Yu Zhao


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Easy Guided Decoding in Providing Suggestions for Interactive Machine Translation
Ke Wang | Xin Ge | Jiayi Wang | Yuqi Zhang | Yu Zhao
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Machine translation technology has made great progress in recent years, but it cannot guarantee error-free results. Human translators perform post-editing on machine translations to correct errors in the scene of computer aided translation. In favor of expediting the post-editing process, many works have investigated machine translation in interactive modes, in which machines can automatically refine the rest of translations constrained by human’s edits. Translation Suggestion (TS), as an interactive mode to assist human translators, requires machines to generate alternatives for specific incorrect words or phrases selected by human translators. In this paper, we utilize the parameterized objective function of neural machine translation (NMT) and propose a novel constrained decoding algorithm, namely Prefix-Suffix Guided Decoding (PSGD), to deal with the TS problem without additional training. Compared to state-of-the-art lexical-constrained decoding method, PSGD improves translation quality by an average of 10.6 BLEU and reduces time overhead by an average of 63.4% on benchmark datasets. Furthermore, on both the WeTS and the WMT 2022 Translation Suggestion datasets, it is superior over other supervised learning systems trained with TS annotated data.

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Generating Visual Spatial Description via Holistic 3D Scene Understanding
Yu Zhao | Hao Fei | Wei Ji | Jianguo Wei | Meishan Zhang | Min Zhang | Tat-Seng Chua
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Visual spatial description (VSD) aims to generate texts that describe the spatial relations of the given objects within images. Existing VSD work merely models the 2D geometrical vision features, thus inevitably falling prey to the problem of skewed spatial understanding of target objects. In this work, we investigate the incorporation of 3D scene features for VSD. With an external 3D scene extractor, we obtain the 3D objects and scene features for input images, based on which we construct a target object-centered 3D spatial scene graph (Go3D-S2G), such that we model the spatial semantics of target objects within the holistic 3D scenes. Besides, we propose a scene subgraph selecting mechanism, sampling topologically-diverse subgraphs from Go3D-S2G, where the diverse local structure features are navigated to yield spatially-diversified text generation. Experimental results on two VSD datasets demonstrate that our framework outperforms the baselines significantly, especially improving on the cases with complex visual spatial relations. Meanwhile, our method can produce more spatially-diversified generation.

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From Alignment to Entailment: A Unified Textual Entailment Framework for Entity Alignment
Yu Zhao | Yike Wu | Xiangrui Cai | Ying Zhang | Haiwei Zhang | Xiaojie Yuan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Entity Alignment (EA) aims to find the equivalent entities between two Knowledge Graphs (KGs). Existing methods usually encode the triples of entities as embeddings and learn to align the embeddings, which prevents the direct interaction between the original information of the cross-KG entities. Moreover, they encode the relational triples and attribute triples of an entity in heterogeneous embedding spaces, which prevents them from helping each other. In this paper, we transform both triples into unified textual sequences, and model the EA task as a bi-directional textual entailment task between the sequences of cross-KG entities. Specifically, we feed the sequences of two entities simultaneously into a pre-trained language model (PLM) and propose two kinds of PLM-based entity aligners that model the entailment probability between sequences as the similarity between entities. Our approach captures the unified correlation pattern of two kinds of information between entities, and explicitly models the fine-grained interaction between original entity information. The experiments on five cross-lingual EA datasets show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art EA methods and enables the mutual enhancement of the heterogeneous information. Codes are available at https://github.com/OreOZhao/TEA.

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CCL23-Eval 任务1系统报告:基于持续预训练方法与上下文增强策略的古籍命名实体识别(System Report for CCL23-Eval Task 1:Named Entity Recognition for Ancient Books based on Continual Pre-training Method and Context Augmentation Strategy)
Shiquan Wang (士权王,) | Lingling Shi (石玲玲) | Luwen Pu (蒲璐汶) | Ruiyu Fang (方瑞玉) | Yu Zhao (宇赵,) | Shuangyong Song (宋双永)
Proceedings of the 22nd Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: Evaluations)


