Yue Cao


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Revisiting Pivot-Based Paraphrase Generation: Language Is Not the Only Optional Pivot
Yitao Cai | Yue Cao | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Paraphrases refer to texts that convey the same meaning with different expression forms. Pivot-based methods, also known as the round-trip translation, have shown promising results in generating high-quality paraphrases. However, existing pivot-based methods all rely on language as the pivot, where large-scale, high-quality parallel bilingual texts are required. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using semantic and syntactic representations as the pivot for paraphrase generation. Concretely, we transform a sentence into a variety of different semantic or syntactic representations (including AMR, UD, and latent semantic representation), and then decode the sentence back from the semantic representations. We further explore a pretraining-based approach to compress the pipeline process into an end-to-end framework. We conduct experiments comparing different approaches with different kinds of pivots. Experimental results show that taking AMR as pivot can obtain paraphrases with better quality than taking language as the pivot. The end-to-end framework can reduce semantic shift when language is used as the pivot. Besides, several unsupervised pivot-based methods can generate paraphrases with similar quality as the supervised sequence-to-sequence model, which indicates that parallel data of paraphrases may not be necessary for paraphrase generation.

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ParaSCI: A Large Scientific Paraphrase Dataset for Longer Paraphrase Generation
Qingxiu Dong | Xiaojun Wan | Yue Cao
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

We propose ParaSCI, the first large-scale paraphrase dataset in the scientific field, including 33,981 paraphrase pairs from ACL (ParaSCI-ACL) and 316,063 pairs from arXiv (ParaSCI-arXiv). Digging into characteristics and common patterns of scientific papers, we construct this dataset though intra-paper and inter-paper methods, such as collecting citations to the same paper or aggregating definitions by scientific terms. To take advantage of sentences paraphrased partially, we put up PDBERT as a general paraphrase discovering method. The major advantages of paraphrases in ParaSCI lie in the prominent length and textual diversity, which is complementary to existing paraphrase datasets. ParaSCI obtains satisfactory results on human evaluation and downstream tasks, especially long paraphrase generation.

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WIND: Weighting Instances Differentially for Model-Agnostic Domain Adaptation
Xiang Chen | Yue Cao | Xiaojun Wan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Continual Learning for Neural Machine Translation
Yue Cao | Hao-Ran Wei | Boxing Chen | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Neural machine translation (NMT) models are data-driven and require large-scale training corpus. In practical applications, NMT models are usually trained on a general domain corpus and then fine-tuned by continuing training on the in-domain corpus. However, this bears the risk of catastrophic forgetting that the performance on the general domain is decreased drastically. In this work, we propose a new continual learning framework for NMT models. We consider a scenario where the training is comprised of multiple stages and propose a dynamic knowledge distillation technique to alleviate the problem of catastrophic forgetting systematically. We also find that the bias exists in the output linear projection when fine-tuning on the in-domain corpus, and propose a bias-correction module to eliminate the bias. We conduct experiments on three representative settings of NMT application. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves superior performance compared to baseline models in all settings.


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DivGAN: Towards Diverse Paraphrase Generation via Diversified Generative Adversarial Network
Yue Cao | Xiaojun Wan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Paraphrases refer to texts that convey the same meaning with different expression forms. Traditional seq2seq-based models on paraphrase generation mainly focus on the fidelity while ignoring the diversity of outputs. In this paper, we propose a deep generative model to generate diverse paraphrases. We build our model based on the conditional generative adversarial network, and propose to incorporate a simple yet effective diversity loss term into the model in order to improve the diversity of outputs. The proposed diversity loss maximizes the ratio of pairwise distance between the generated texts and their corresponding latent codes, forcing the generator to focus more on the latent codes and produce diverse samples. Experimental results on benchmarks of paraphrase generation show that our proposed model can generate more diverse paraphrases compared with baselines.

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Jointly Learning to Align and Summarize for Neural Cross-Lingual Summarization
Yue Cao | Hui Liu | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Cross-lingual summarization is the task of generating a summary in one language given a text in a different language. Previous works on cross-lingual summarization mainly focus on using pipeline methods or training an end-to-end model using the translated parallel data. However, it is a big challenge for the model to directly learn cross-lingual summarization as it requires learning to understand different languages and learning how to summarize at the same time. In this paper, we propose to ease the cross-lingual summarization training by jointly learning to align and summarize. We design relevant loss functions to train this framework and propose several methods to enhance the isomorphism and cross-lingual transfer between languages. Experimental results show that our model can outperform competitive models in most cases. In addition, we show that our model even has the ability to generate cross-lingual summaries without access to any cross-lingual corpus.