggregation as a new zero-shot commonsense reasoning framework. Results on five commonsense reasoning benchmarks demonstrate the efficacy of our framework, improving the performance with multiple KGs.