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CCL23-Eval任务6系统报告:基于原型监督对比学习和模型融合的电信网络诈骗案件分类(System Report for CCL23-Eval Task 6: Classification of Telecom Network Fraud Cases Based on Prototypical Supervised Contrastive Learning and Model Fusion)
Site Xiong (熊思诗) | Jili Zhang (张吉力) | Yu Zhao (赵宇) | Xinzhang Liu (刘欣璋) | Yongshuang Song (宋双永)
Proceedings of the 22nd Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: Evaluations)

“本文提出了一种基于原型监督对比学习和模型融合的电信网络诈骗案件分类方法。为了增强模型区分易混淆类别的能力,我们采用特征学习与分类器学习并行的双分支神经网络训练框架,并通过领域预训练、模型融合、后置分类等策略优化分类效果。最终,本文方法在CCL2023-FCC评测任务上取得了Macro-F1为0.8601 的成绩。”


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Overcoming Language Priors in Visual Question Answering via Distinguishing Superficially Similar Instances
Yike Wu | Yu Zhao | Shiwan Zhao | Ying Zhang | Xiaojie Yuan | Guoqing Zhao | Ning Jiang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Despite the great progress of Visual Question Answering (VQA), current VQA models heavily rely on the superficial correlation between the question type and its corresponding frequent answers (i.e., language priors) to make predictions, without really understanding the input. In this work, we define the training instances with the same question type but different answers as superficially similar instances, and attribute the language priors to the confusion of VQA model on such instances. To solve this problem, we propose a novel training framework that explicitly encourages the VQA model to distinguish between the superficially similar instances. Specifically, for each training instance, we first construct a set that contains its superficially similar counterparts. Then we exploit the proposed distinguishing module to increase the distance between the instance and its counterparts in the answer space. In this way, the VQA model is forced to further focus on the other parts of the input beyond the question type, which helps to overcome the language priors. Experimental results show that our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on VQA-CP v2. Codes are available at Distinguishing-VQA.

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TSMind: Alibaba and Soochow University’s Submission to the WMT22 Translation Suggestion Task
Xin Ge | Ke Wang | Jiayi Wang | Nini Xiao | Xiangyu Duan | Yu Zhao | Yuqi Zhang
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

This paper describes the joint submission of Alibaba and Soochow University to the WMT 2022 Shared Task on Translation Suggestion (TS). We participate in the English to/from German and English to/from Chinese tasks. Basically, we utilize the model paradigm fine-tuning on the downstream tasks based on large-scale pre-trained models, which has recently achieved great success. We choose FAIR’s WMT19 English to/from German news translation system and MBART50 for English to/from Chinese as our pre-trained models. Considering the task’s condition of limited use of training data, we follow the data augmentation strategies provided by Yang to boost our TS model performance. And we further involve the dual conditional cross-entropy model and GPT-2 language model to filter augmented data. The leader board finally shows that our submissions are ranked first in three of four language directions in the Naive TS task of the WMT22 Translation Suggestion task.

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Visual Spatial Description: Controlled Spatial-Oriented Image-to-Text Generation
Yu Zhao | Jianguo Wei | ZhiChao Lin | Yueheng Sun | Meishan Zhang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Image-to-text tasks such as open-ended image captioning and controllable image description have received extensive attention for decades. Here we advance this line of work further, presenting Visual Spatial Description (VSD), a new perspective for image-to-text toward spatial semantics. Given an image and two objects inside it, VSD aims to produce one description focusing on the spatial perspective between the two objects. Accordingly, we annotate a dataset manually to facilitate the investigation of the newly-introduced task, and then build several benchmark encoder-decoder models by using VL-BART and VL-T5 as backbones. In addition, we investigate visual spatial relationship classification (VSRC) information into our model by pipeline and end-to-end architectures. Finally, we conduct experiments on our benchmark dataset to evaluate all our models. Results show that our models are awe-inspiring, offering accurate and human-like spatial-oriented text descriptions. Besides, VSRC has great potential for VSD, and the joint end-to-end architecture is the better choice for their integration. We will make the dataset and codes publicly available for research purposes.

