Open Information Extraction (OpenIE) aims to discover textual facts from a given sentence. In essence, the facts contained in plain text are unordered. However, the popular OpenIE systems usually output facts sequentially in the way of predicting the next fact conditioned on the previous decoded ones, which enforce an unnecessary order on the facts and involve the error accumulation between autoregressive steps. To break this bottleneck, we propose MacroIE, a novel non-autoregressive framework for OpenIE. MacroIE firstly constructs a fact graph based on the table filling scheme, in which each node denotes a fact element, and an edge links two nodes that belong to the same fact. Then OpenIE can be reformulated as a non-parametric process of finding maximal cliques from the graph. It directly outputs the final set of facts in one go, thus getting rid of the burden of predicting fact order, as well as the error propagation between facts. Experiments conducted on two benchmark datasets show that our proposed model significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art methods, beats the previous systems by as much as 5.7 absolute gain in F1 score.
Named entity recognition (NER) remains challenging when entity mentions can be discontinuous. Existing methods break the recognition process into several sequential steps. In training, they predict conditioned on the golden intermediate results, while at inference relying on the model output of the previous steps, which introduces exposure bias. To solve this problem, we first construct a segment graph for each sentence, in which each node denotes a segment (a continuous entity on its own, or a part of discontinuous entities), and an edge links two nodes that belong to the same entity. The nodes and edges can be generated respectively in one stage with a grid tagging scheme and learned jointly using a novel architecture named Mac. Then discontinuous NER can be reformulated as a non-parametric process of discovering maximal cliques in the graph and concatenating the spans in each clique. Experiments on three benchmarks show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) results, with up to 3.5 percentage points improvement on F1, and achieves 5x speedup over the SOTA model.
Extracting entities and relations from unstructured text has attracted increasing attention in recent years but remains challenging, due to the intrinsic difficulty in identifying overlapping relations with shared entities. Prior works show that joint learning can result in a noticeable performance gain. However, they usually involve sequential interrelated steps and suffer from the problem of exposure bias. At training time, they predict with the ground truth conditions while at inference it has to make extraction from scratch. This discrepancy leads to error accumulation. To mitigate the issue, we propose in this paper a one-stage joint extraction model, namely, TPLinker, which is capable of discovering overlapping relations sharing one or both entities while being immune from the exposure bias. TPLinker formulates joint extraction as a token pair linking problem and introduces a novel handshaking tagging scheme that aligns the boundary tokens of entity pairs under each relation type. Experiment results show that TPLinker performs significantly better on overlapping and multiple relation extraction, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on two public datasets.
Automatic essay scoring (AES) is the task of assigning grades to essays without human interference. Existing systems for AES are typically trained to predict the score of each single essay at a time without considering the rating schema. In order to address this issue, we propose a reinforcement learning framework for essay scoring that incorporates quadratic weighted kappa as guidance to optimize the scoring system. Experiment results on benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our framework.