Yufang Hou


2023

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Are Fairy Tales Fair? Analyzing Gender Bias in Temporal Narrative Event Chains of Children’s Fairy Tales
Paulina Toro Isaza | Guangxuan Xu | Toye Oloko | Yufang Hou | Nanyun Peng | Dakuo Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Social biases and stereotypes are embedded in our culture in part through their presence in our stories, as evidenced by the rich history of humanities and social science literature analyzing such biases in children stories. Because these analyses are often conducted manually and at a small scale, such investigations can benefit from the use of more recent natural language processing (NLP) methods that examine social bias in models and data corpora. Our work joins this interdisciplinary effort and makes a unique contribution by taking into account the event narrative structures when analyzing the social bias of stories. We propose a computational pipeline that automatically extracts a story’s temporal narrative verb-based event chain for each of its characters as well as character attributes such as gender. We also present a verb-based event annotation scheme that can facilitate bias analysis by including categories such as those that align with traditional stereotypes. Through a case study analyzing gender bias in fairy tales, we demonstrate that our framework can reveal bias in not only the unigram verb-based events in which female and male characters participate but also in the temporal narrative order of such event participation.

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PairSpanBERT: An Enhanced Language Model for Bridging Resolution
Hideo Kobayashi | Yufang Hou | Vincent Ng
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present PairSpanBERT, a SpanBERT-based pre-trained model specialized for bridging resolution. To this end, we design a novel pre-training objective that aims to learn the contexts in which two mentions are implicitly linked to each other from a large amount of data automatically generated either heuristically or via distance supervision with a knowledge graph. Despite the noise inherent in the automatically generated data, we achieve the best results reported to date on three evaluation datasets for bridging resolution when replacing SpanBERT with PairSpanBERT in a state-of-the-art resolver that jointly performs entity coreference resolution and bridging resolution.

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Matching Pairs: Attributing Fine-Tuned Models to their Pre-Trained Large Language Models
Myles Foley | Ambrish Rawat | Taesung Lee | Yufang Hou | Gabriele Picco | Giulio Zizzo
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The wide applicability and adaptability of generative large language models (LLMs) has enabled their rapid adoption. While the pre-trained models can perform many tasks, such models are often fine-tuned to improve their performance on various downstream applications. However, this leads to issues over violation of model licenses, model theft, and copyright infringement. Moreover, recent advances show that generative technology is capable of producing harmful content which exacerbates the problems of accountability within model supply chains. Thus, we need a method to investigate how a model was trained or a piece of text was generated and what their pre-trained base model was. In this paper we take the first step to address this open problem by tracing back the origin of a given fine-tuned LLM to its corresponding pre-trained base model. We consider different knowledge levels and attribution strategies, and find that we can correctly trace back 8 out of the 10 fine tuned models with our best method.

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A Needle in a Haystack: An Analysis of High-Agreement Workers on MTurk for Summarization
Lining Zhang | Simon Mille | Yufang Hou | Daniel Deutsch | Elizabeth Clark | Yixin Liu | Saad Mahamood | Sebastian Gehrmann | Miruna Clinciu | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | João Sedoc
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

To prevent the costly and inefficient use of resources on low-quality annotations, we want a method for creating a pool of dependable annotators who can effectively complete difficult tasks, such as evaluating automatic summarization. Thus, we investigate the recruitment of high-quality Amazon Mechanical Turk workers via a two-step pipeline. We show that we can successfully filter out subpar workers before they carry out the evaluations and obtain high-agreement annotations with similar constraints on resources. Although our workers demonstrate a strong consensus among themselves and CloudResearch workers, their alignment with expert judgments on a subset of the data is not as expected and needs further training in correctness. This paper still serves as a best practice for the recruitment of qualified annotators in other challenging annotation tasks.

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Proceedings of The Fourth Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing (SustaiNLP)
Nafise Sadat Moosavi | Iryna Gurevych | Yufang Hou | Gyuwan Kim | Young Jin Kim | Tal Schuster | Ameeta Agrawal
Proceedings of The Fourth Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing (SustaiNLP)

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LOWRECORP: the Low-Resource NLG Corpus Building Challenge
Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | David M. Howcroft | Dimitra Gkatzia | Yi-Ling Chung | Yufang Hou | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Pawan Rajpoot | Tosin Adewumi
Proceedings of the 16th International Natural Language Generation Conference: Generation Challenges

Most languages in the world do not have sufficient data available to develop neural-network-based natural language generation (NLG) systems. To alleviate this resource scarcity, we propose a novel challenge for the NLG community: low-resource language corpus development (LOWRECORP). We present an innovative framework to collect a single dataset with dual tasks to maximize the efficiency of data collection efforts and respect language consultant time. Specifically, we focus on a text-chat-based interface for two generation tasks – conversational response generation grounded in a source document and/or image and dialogue summarization (from the former task). The goal of this shared task is to collectively develop grounded datasets for local and low-resourced languages. To enable data collection, we make available web-based software that can be used to collect these grounded conversations and summaries. Submissions will be assessed for the size, complexity, and diversity of the corpora to ensure quality control of the datasets as well as any enhancements to the interface or novel approaches to grounding conversations.

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‘Don’t Get Too Technical with Me’: A Discourse Structure-Based Framework for Automatic Science Journalism
Ronald Cardenas | Bingsheng Yao | Dakuo Wang | Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Science journalism refers to the task of reporting technical findings of a scientific paper as a less technical news article to the general public audience. We aim to design an automated system to support this real-world task (i.e., automatic science journalism ) by 1) introducing a newly-constructed and real-world dataset (SciTechNews), with tuples of a publicly-available scientific paper, its corresponding news article, and an expert-written short summary snippet; 2) proposing a novel technical framework that integrates a paper’s discourse structure with its metadata to guide generation; and, 3) demonstrating with extensive automatic and human experiments that our model outperforms other baseline methods (e.g. Alpaca and ChatGPT) in elaborating a content plan meaningful for the target audience, simplify the information selected, and produce a coherent final report in a layman’s style.

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A Diachronic Analysis of Paradigm Shifts in NLP Research: When, How, and Why?
Aniket Pramanick | Yufang Hou | Saif Mohammad | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Understanding the fundamental concepts and trends in a scientific field is crucial for keeping abreast of its continuous advancement. In this study, we propose a systematic framework for analyzing the evolution of research topics in a scientific field using causal discovery and inference techniques. We define three variables to encompass diverse facets of the evolution of research topics within NLP and utilize a causal discovery algorithm to unveil the causal connections among these variables using observational data. Subsequently, we leverage this structure to measure the intensity of these relationships. By conducting extensive experiments on the ACL Anthology corpus, we demonstrate that our framework effectively uncovers evolutionary trends and the underlying causes for a wide range of NLP research topics. Specifically, we show that tasks and methods are primary drivers of research in NLP, with datasets following, while metrics have minimal impact.

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CiteBench: A Benchmark for Scientific Citation Text Generation
Martin Funkquist | Ilia Kuznetsov | Yufang Hou | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Science progresses by building upon the prior body of knowledge documented in scientific publications. The acceleration of research makes it hard to stay up-to-date with the recent developments and to summarize the ever-growing body of prior work. To address this, the task of citation text generation aims to produce accurate textual summaries given a set of papers-to-cite and the citing paper context. Due to otherwise rare explicit anchoring of cited documents in the citing paper, citation text generation provides an excellent opportunity to study how humans aggregate and synthesize textual knowledge from sources. Yet, existing studies are based upon widely diverging task definitions, which makes it hard to study this task systematically. To address this challenge, we propose CiteBench: a benchmark for citation text generation that unifies multiple diverse datasets and enables standardized evaluation of citation text generation models across task designs and domains. Using the new benchmark, we investigate the performance of multiple strong baselines, test their transferability between the datasets, and deliver new insights into the task definition and evaluation to guide future research in citation text generation. We make the code for CiteBench publicly available at https://github.com/UKPLab/citebench.

2022

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End-to-End Neural Bridging Resolution
Hideo Kobayashi | Yufang Hou | Vincent Ng
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The state of bridging resolution research is rather unsatisfactory: not only are state-of-the-art resolvers evaluated in unrealistic settings, but the neural models underlying these resolvers are weaker than those used for entity coreference resolution. In light of these problems, we evaluate bridging resolvers in an end-to-end setting, strengthen them with better encoders, and attempt to gain a better understanding of them via perturbation experiments and a manual analysis of their outputs.

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Fantastic Questions and Where to Find Them: FairytaleQA – An Authentic Dataset for Narrative Comprehension
Ying Xu | Dakuo Wang | Mo Yu | Daniel Ritchie | Bingsheng Yao | Tongshuang Wu | Zheng Zhang | Toby Li | Nora Bradford | Branda Sun | Tran Hoang | Yisi Sang | Yufang Hou | Xiaojuan Ma | Diyi Yang | Nanyun Peng | Zhou Yu | Mark Warschauer
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Question answering (QA) is a fundamental means to facilitate assessment and training of narrative comprehension skills for both machines and young children, yet there is scarcity of high-quality QA datasets carefully designed to serve this purpose. In particular, existing datasets rarely distinguish fine-grained reading skills, such as the understanding of varying narrative elements. Drawing on the reading education research, we introduce FairytaleQA, a dataset focusing on narrative comprehension of kindergarten to eighth-grade students. Generated by educational experts based on an evidence-based theoretical framework, FairytaleQA consists of 10,580 explicit and implicit questions derived from 278 children-friendly stories, covering seven types of narrative elements or relations. Our dataset is valuable in two folds: First, we ran existing QA models on our dataset and confirmed that this annotation helps assess models’ fine-grained learning skills. Second, the dataset supports question generation (QG) task in the education domain. Through benchmarking with QG models, we show that the QG model trained on FairytaleQA is capable of asking high-quality and more diverse questions.

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Constrained Multi-Task Learning for Bridging Resolution
Hideo Kobayashi | Yufang Hou | Vincent Ng
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We examine the extent to which supervised bridging resolvers can be improved without employing additional labeled bridging data by proposing a novel constrained multi-task learning framework for bridging resolution, within which we (1) design cross-task consistency constraints to guide the learning process; (2) pre-train the entity coreference model in the multi-task framework on the large amount of publicly available coreference data; and (3) integrating prior knowledge encoded in rule-based resolvers. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art results on three standard evaluation corpora.

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Educational Question Generation of Children Storybooks via Question Type Distribution Learning and Event-centric Summarization
Zhenjie Zhao | Yufang Hou | Dakuo Wang | Mo Yu | Chengzhong Liu | Xiaojuan Ma
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Generating educational questions of fairytales or storybooks is vital for improving children’s literacy ability. However, it is challenging to generate questions that capture the interesting aspects of a fairytale story with educational meaningfulness. In this paper, we propose a novel question generation method that first learns the question type distribution of an input story paragraph, and then summarizes salient events which can be used to generate high-cognitive-demand questions. To train the event-centric summarizer, we finetune a pre-trained transformer-based sequence-to-sequence model using silver samples composed by educational question-answer pairs. On a newly proposed educational question-answering dataset FairytaleQA, we show good performance of our method on both automatic and human evaluation metrics. Our work indicates the necessity of decomposing question type distribution learning and event-centric summary generation for educational question generation.

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Finding Sub-task Structure with Natural Language Instruction
Ryokan Ri | Yufang Hou | Radu Marinescu | Akihiro Kishimoto
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Learning with Natural Language Supervision

When mapping a natural language instruction to a sequence of actions, it is often useful toidentify sub-tasks in the instruction. Such sub-task segmentation, however, is not necessarily provided in the training data. We present the A2LCTC (Action-to-Language Connectionist Temporal Classification) algorithm to automatically discover a sub-task segmentation of an action sequence.A2LCTC does not require annotations of correct sub-task segments and learns to find them from pairs of instruction and action sequence in a weakly-supervised manner. We experiment with the ALFRED dataset and show that A2LCTC accurately finds the sub-task structures. With the discovered sub-tasks segments, we also train agents that work on the downstream task and empirically show that our algorithm improves the performance.

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Missing Counter-Evidence Renders NLP Fact-Checking Unrealistic for Misinformation
Max Glockner | Yufang Hou | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Misinformation emerges in times of uncertainty when credible information is limited. This is challenging for NLP-based fact-checking as it relies on counter-evidence, which may not yet be available. Despite increasing interest in automatic fact-checking, it is still unclear if automated approaches can realistically refute harmful real-world misinformation. Here, we contrast and compare NLP fact-checking with how professional fact-checkers combat misinformation in the absence of counter-evidence. In our analysis, we show that, by design, existing NLP task definitions for fact-checking cannot refute misinformation as professional fact-checkers do for the majority of claims. We then define two requirements that the evidence in datasets must fulfill for realistic fact-checking: It must be (1) sufficient to refute the claim and (2) not leaked from existing fact-checking articles. We survey existing fact-checking datasets and find that all of them fail to satisfy both criteria. Finally, we perform experiments to demonstrate that models trained on a large-scale fact-checking dataset rely on leaked evidence, which makes them unsuitable in real-world scenarios. Taken together, we show that current NLP fact-checking cannot realistically combat real-world misinformation because it depends on unrealistic assumptions about counter-evidence in the data.

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GEMv2: Multilingual NLG Benchmarking in a Single Line of Code
Sebastian Gehrmann | Abhik Bhattacharjee | Abinaya Mahendiran | Alex Wang | Alexandros Papangelis | Aman Madaan | Angelina Mcmillan-major | Anna Shvets | Ashish Upadhyay | Bernd Bohnet | Bingsheng Yao | Bryan Wilie | Chandra Bhagavatula | Chaobin You | Craig Thomson | Cristina Garbacea | Dakuo Wang | Daniel Deutsch | Deyi Xiong | Di Jin | Dimitra Gkatzia | Dragomir Radev | Elizabeth Clark | Esin Durmus | Faisal Ladhak | Filip Ginter | Genta Indra Winata | Hendrik Strobelt | Hiroaki Hayashi | Jekaterina Novikova | Jenna Kanerva | Jenny Chim | Jiawei Zhou | Jordan Clive | Joshua Maynez | João Sedoc | Juraj Juraska | Kaustubh Dhole | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Laura Perez Beltrachini | Leonardo F . R. Ribeiro | Lewis Tunstall | Li Zhang | Mahim Pushkarna | Mathias Creutz | Michael White | Mihir Sanjay Kale | Moussa Kamal Eddine | Nico Daheim | Nishant Subramani | Ondrej Dusek | Paul Pu Liang | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Qi Zhu | Ratish Puduppully | Reno Kriz | Rifat Shahriyar | Ronald Cardenas | Saad Mahamood | Salomey Osei | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Sanja Štajner | Sebastien Montella | Shailza Jolly | Simon Mille | Tahmid Hasan | Tianhao Shen | Tosin Adewumi | Vikas Raunak | Vipul Raheja | Vitaly Nikolaev | Vivian Tsai | Yacine Jernite | Ying Xu | Yisi Sang | Yixin Liu | Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Evaluations in machine learning rarely use the latest metrics, datasets, or human evaluation in favor of remaining compatible with prior work. The compatibility, often facilitated through leaderboards, thus leads to outdated but standardized evaluation practices. We pose that the standardization is taking place in the wrong spot. Evaluation infrastructure should enable researchers to use the latest methods and what should be standardized instead is how to incorporate these new evaluation advances. We introduce GEMv2, the new version of the Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics Benchmark which uses a modular infrastructure for dataset, model, and metric developers to benefit from each other’s work. GEMv2 supports 40 documented datasets in 51 languages, ongoing online evaluation for all datasets, and our interactive tools make it easier to add new datasets to the living benchmark.

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Proceedings of The Third Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing (SustaiNLP)
Angela Fan | Iryna Gurevych | Yufang Hou | Zornitsa Kozareva | Sasha Luccioni | Nafise Sadat Moosavi | Sujith Ravi | Gyuwan Kim | Roy Schwartz | Andreas Rücklé
Proceedings of The Third Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing (SustaiNLP)

2021

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TDMSci: A Specialized Corpus for Scientific Literature Entity Tagging of Tasks Datasets and Metrics
Yufang Hou | Charles Jochim | Martin Gleize | Francesca Bonin | Debasis Ganguly
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Tasks, Datasets and Evaluation Metrics are important concepts for understanding experimental scientific papers. However, previous work on information extraction for scientific literature mainly focuses on the abstracts only, and does not treat datasets as a separate type of entity (Zadeh and Schumann, 2016; Luan et al., 2018). In this paper, we present a new corpus that contains domain expert annotations for Task (T), Dataset (D), Metric (M) entities 2,000 sentences extracted from NLP papers. We report experiment results on TDM extraction using a simple data augmentation strategy and apply our tagger to around 30,000 NLP papers from the ACL Anthology. The corpus is made publicly available to the community for fostering research on scientific publication summarization (Erera et al., 2019) and knowledge discovery.

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Employing Argumentation Knowledge Graphs for Neural Argument Generation
Khalid Al Khatib | Lukas Trautner | Henning Wachsmuth | Yufang Hou | Benno Stein
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Generating high-quality arguments, while being challenging, may benefit a wide range of downstream applications, such as writing assistants and argument search engines. Motivated by the effectiveness of utilizing knowledge graphs for supporting general text generation tasks, this paper investigates the usage of argumentation-related knowledge graphs to control the generation of arguments. In particular, we construct and populate three knowledge graphs, employing several compositions of them to encode various knowledge into texts of debate portals and relevant paragraphs from Wikipedia. Then, the texts with the encoded knowledge are used to fine-tune a pre-trained text generation model, GPT-2. We evaluate the newly created arguments manually and automatically, based on several dimensions important in argumentative contexts, including argumentativeness and plausibility. The results demonstrate the positive impact of encoding the graphs’ knowledge into debate portal texts for generating arguments with superior quality than those generated without knowledge.

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Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Argument Mining
Khalid Al-Khatib | Yufang Hou | Manfred Stede
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Argument Mining

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Overview of the 2021 Key Point Analysis Shared Task
Roni Friedman | Lena Dankin | Yufang Hou | Ranit Aharonov | Yoav Katz | Noam Slonim
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Argument Mining

We describe the 2021 Key Point Analysis (KPA-2021) shared task on key point analysis that we organized as a part of the 8th Workshop on Argument Mining (ArgMining 2021) at EMNLP 2021. We outline various approaches and discuss the results of the shared task. We expect the task and the findings reported in this paper to be relevant for researchers working on text summarization and argument mining.

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D2S: Document-to-Slide Generation Via Query-Based Text Summarization
Edward Sun | Yufang Hou | Dakuo Wang | Yunfeng Zhang | Nancy X. R. Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Presentations are critical for communication in all areas of our lives, yet the creation of slide decks is often tedious and time-consuming. There has been limited research aiming to automate the document-to-slides generation process and all face a critical challenge: no publicly available dataset for training and benchmarking. In this work, we first contribute a new dataset, SciDuet, consisting of pairs of papers and their corresponding slides decks from recent years’ NLP and ML conferences (e.g., ACL). Secondly, we present D2S, a novel system that tackles the document-to-slides task with a two-step approach: 1) Use slide titles to retrieve relevant and engaging text, figures, and tables; 2) Summarize the retrieved context into bullet points with long-form question answering. Our evaluation suggests that long-form QA outperforms state-of-the-art summarization baselines on both automated ROUGE metrics and qualitative human evaluation.