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An Efficient Memory-Augmented Transformer for Knowledge-Intensive NLP Tasks
Yuxiang Wu | Yu Zhao | Baotian Hu | Pasquale Minervini | Pontus Stenetorp | Sebastian Riedel
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Access to external knowledge is essential for many natural language processing tasks, such as question answering and dialogue. Existing methods often rely on a parametric model that stores knowledge in its parameters, or use a retrieval-augmented model that has access to an external knowledge source. Parametric and retrieval-augmented models have complementary strengths in terms of computational efficiency and predictive accuracy. To combine the strength of both approaches, we propose the Efficient Memory-Augmented Transformer (EMAT) – it encodes external knowledge into a key-value memory and exploits the fast maximum inner product search for memory querying. We also introduce pre-training tasks that allow EMAT to encode informative key-value representations, and to learn an implicit strategy to integrate multiple memory slots into the transformer. Experiments on various knowledge-intensive tasks such as question answering and dialogue datasets show that, simply augmenting parametric models (T5-base) using our method produces more accurate results (e.g., 25.8 → 44.3 EM on NQ) while retaining a high throughput (e.g., 1000 queries/s on NQ). Compared to retrieval-augmented models, EMAT runs substantially faster across the board and produces more accurate results on WoW and ELI5.

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MoSE: Modality Split and Ensemble for Multimodal Knowledge Graph Completion
Yu Zhao | Xiangrui Cai | Yike Wu | Haiwei Zhang | Ying Zhang | Guoqing Zhao | Ning Jiang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multimodal knowledge graph completion (MKGC) aims to predict missing entities in MKGs. Previous works usually share relation representation across modalities. This results in mutual interference between modalities during training, since for a pair of entities, the relation from one modality probably contradicts that from another modality. Furthermore, making a unified prediction based on the shared relation representation treats the input in different modalities equally, while their importance to the MKGC task should be different. In this paper, we propose MoSE, a Modality Split representation learning and Ensemble inference framework for MKGC. Specifically, in the training phase, we learn modality-split relation embeddings for each modality instead of a single modality-shared one, which alleviates the modality interference. Based on these embeddings, in the inference phase, we first make modality-split predictions and then exploit various ensemble methods to combine the predictions with different weights, which models the modality importance dynamically. Experimental results on three KG datasets show that MoSE outperforms state-of-the-art MKGC methods. Codes are available at https://github.com/OreOZhao/MoSE4MKGC.


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TermMind: Alibaba’s WMT21 Machine Translation Using Terminologies Task Submission
Ke Wang | Shuqin Gu | Boxing Chen | Yu Zhao | Weihua Luo | Yuqi Zhang
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes our work in the WMT 2021 Machine Translation using Terminologies Shared Task. We participate in the shared translation terminologies task in English to Chinese language pair. To satisfy terminology constraints on translation, we use a terminology data augmentation strategy based on Transformer model. We used tags to mark and add the term translations into the matched sentences. We created synthetic terms using phrase tables extracted from bilingual corpus to increase the proportion of term translations in training data. Detailed pre-processing and filtering on data, in-domain finetuning and ensemble method are used in our system. Our submission obtains competitive results in the terminology-targeted evaluation.

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QEMind: Alibaba’s Submission to the WMT21 Quality Estimation Shared Task
Jiayi Wang | Ke Wang | Boxing Chen | Yu Zhao | Weihua Luo | Yuqi Zhang
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

Quality Estimation, as a crucial step of quality control for machine translation, has been explored for years. The goal is to to investigate automatic methods for estimating the quality of machine translation results without reference translations. In this year’s WMT QE shared task, we utilize the large-scale XLM-Roberta pre-trained model and additionally propose several useful features to evaluate the uncertainty of the translations to build our QE system, named QEMind . The system has been applied to the sentence-level scoring task of Direct Assessment and the binary score prediction task of Critical Error Detection. In this paper, we present our submissions to the WMT 2021 QE shared task and an extensive set of experimental results have shown us that our multilingual systems outperform the best system in the Direct Assessment QE task of WMT 2020.

