Yuchen Eleanor Jiang


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Poor Man’s Quality Estimation: Predicting Reference-Based MT Metrics Without the Reference
Vilém Zouhar | Shehzaad Dhuliawala | Wangchunshu Zhou | Nico Daheim | Tom Kocmi | Yuchen Eleanor Jiang | Mrinmaya Sachan
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Machine translation quality estimation (QE) predicts human judgements of a translation hypothesis without seeing the reference. State-of-the-art QE systems based on pretrained language models have been achieving remarkable correlations with human judgements yet they are computationally heavy and require human annotations, which are slow and expensive to create. To address these limitations, we define the problem of metric estimation (ME) where one predicts the automated metric scores also without the reference. We show that even without access to the reference, our model can estimate automated metrics (ρ = 60% for BLEU, ρ = 51% for other metrics) at the sentence-level. Because automated metrics correlate with human judgements, we can leverage the ME task for pre-training a QE model. For the QE task, we find that pre-training on TER is better (ρ = 23%) than training for scratch (ρ = 20%).

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Findings of the WMT 2023 Shared Task on Machine Translation with Terminologies
Kirill Semenov | Vilém Zouhar | Tom Kocmi | Dongdong Zhang | Wangchunshu Zhou | Yuchen Eleanor Jiang
Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Machine Translation

The WMT 2023 Terminology Shared Task investigates progress in machine translation of texts with specialized vocabulary. The participants were given the source text and segment-level terminology dictionaries for three language pairs: Chinese→English, English→Czech, and German→English. We evaluate 21 submissions from 7 teams on two main criteria: general translation quality and the effectiveness of translating specialized terminology. Systems took varied approaches — incorporating terminology at inference time or weakly supervised training that uses terminology access. While incorporating terminology dictionaries leads to improvement in the translation quality, incorporating an equal amount of information from the reference leads to similar results. This challenges the position of terminologies being the crux of meaning in translation, it can also be explained by inadequate metrics which are not terminology-centric.

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Discourse-Centric Evaluation of Document-level Machine Translation with a New Densely Annotated Parallel Corpus of Novels
Yuchen Eleanor Jiang | Tianyu Liu | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Mrinmaya Sachan | Ryan Cotterell
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Several recent papers claim to have achieved human parity at sentence-level machine translation (MT)—especially between high-resource language pairs. In response, the MT community has, in part, shifted its focus to document-level translation. Translating documents requires a deeper understanding of the structure and meaning of text, which is often captured by various kinds of discourse phenomena such as consistency, coherence, and cohesion. However, this renders conventional sentence-level MT evaluation benchmarks inadequate for evaluating the performance of context-aware MT systems. This paperpresents a new dataset with rich discourse annotations, built upon the large-scale parallel corpus BWB introduced in Jiang et al. (2022a). The new BWB annotation introduces four extra evaluation aspects, i.e., entity, terminology, coreference, and quotation, covering 15,095 entity mentions in both languages. Using these annotations, we systematically investigate the similarities and differences between the discourse structures of source and target languages, and the challenges they pose to MT. We discover that MT outputs differ fundamentally from human translations in terms of their latent discourse structures. This gives us a new perspective on the challenges and opportunities in document-level MT. We make our resource publicly available to spur future research in document-level MT and its generalization to other language translation tasks.


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Autoregressive Structured Prediction with Language Models
Tianyu Liu | Yuchen Eleanor Jiang | Nicholas Monath | Ryan Cotterell | Mrinmaya Sachan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Recent years have seen a paradigm shift in NLP towards using pretrained language models (PLM) for a wide range of tasks. However, there are many difficult design decisions to represent structures (e.g. tagged text, coreference chains) in a way such that they can be captured by PLMs. Prior work on structured prediction with PLMs typically flattens the structured output into a sequence, which limits the quality of structural information being learned and leads to inferior performance compared to classic discriminative models. In this work, we describe an approach to model structures as sequences of actions in an autoregressive manner with PLMs, allowing in-structure dependencies to be learned without any loss. Our approach achieves the new state-of-the-art on all the structured prediction tasks we looked at, namely, named entity recognition, end-to-end relation extraction, and coreference resolution.