Yueting Zhuang


2023

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DAMO-NLP at SemEval-2023 Task 2: A Unified Retrieval-augmented System for Multilingual Named Entity Recognition
Zeqi Tan | Shen Huang | Zixia Jia | Jiong Cai | Yinghui Li | Weiming Lu | Yueting Zhuang | Kewei Tu | Pengjun Xie | Fei Huang | Yong Jiang
Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2023)

The MultiCoNER II shared task aims to tackle multilingual named entity recognition (NER) in fine-grained and noisy scenarios, and it inherits the semantic ambiguity and low-context setting of the MultiCoNER I task. To cope with these problems, the previous top systems in the MultiCoNER I either incorporate the knowledge bases or gazetteers. However, they still suffer from insufficient knowledge, limited context length, single retrieval strategy. In this paper, our team DAMO-NLP proposes a unified retrieval-augmented system (U-RaNER) for fine-grained multilingual NER. We perform error analysis on the previous top systems and reveal that their performance bottleneck lies in insufficient knowledge. Also, we discover that the limited context length causes the retrieval knowledge to be invisible to the model. To enhance the retrieval context, we incorporate the entity-centric Wikidata knowledge base, while utilizing the infusion approach to broaden the contextual scope of the model. Also, we explore various search strategies and refine the quality of retrieval knowledge. Our system wins 9 out of 13 tracks in the MultiCoNER II shared task. Additionally, we compared our system with ChatGPT, one of the large language models which have unlocked strong capabilities on many tasks. The results show that there is still much room for improvement for ChatGPT on the extraction task.

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DiffusionNER: Boundary Diffusion for Named Entity Recognition
Yongliang Shen | Kaitao Song | Xu Tan | Dongsheng Li | Weiming Lu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we propose DiffusionNER, which formulates the named entity recognition task as a boundary-denoising diffusion process and thus generates named entities from noisy spans. During training, DiffusionNER gradually adds noises to the golden entity boundaries by a fixed forward diffusion process and learns a reverse diffusion process to recover the entity boundaries. In inference, DiffusionNER first randomly samples some noisy spans from a standard Gaussian distribution and then generates the named entities by denoising them with the learned reverse diffusion process. The proposed boundary-denoising diffusion process allows progressive refinement and dynamic sampling of entities, empowering DiffusionNER with efficient and flexible entity generation capability. Experiments on multiple flat and nested NER datasets demonstrate that DiffusionNER achieves comparable or even better performance than previous state-of-the-art models.

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PromptNER: Prompt Locating and Typing for Named Entity Recognition
Yongliang Shen | Zeqi Tan | Shuhui Wu | Wenqi Zhang | Rongsheng Zhang | Yadong Xi | Weiming Lu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Prompt learning is a new paradigm for utilizing pre-trained language models and has achieved great success in many tasks. To adopt prompt learning in the NER task, two kinds of methods have been explored from a pair of symmetric perspectives, populating the template by enumerating spans to predict their entity types or constructing type-specific prompts to locate entities. However, these methods not only require a multi-round prompting manner with a high time overhead and computational cost, but also require elaborate prompt templates, that are difficult to apply in practical scenarios. In this paper, we unify entity locating and entity typing into prompt learning, and design a dual-slot multi-prompt template with the position slot and type slot to prompt locating and typing respectively. Multiple prompts can be input to the model simultaneously, and then the model extracts all entities by parallel predictions on the slots. To assign labels for the slots during training, we design a dynamic template filling mechanism that uses the extended bipartite graph matching between prompts and the ground-truth entities. We conduct experiments in various settings, including resource-rich flat and nested NER datasets and low-resource in-domain and cross-domain datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed model achieves a significant performance improvement, especially in the cross-domain few-shot setting, which outperforms the state-of-the-art model by +7.7% on average.

2022

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Parallel Instance Query Network for Named Entity Recognition
Yongliang Shen | Xiaobin Wang | Zeqi Tan | Guangwei Xu | Pengjun Xie | Fei Huang | Weiming Lu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Named entity recognition (NER) is a fundamental task in natural language processing. Recent works treat named entity recognition as a reading comprehension task, constructing type-specific queries manually to extract entities. This paradigm suffers from three issues. First, type-specific queries can only extract one type of entities per inference, which is inefficient. Second, the extraction for different types of entities is isolated, ignoring the dependencies between them. Third, query construction relies on external knowledge and is difficult to apply to realistic scenarios with hundreds of entity types. To deal with them, we propose Parallel Instance Query Network (PIQN), which sets up global and learnable instance queries to extract entities from a sentence in a parallel manner. Each instance query predicts one entity, and by feeding all instance queries simultaneously, we can query all entities in parallel. Instead of being constructed from external knowledge, instance queries can learn their different query semantics during training. For training the model, we treat label assignment as a one-to-many Linear Assignment Problem (LAP) and dynamically assign gold entities to instance queries with minimal assignment cost. Experiments on both nested and flat NER datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms previous state-of-the-art models.

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DAMO-NLP at SemEval-2022 Task 11: A Knowledge-based System for Multilingual Named Entity Recognition
Xinyu Wang | Yongliang Shen | Jiong Cai | Tao Wang | Xiaobin Wang | Pengjun Xie | Fei Huang | Weiming Lu | Yueting Zhuang | Kewei Tu | Wei Lu | Yong Jiang
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

The MultiCoNER shared task aims at detecting semantically ambiguous and complex named entities in short and low-context settings for multiple languages. The lack of contexts makes the recognition of ambiguous named entities challenging. To alleviate this issue, our team DAMO-NLP proposes a knowledge-based system, where we build a multilingual knowledge base based on Wikipedia to provide related context information to the named entity recognition (NER) model. Given an input sentence, our system effectively retrieves related contexts from the knowledge base. The original input sentences are then augmented with such context information, allowing significantly better contextualized token representations to be captured. Our system wins 10 out of 13 tracks in the MultiCoNER shared task.

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Query-based Instance Discrimination Network for Relational Triple Extraction
Zeqi Tan | Yongliang Shen | Xuming Hu | Wenqi Zhang | Xiaoxia Cheng | Weiming Lu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Joint entity and relation extraction has been a core task in the field of information extraction. Recent approaches usually consider the extraction of relational triples from a stereoscopic perspective, either learning a relation-specific tagger or separate classifiers for each relation type. However, they still suffer from error propagation, relation redundancy and lack of high-level connections between triples. To address these issues, we propose a novel query-based approach to construct instance-level representations for relational triples. By metric-based comparison between query embeddings and token embeddings, we can extract all types of triples in one step, thus eliminating the error propagation problem. In addition, we learn the instance-level representation of relational triples via contrastive learning. In this way, relational triples can not only enclose rich class-level semantics but also access to high-order global connections. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves the state of the art on five widely used benchmarks.

2021

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CIL: Contrastive Instance Learning Framework for Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Tao Chen | Haizhou Shi | Siliang Tang | Zhigang Chen | Fei Wu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The journey of reducing noise from distant supervision (DS) generated training data has been started since the DS was first introduced into the relation extraction (RE) task. For the past decade, researchers apply the multi-instance learning (MIL) framework to find the most reliable feature from a bag of sentences. Although the pattern of MIL bags can greatly reduce DS noise, it fails to represent many other useful sentence features in the datasets. In many cases, these sentence features can only be acquired by extra sentence-level human annotation with heavy costs. Therefore, the performance of distantly supervised RE models is bounded. In this paper, we go beyond typical MIL framework and propose a novel contrastive instance learning (CIL) framework. Specifically, we regard the initial MIL as the relational triple encoder and constraint positive pairs against negative pairs for each instance. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework, with significant improvements over the previous methods on NYT10, GDS and KBP.

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Natural Language Video Localization with Learnable Moment Proposals
Shaoning Xiao | Long Chen | Jian Shao | Yueting Zhuang | Jun Xiao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Given an untrimmed video and a natural language query, Natural Language Video Localization (NLVL) aims to identify the video moment described by query. To address this task, existing methods can be roughly grouped into two groups: 1) propose-and-rank models first define a set of hand-designed moment candidates and then find out the best-matching one. 2) proposal-free models directly predict two temporal boundaries of the referential moment from frames. Currently, almost all the propose-and-rank methods have inferior performance than proposal-free counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the performance of propose-and-rank models are underestimated due to the predefined manners: 1) Hand-designed rules are hard to guarantee the complete coverage of targeted segments. 2) Densely sampled candidate moments cause redundant computation and degrade the performance of ranking process. To this end, we propose a novel model termed LPNet (Learnable Proposal Network for NLVL) with a fixed set of learnable moment proposals. The position and length of these proposals are dynamically adjusted during training process. Moreover, a boundary-aware loss has been proposed to leverage frame-level information and further improve performance. Extensive ablations on two challenging NLVL benchmarks have demonstrated the effectiveness of LPNet over existing state-of-the-art methods.

2020

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Neural-DINF: A Neural Network based Framework for Measuring Document Influence
Jie Tan | Changlin Yang | Ying Li | Siliang Tang | Chen Huang | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Measuring the scholarly impact of a document without citations is an important and challenging problem. Existing approaches such as Document Influence Model (DIM) are based on dynamic topic models, which only consider the word frequency change. In this paper, we use both frequency changes and word semantic shifts to measure document influence by developing a neural network framework. Our model has three steps. Firstly, we train the word embeddings for different time periods. Subsequently, we propose an unsupervised method to align vectors for different time periods. Finally, we compute the influence value of documents. Our experimental results show that our model outperforms DIM.

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De-Biased Court’s View Generation with Causality
Yiquan Wu | Kun Kuang | Yating Zhang | Xiaozhong Liu | Changlong Sun | Jun Xiao | Yueting Zhuang | Luo Si | Fei Wu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Court’s view generation is a novel but essential task for legal AI, aiming at improving the interpretability of judgment prediction results and enabling automatic legal document generation. While prior text-to-text natural language generation (NLG) approaches can be used to address this problem, neglecting the confounding bias from the data generation mechanism can limit the model performance, and the bias may pollute the learning outcomes. In this paper, we propose a novel Attentional and Counterfactual based Natural Language Generation (AC-NLG) method, consisting of an attentional encoder and a pair of innovative counterfactual decoders. The attentional encoder leverages the plaintiff’s claim and fact description as input to learn a claim-aware encoder from which the claim-related information in fact description can be emphasized. The counterfactual decoders are employed to eliminate the confounding bias in data and generate judgment-discriminative court’s views (both supportive and non-supportive views) by incorporating with a synergistic judgment predictive model. Comprehensive experiments show the effectiveness of our method under both quantitative and qualitative evaluation metrics.

2019

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Posterior-regularized REINFORCE for Instance Selection in Distant Supervision
Qi Zhang | Siliang Tang | Xiang Ren | Fei Wu | Shiliang Pu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

This paper provides a new way to improve the efficiency of the REINFORCE training process. We apply it to the task of instance selection in distant supervision. Modeling the instance selection in one bag as a sequential decision process, a reinforcement learning agent is trained to determine whether an instance is valuable or not and construct a new bag with less noisy instances. However unbiased methods, such as REINFORCE, could usually take much time to train. This paper adopts posterior regularization (PR) to integrate some domain-specific rules in instance selection using REINFORCE. As the experiment results show, this method remarkably improves the performance of the relation classifier trained on cleaned distant supervision dataset as well as the efficiency of the REINFORCE training.

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Improving Distantly-supervised Entity Typing with Compact Latent Space Clustering
Bo Chen | Xiaotao Gu | Yufeng Hu | Siliang Tang | Guoping Hu | Yueting Zhuang | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Recently, distant supervision has gained great success on Fine-grained Entity Typing (FET). Despite its efficiency in reducing manual labeling efforts, it also brings the challenge of dealing with false entity type labels, as distant supervision assigns labels in a context-agnostic manner. Existing works alleviated this issue with partial-label loss, but usually suffer from confirmation bias, which means the classifier fit a pseudo data distribution given by itself. In this work, we propose to regularize distantly supervised models with Compact Latent Space Clustering (CLSC) to bypass this problem and effectively utilize noisy data yet. Our proposed method first dynamically constructs a similarity graph of different entity mentions; infer the labels of noisy instances via label propagation. Based on the inferred labels, mention embeddings are updated accordingly to encourage entity mentions with close semantics to form a compact cluster in the embedding space, thus leading to better classification performance. Extensive experiments on standard benchmarks show that our CLSC model consistently outperforms state-of-the-art distantly supervised entity typing systems by a significant margin.