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Incorporating Global Information in Local Attention for Knowledge Representation Learning
Yu Zhao | Han Zhou | Ruobing Xie | Fuzhen Zhuang | Qing Li | Ji Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Beyond Glass-Box Features: Uncertainty Quantification Enhanced Quality Estimation for Neural Machine Translation
Ke Wang | Yangbin Shi | Jiayi Wang | Yuqi Zhang | Yu Zhao | Xiaolin Zheng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Quality Estimation (QE) plays an essential role in applications of Machine Translation (MT). Traditionally, a QE system accepts the original source text and translation from a black-box MT system as input. Recently, a few studies indicate that as a by-product of translation, QE benefits from the model and training data’s information of the MT system where the translations come from, and it is called the “glass-box QE”. In this paper, we extend the definition of “glass-box QE” generally to uncertainty quantification with both “black-box” and “glass-box” approaches and design several features deduced from them to blaze a new trial in improving QE’s performance. We propose a framework to fuse the feature engineering of uncertainty quantification into a pre-trained cross-lingual language model to predict the translation quality. Experiment results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performances on the datasets of WMT 2020 QE shared task.


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Computer Assisted Translation with Neural Quality Estimation and Automatic Post-Editing
Ke Wang | Jiayi Wang | Niyu Ge | Yangbin Shi | Yu Zhao | Kai Fan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

With the advent of neural machine translation, there has been a marked shift towards leveraging and consuming the machine translation results. However, the gap between machine translation systems and human translators needs to be manually closed by post-editing. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end deep learning framework of the quality estimation and automatic post-editing of the machine translation output. Our goal is to provide error correction suggestions and to further relieve the burden of human translators through an interpretable model. To imitate the behavior of human translators, we design three efficient delegation modules – quality estimation, generative post-editing, and atomic operation post-editing and construct a hierarchical model based on them. We examine this approach with the English–German dataset from WMT 2017 APE shared task and our experimental results can achieve the state-of-the-art performance. We also verify that the certified translators can significantly expedite their post-editing processing with our model in human evaluation.

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Connecting Embeddings for Knowledge Graph Entity Typing
Yu Zhao | Anxiang Zhang | Ruobing Xie | Kang Liu | Xiaojie Wang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Knowledge graph (KG) entity typing aims at inferring possible missing entity type instances in KG, which is a very significant but still under-explored subtask of knowledge graph completion. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for KG entity typing which is trained by jointly utilizing local typing knowledge from existing entity type assertions and global triple knowledge in KGs. Specifically, we present two distinct knowledge-driven effective mechanisms of entity type inference. Accordingly, we build two novel embedding models to realize the mechanisms. Afterward, a joint model via connecting them is used to infer missing entity type instances, which favors inferences that agree with both entity type instances and triple knowledge in KGs. Experimental results on two real-world datasets (Freebase and YAGO) demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed mechanisms and models for improving KG entity typing. The source code and data of this paper can be obtained from: https://github.com/Adam1679/ConnectE .

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Alibaba’s Submission for the WMT 2020 APE Shared Task: Improving Automatic Post-Editing with Pre-trained Conditional Cross-Lingual BERT
Jiayi Wang | Ke Wang | Kai Fan | Yuqi Zhang | Jun Lu | Xin Ge | Yangbin Shi | Yu Zhao
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

The goal of Automatic Post-Editing (APE) is basically to examine the automatic methods for correcting translation errors generated by an unknown machine translation (MT) system. This paper describes Alibaba’s submissions to the WMT 2020 APE Shared Task for the English-German language pair. We design a two-stage training pipeline. First, a BERT-like cross-lingual language model is pre-trained by randomly masking target sentences alone. Then, an additional neural decoder on the top of the pre-trained model is jointly fine-tuned for the APE task. We also apply an imitation learning strategy to augment a reasonable amount of pseudo APE training data, potentially preventing the model to overfit on the limited real training data and boosting the performance on held-out data. To verify our proposed model and data augmentation, we examine our approach with the well-known benchmarking English-German dataset from the WMT 2017 APE task. The experiment results demonstrate that our system significantly outperforms all other baselines and achieves the state-of-the-art performance. The final results on the WMT 2020 test dataset show that our submission can achieve +5.56 BLEU and -4.57 TER with respect to the official MT baseline.


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Complete Syntactic Analysis Bases on Multi-level Chunking
Zhipeng Jiang | Yu Zhao | Yi Guan | Chao Li | Sheng Li
CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing