Yubo Ma


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Few-shot Event Detection: An Empirical Study and a Unified View
Yubo Ma | Zehao Wang | Yixin Cao | Aixin Sun
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Few-shot event detection (ED) has been widely studied, while this brings noticeable discrepancies, e.g., various motivations, tasks, and experimental settings, that hinder the understanding of models for future progress. This paper presents a thorough empirical study, a unified view of ED models, and a better unified baseline. For fair evaluation, we compare 12 representative methods on three datasets, which are roughly grouped into prompt-based and prototype-based models for detailed analysis. Experiments consistently demonstrate that prompt-based methods, including ChatGPT, still significantly trail prototype-based methods in terms of overall performance. To investigate their superior performance, we break down their design elements along several dimensions and build a unified framework on prototype-based methods. Under such unified view, each prototype-method can be viewed a combination of different modules from these design elements. We further combine all advantageous modules and propose a simple yet effective baseline, which outperforms existing methods by a large margin (e.g., 2.7% F1 gains under low-resource setting).

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Large Language Model Is Not a Good Few-shot Information Extractor, but a Good Reranker for Hard Samples!
Yubo Ma | Yixin Cao | Yong Hong | Aixin Sun
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large Language Models (LLMs) have made remarkable strides in various tasks. Whether LLMs are competitive few-shot solvers for information extraction (IE) tasks, however, remains an open problem. In this work, we aim to provide a thorough answer to this question. Through extensive experiments on nine datasets across four IE tasks, we demonstrate that current advanced LLMs consistently exhibit inferior performance, higher latency, and increased budget requirements compared to fine-tuned SLMs under most settings. Therefore, we conclude that LLMs are not effective few-shot information extractors in general. Nonetheless, we illustrate that with appropriate prompting strategies, LLMs can effectively complement SLMs and tackle challenging samples that SLMs struggle with. And moreover, we propose an adaptive filter-then-rerank paradigm to combine the strengths of LLMs and SLMs. In this paradigm, SLMs serve as filters and LLMs serve as rerankers. By prompting LLMs to rerank a small portion of difficult samples identified by SLMs, our preliminary system consistently achieves promising improvements (2.4% F1-gain on average) on various IE tasks, with an acceptable time and cost investment.


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Prompt for Extraction? PAIE: Prompting Argument Interaction for Event Argument Extraction
Yubo Ma | Zehao Wang | Yixin Cao | Mukai Li | Meiqi Chen | Kun Wang | Jing Shao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we propose an effective yet efficient model PAIE for both sentence-level and document-level Event Argument Extraction (EAE), which also generalizes well when there is a lack of training data. On the one hand, PAIE utilizes prompt tuning for extractive objectives to take the best advantages of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). It introduces two span selectors based on the prompt to select start/end tokens among input texts for each role. On the other hand, it captures argument interactions via multi-role prompts and conducts joint optimization with optimal span assignments via a bipartite matching loss. Also, with a flexible prompt design, PAIE can extract multiple arguments with the same role instead of conventional heuristic threshold tuning. We have conducted extensive experiments on three benchmarks, including both sentence- and document-level EAE. The results present promising improvements from PAIE (3.5% and 2.3% F1 gains in average on three benchmarks, for PAIE-base and PAIE-large respectively). Further analysis demonstrates the efficiency, generalization to few-shot settings, and effectiveness of different extractive prompt tuning strategies. Our code is available at https://github.com/mayubo2333/PAIE.

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MMEKG: Multi-modal Event Knowledge Graph towards Universal Representation across Modalities
Yubo Ma | Zehao Wang | Mukai Li | Yixin Cao | Meiqi Chen | Xinze Li | Wenqi Sun | Kunquan Deng | Kun Wang | Aixin Sun | Jing Shao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Events are fundamental building blocks of real-world happenings. In this paper, we present a large-scale, multi-modal event knowledge graph named MMEKG. MMEKG unifies different modalities of knowledge via events, which complement and disambiguate each other. Specifically, MMEKG incorporates (i) over 990 thousand concept events with 644 relation types to cover most types of happenings, and (ii) over 863 million instance events connected through 934 million relations, which provide rich contextual information in texts and/or images. To collect billion-scale instance events and relations among them, we additionally develop an efficient yet effective pipeline for textual/visual knowledge extraction system. We also develop an induction strategy to create million-scale concept events and a schema organizing all events and relations in MMEKG. To this end, we also provide a pipeline enabling our system to seamlessly parse texts/images to event graphs and to retrieve multi-modal knowledge at both concept- and instance-levels.