This paper is concerned with semantic parsing for English as a second language (ESL). Motivated by the theoretical emphasis on the learning challenges that occur at the syntax-semantics interface during second language acquisition, we formulate the task based on the divergence between literal and intended meanings. We combine the complementary strengths of English Resource Grammar, a linguistically-precise hand-crafted deep grammar, and TLE, an existing manually annotated ESL UD-TreeBank with a novel reranking model. Experiments demonstrate that in comparison to human annotations, our method can obtain a very promising SemBanking quality. By means of the newly created corpus, we evaluate state-of-the-art semantic parsing as well as grammatical error correction models. The evaluation profiles the performance of neural NLP techniques for handling ESL data and suggests some research directions.
This paper studies semantic parsing for interlanguage (L2), taking semantic role labeling (SRL) as a case task and learner Chinese as a case language. We first manually annotate the semantic roles for a set of learner texts to derive a gold standard for automatic SRL. Based on the new data, we then evaluate three off-the-shelf SRL systems, i.e., the PCFGLA-parser-based, neural-parser-based and neural-syntax-agnostic systems, to gauge how successful SRL for learner Chinese can be. We find two non-obvious facts: 1) the L1-sentence-trained systems performs rather badly on the L2 data; 2) the performance drop from the L1 data to the L2 data of the two parser-based systems is much smaller, indicating the importance of syntactic parsing in SRL for interlanguages. Finally, the paper introduces a new agreement-based model to explore the semantic coherency information in the large-scale L2-L1 parallel data. We then show such information is very effective to enhance SRL for learner texts. Our model achieves an F-score of 72.06, which is a 2.02 point improvement over the best baseline.
Motivated by the positive impact of empty category on syntactic parsing, we study neural models for pre- and in-parsing detection of empty category, which has not previously been investigated. We find several non-obvious facts: (a) BiLSTM can capture non-local contextual information which is essential for detecting empty categories, (b) even with a BiLSTM, syntactic information is still able to enhance the detection, and (c) automatic detection of empty categories improves parsing quality for overt words. Our neural ECD models outperform the prior state-of-the-art by significant margins.