Yu Gu


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Structure-Aware Language Model Pretraining Improves Dense Retrieval on Structured Data
Xinze Li | Zhenghao Liu | Chenyan Xiong | Shi Yu | Yu Gu | Zhiyuan Liu | Ge Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

This paper presents Structure Aware Dense Retrieval (SANTA) model, which encodes user queries and structured data in one universal embedding space for retrieving structured data. SANTA proposes two pretraining methods to make language models structure-aware and learn effective representations for structured data: 1) Structured Data Alignment, which utilizes the natural alignment relations between structured data and unstructured data for structure-aware pretraining. It contrastively trains language models to represent multi-modal text data and teaches models to distinguish matched structured data for unstructured texts. 2) Masked Entity Prediction, which designs an entity-oriented mask strategy and asks language models to fill in the masked entities. Our experiments show that SANTA achieves state-of-the-art on code search and product search and conducts convincing results in the zero-shot setting. SANTA learns tailored representations for multi-modal text data by aligning structured and unstructured data pairs and capturing structural semantics by masking and predicting entities in the structured data. All codes are available at https://github.com/OpenMatch/OpenMatch.

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CompleQA: Benchmarking the Impacts of Knowledge Graph Completion Methods on Question Answering
Donghan Yu | Yu Gu | Chenyan Xiong | Yiming Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

How much success in Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) would translate into the performance enhancement in downstream tasks is an important question that has not been studied in depth. In this paper, we introduce a novel benchmark, namely CompleQA, to comprehensively assess the influence of representative KGC methods on Knowledge Graph Question Answering (KGQA), one of the most important downstream applications. This benchmark includes a knowledge graph with 3 million triplets across 5 distinct domains, coupled with over 5000 question-answering pairs and a completion dataset that is well-aligned with these questions. Our evaluation of four well-known KGC methods in combination with two state-of-the-art KGQA systems shows that effective KGC can significantly mitigate the impact of knowledge graph incompleteness on question-answering performance. Surprisingly, we also find that the best-performing KGC method(s) does not necessarily lead to the best QA results, underscoring the need to consider downstream applications when doing KGC.

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Don’t Generate, Discriminate: A Proposal for Grounding Language Models to Real-World Environments
Yu Gu | Xiang Deng | Yu Su
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A key missing capacity of current language models (LMs) is grounding to real-world environments. Most existing work for grounded language understanding uses LMs to directly generate plans that can be executed in the environment to achieve the desired effects. It thereby casts the burden of ensuring grammaticality, faithfulness, and controllability all on the LMs. We propose Pangu, a generic framework for grounded language understanding that capitalizes on the discriminative ability of LMs instead of their generative ability. Pangu consists of a symbolic agent and a neural LM working in a concerted fashion: The agent explores the environment to incrementally construct valid plans, and the LM evaluates the plausibility of the candidate plans to guide the search process. A case study on the challenging problem of knowledge base question answering (KBQA), which features a massive environment, demonstrates the remarkable effectiveness and flexibility of Pangu: A BERT-base LM is sufficient for setting a new record on standard KBQA datasets, and larger LMs further bring substantial gains.Pangu also enables, for the first time, effective few-shot in-context learning for KBQA with large LMs such as Codex.

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Few-shot In-context Learning on Knowledge Base Question Answering
Tianle Li | Xueguang Ma | Alex Zhuang | Yu Gu | Yu Su | Wenhu Chen
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Question answering over knowledge bases is considered a difficult problem due to the challenge of generalizing to a wide variety of possible natural language questions. Additionally, the heterogeneity of knowledge base schema items between different knowledge bases often necessitates specialized training for different knowledge base question-answering (KBQA) datasets. To handle questions over diverse KBQA datasets with a unified training-free framework, we propose KB-BINDER, which for the first time enables few-shot in-context learning over KBQA tasks. Firstly, KB-BINDER leverages large language models like Codex to generate logical forms as the draft for a specific question by imitating a few demonstrations. Secondly, KB-BINDER grounds on the knowledge base to bind the generated draft to an executable one with BM25 score matching. The experimental results on four public heterogeneous KBQA datasets show that KB-BINDER can achieve a strong performance with only a few in-context demonstrations. Especially on GraphQA and 3-hop MetaQA, KB-BINDER can even outperform the state-of-the-art trained models. On GrailQA and WebQSP, our model is also on par with other fully-trained models. We believe KB-BINDER can serve as an important baseline for future research. We plan to release all the code and data. Our code is available at https://github.com/ltl3A87/KB-BINDER.

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Interactive Span Recommendation for Biomedical Text
Louis Blankemeier | Theodore Zhao | Robert Tinn | Sid Kiblawi | Yu Gu | Akshay Chaudhari | Hoifung Poon | Sheng Zhang | Mu Wei | J. Preston
Proceedings of the 5th Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop

Motivated by the scarcity of high-quality labeled biomedical text, as well as the success of data programming, we introduce KRISS-Search. By leveraging the Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS) ontology, KRISS-Search addresses an interactive few-shot span recommendation task that we propose. We first introduce unsupervised KRISS-Search and show that our method outperforms existing methods in identifying spans that are semantically similar to a given span of interest, with >50% AUPRC improvement relative to PubMedBERT. We then introduce supervised KRISS-Search, which leverages human interaction to improve the notion of similarity used by unsupervised KRISS-Search. Through simulated human feedback, we demonstrate an enhanced F1 score of 0.68 in classifying spans as semantically similar or different in the low-label setting, outperforming PubMedBERT by 2 F1 points. Finally, supervised KRISS-Search demonstrates competitive or superior performance compared to PubMedBERT in few-shot biomedical named entity recognition (NER) across five benchmark datasets, with an average improvement of 5.6 F1 points. We envision KRISS-Search increasing the efficiency of programmatic data labeling and also providing broader utility as an interactive biomedical search engine.


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Clues Before Answers: Generation-Enhanced Multiple-Choice QA
Zixian Huang | Ao Wu | Jiaying Zhou | Yu Gu | Yue Zhao | Gong Cheng
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

A trending paradigm for multiple-choice question answering (MCQA) is using a text-to-text framework. By unifying data in different tasks into a single text-to-text format, it trains a generative encoder-decoder model which is both powerful and universal. However, a side effect of twisting a generation target to fit the classification nature of MCQA is the under-utilization of the decoder and the knowledge that can be decoded. To exploit the generation capability and underlying knowledge of a pre-trained encoder-decoder model, in this paper, we propose a generation-enhanced MCQA model named GenMC. It generates a clue from the question and then leverages the clue to enhance a reader for MCQA. It outperforms text-to-text models on multiple MCQA datasets.

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Dimension Reduction for Efficient Dense Retrieval via Conditional Autoencoder
Zhenghao Liu | Han Zhang | Chenyan Xiong | Zhiyuan Liu | Yu Gu | Xiaohua Li
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Dense retrievers encode queries and documents and map them in an embedding space using pre-trained language models. These embeddings need to be high-dimensional to fit training signals and guarantee the retrieval effectiveness of dense retrievers. However, these high-dimensional embeddings lead to larger index storage and higher retrieval latency. To reduce the embedding dimensions of dense retrieval, this paper proposes a Conditional Autoencoder (ConAE) to compress the high-dimensional embeddings to maintain the same embedding distribution and better recover the ranking features. Our experiments show that ConAE is effective in compressing embeddings by achieving comparable ranking performance with its teacher model and making the retrieval system more efficient. Our further analyses show that ConAE can alleviate the redundancy of the embeddings of dense retrieval with only one linear layer. All codes of this work are available at https://github.com/NEUIR/ConAE.

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ArcaneQA: Dynamic Program Induction and Contextualized Encoding for Knowledge Base Question Answering
Yu Gu | Yu Su
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Question answering on knowledge bases (KBQA) poses a unique challenge for semantic parsing research due to two intertwined challenges: large search space and ambiguities in schema linking. Conventional ranking-based KBQA models, which rely on a candidate enumeration step to reduce the search space, struggle with flexibility in predicting complicated queries and have impractical running time. In this paper, we present ArcaneQA, a novel generation-based model that addresses both the large search space and the schema linking challenges in a unified framework with two mutually boosting ingredients: dynamic program induction for tackling the large search space and dynamic contextualized encoding for schema linking. Experimental results on multiple popular KBQA datasets demonstrate the highly competitive performance of ArcaneQA in both effectiveness and efficiency.


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A Systematic Investigation of KB-Text Embedding Alignment at Scale
Vardaan Pahuja | Yu Gu | Wenhu Chen | Mehdi Bahrami | Lei Liu | Wei-Peng Chen | Yu Su
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Knowledge bases (KBs) and text often contain complementary knowledge: KBs store structured knowledge that can support long range reasoning, while text stores more comprehensive and timely knowledge in an unstructured way. Separately embedding the individual knowledge sources into vector spaces has demonstrated tremendous successes in encoding the respective knowledge, but how to jointly embed and reason with both knowledge sources to fully leverage the complementary information is still largely an open problem. We conduct a large-scale, systematic investigation of aligning KB and text embeddings for joint reasoning. We set up a novel evaluation framework with two evaluation tasks, few-shot link prediction and analogical reasoning, and evaluate an array of KB-text embedding alignment methods. We also demonstrate how such alignment can infuse textual information into KB embeddings for more accurate link prediction on emerging entities and events, using COVID-19 as a case study.