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Learning Dynamic Context Augmentation for Global Entity Linking
Xiyuan Yang | Xiaotao Gu | Sheng Lin | Siliang Tang | Yueting Zhuang | Fei Wu | Zhigang Chen | Guoping Hu | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Despite of the recent success of collective entity linking (EL) methods, these “global” inference methods may yield sub-optimal results when the “all-mention coherence” assumption breaks, and often suffer from high computational cost at the inference stage, due to the complex search space. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective solution, called Dynamic Context Augmentation (DCA), for collective EL, which requires only one pass through the mentions in a document. DCA sequentially accumulates context information to make efficient, collective inference, and can cope with different local EL models as a plug-and-enhance module. We explore both supervised and reinforcement learning strategies for learning the DCA model. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of our model with different learning settings, base models, decision orders and attention mechanisms.

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Video Dialog via Progressive Inference and Cross-Transformer
Weike Jin | Zhou Zhao | Mao Gu | Jun Xiao | Furu Wei | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Video dialog is a new and challenging task, which requires the agent to answer questions combining video information with dialog history. And different from single-turn video question answering, the additional dialog history is important for video dialog, which often includes contextual information for the question. Existing visual dialog methods mainly use RNN to encode the dialog history as a single vector representation, which might be rough and straightforward. Some more advanced methods utilize hierarchical structure, attention and memory mechanisms, which still lack an explicit reasoning process. In this paper, we introduce a novel progressive inference mechanism for video dialog, which progressively updates query information based on dialog history and video content until the agent think the information is sufficient and unambiguous. In order to tackle the multi-modal fusion problem, we propose a cross-transformer module, which could learn more fine-grained and comprehensive interactions both inside and between the modalities. And besides answer generation, we also consider question generation, which is more challenging but significant for a complete video dialog system. We evaluate our method on two large-scale datasets, and the extensive experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

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KCAT: A Knowledge-Constraint Typing Annotation Tool
Sheng Lin | Luye Zheng | Bo Chen | Siliang Tang | Zhigang Chen | Guoping Hu | Yueting Zhuang | Fei Wu | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

In this paper, we propose an efficient Knowledge Constraint Fine-grained Entity Typing Annotation Tool, which further improves the entity typing process through entity linking together with some practical functions.

2018

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Discourse Marker Augmented Network with Reinforcement Learning for Natural Language Inference
Boyuan Pan | Yazheng Yang | Zhou Zhao | Yueting Zhuang | Deng Cai | Xiaofei He
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Natural Language Inference (NLI), also known as Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE), is one of the most important problems in natural language processing. It requires to infer the logical relationship between two given sentences. While current approaches mostly focus on the interaction architectures of the sentences, in this paper, we propose to transfer knowledge from some important discourse markers to augment the quality of the NLI model. We observe that people usually use some discourse markers such as “so” or “but” to represent the logical relationship between two sentences. These words potentially have deep connections with the meanings of the sentences, thus can be utilized to help improve the representations of them. Moreover, we use reinforcement learning to optimize a new objective function with a reward defined by the property of the NLI datasets to make full use of the labels information. Experiments show that our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on several large-scale datasets.

2017

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NITE: A Neural Inductive Teaching Framework for Domain Specific NER
Siliang Tang | Ning Zhang | Jinjiang Zhang | Fei Wu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In domain-specific NER, due to insufficient labeled training data, deep models usually fail to behave normally. In this paper, we proposed a novel Neural Inductive TEaching framework (NITE) to transfer knowledge from existing domain-specific NER models into an arbitrary deep neural network in a teacher-student training manner. NITE is a general framework that builds upon transfer learning and multiple instance learning, which collaboratively not only transfers knowledge to a deep student network but also reduces the noise from teachers. NITE can help deep learning methods to effectively utilize existing resources (i.e., models, labeled and unlabeled data) in a small domain. The experiment resulted on Disease NER proved that without using any labeled data, NITE can significantly boost the performance of a CNN-bidirectional LSTM-CRF NER neural network nearly over 30% in terms of F1-score.