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Probing for Bridging Inference in Transformer Language Models
Onkar Pandit | Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We probe pre-trained transformer language models for bridging inference. We first investigate individual attention heads in BERT and observe that attention heads at higher layers prominently focus on bridging relations in-comparison with the lower and middle layers, also, few specific attention heads concentrate consistently on bridging. More importantly, we consider language models as a whole in our second approach where bridging anaphora resolution is formulated as a masked token prediction task (Of-Cloze test). Our formulation produces optimistic results without any fine-tuning, which indicates that pre-trained language models substantially capture bridging inference. Our further investigation shows that the distance between anaphor-antecedent and the context provided to language models play an important role in the inference.

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End-to-End Construction of NLP Knowledge Graph
Ishani Mondal | Yufang Hou | Charles Jochim
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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End-to-end Neural Information Status Classification
Yufang Hou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Most previous studies on information status (IS) classification and bridging anaphora recognition assume that the gold mention or syntactic tree information is given (Hou et al., 2013; Roesiger et al., 2018; Hou, 2020; Yu and Poesio, 2020). In this paper, we propose an end-to-end neural approach for information status classification. Our approach consists of a mention extraction component and an information status assignment component. During the inference time, our system takes a raw text as the input and generates mentions together with their information status. On the ISNotes corpus (Markert et al., 2012), we show that our information status assignment component achieves new state-of-the-art results on fine-grained IS classification based on gold mentions. Furthermore, our system performs significantly better than other baselines for both mention extraction and fine-grained IS classification in the end-to-end setting. Finally, we apply our system on BASHI (Roesiger, 2018) and SciCorp (Roesiger, 2016) to recognize referential bridging anaphora. We find that our end-to-end system trained on ISNotes achieves competitive results on bridging anaphora recognition compared to the previous state-of-the-art system that relies on syntactic information and is trained on the in-domain datasets (Yu and Poesio, 2020).

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HAConvGNN: Hierarchical Attention Based Convolutional Graph Neural Network for Code Documentation Generation in Jupyter Notebooks
Xuye Liu | Dakuo Wang | April Wang | Yufang Hou | Lingfei Wu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Jupyter notebook allows data scientists to write machine learning code together with its documentation in cells. In this paper, we propose a new task of code documentation generation (CDG) for computational notebooks. In contrast to the previous CDG tasks which focus on generating documentation for single code snippets, in a computational notebook, one documentation in a markdown cell often corresponds to multiple code cells, and these code cells have an inherent structure. We proposed a new model (HAConvGNN) that uses a hierarchical attention mechanism to consider the relevant code cells and the relevant code tokens information when generating the documentation. Tested on a new corpus constructed from well-documented Kaggle notebooks, we show that our model outperforms other baseline models.

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Argument Mining for Scholarly Document Processing: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead
Khalid Al Khatib | Tirthankar Ghosal | Yufang Hou | Anita de Waard | Dayne Freitag
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

Argument mining targets structures in natural language related to interpretation and persuasion which are central to scientific communication. Most scholarly discourse involves interpreting experimental evidence and attempting to persuade other scientists to adopt the same conclusions. While various argument mining studies have addressed student essays and news articles, those that target scientific discourse are still scarce. This paper surveys existing work in argument mining of scholarly discourse, and provides an overview of current models, data, tasks, and applications. We identify a number of key challenges confronting argument mining in the scientific domain, and suggest some possible solutions and future directions.

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing
Nafise Sadat Moosavi | Iryna Gurevych | Angela Fan | Thomas Wolf | Yufang Hou | Ana Marasović | Sujith Ravi
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing

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The GEM Benchmark: Natural Language Generation, its Evaluation and Metrics
Sebastian Gehrmann | Tosin Adewumi | Karmanya Aggarwal | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Antoine Bosselut | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Miruna-Adriana Clinciu | Dipanjan Das | Kaustubh Dhole | Wanyu Du | Esin Durmus | Ondřej Dušek | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Varun Gangal | Cristina Garbacea | Tatsunori Hashimoto | Yufang Hou | Yacine Jernite | Harsh Jhamtani | Yangfeng Ji | Shailza Jolly | Mihir Kale | Dhruv Kumar | Faisal Ladhak | Aman Madaan | Mounica Maddela | Khyati Mahajan | Saad Mahamood | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Pedro Henrique Martins | Angelina McMillan-Major | Simon Mille | Emiel van Miltenburg | Moin Nadeem | Shashi Narayan | Vitaly Nikolaev | Andre Niyongabo Rubungo | Salomey Osei | Ankur Parikh | Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Niranjan Ramesh Rao | Vikas Raunak | Juan Diego Rodriguez | Sashank Santhanam | João Sedoc | Thibault Sellam | Samira Shaikh | Anastasia Shimorina | Marco Antonio Sobrevilla Cabezudo | Hendrik Strobelt | Nishant Subramani | Wei Xu | Diyi Yang | Akhila Yerukola | Jiawei Zhou
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM 2021)

We introduce GEM, a living benchmark for natural language Generation (NLG), its Evaluation, and Metrics. Measuring progress in NLG relies on a constantly evolving ecosystem of automated metrics, datasets, and human evaluation standards. Due to this moving target, new models often still evaluate on divergent anglo-centric corpora with well-established, but flawed, metrics. This disconnect makes it challenging to identify the limitations of current models and opportunities for progress. Addressing this limitation, GEM provides an environment in which models can easily be applied to a wide set of tasks and in which evaluation strategies can be tested. Regular updates to the benchmark will help NLG research become more multilingual and evolve the challenge alongside models. This paper serves as the description of the data for the 2021 shared task at the associated GEM Workshop.

2020

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Bridging Anaphora Resolution as Question Answering
Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Most previous studies on bridging anaphora resolution (Poesio et al., 2004; Hou et al., 2013b; Hou, 2018a) use the pairwise model to tackle the problem and assume that the gold mention information is given. In this paper, we cast bridging anaphora resolution as question answering based on context. This allows us to find the antecedent for a given anaphor without knowing any gold mention information (except the anaphor itself). We present a question answering framework (BARQA) for this task, which leverages the power of transfer learning. Furthermore, we propose a novel method to generate a large amount of “quasi-bridging” training data. We show that our model pre-trained on this dataset and fine-tuned on a small amount of in-domain dataset achieves new state-of-the-art results for bridging anaphora resolution on two bridging corpora (ISNotes (Markert et al., 2012) and BASHI (Ro ̈siger, 2018)).

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Fine-grained Information Status Classification Using Discourse Context-Aware BERT
Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Previous work on bridging anaphora recognition (Hou et al., 2013) casts the problem as a subtask of learning fine-grained information status (IS). However, these systems heavily depend on many hand-crafted linguistic features. In this paper, we propose a simple discourse context-aware BERT model for fine-grained IS classification. On the ISNotes corpus (Markert et al., 2012), our model achieves new state-of-the-art performances on fine-grained IS classification, obtaining a 4.8 absolute overall accuracy improvement compared to Hou et al. (2013). More importantly, we also show an improvement of 10.5 F1 points for bridging anaphora recognition without using any complex hand-crafted semantic features designed for capturing the bridging phenomenon. We further analyze the trained model and find that the most attended signals for each IS category correspond well to linguistic notions of information status.

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HBCP Corpus: A New Resource for the Analysis of Behavioural Change Intervention Reports
Francesca Bonin | Martin Gleize | Ailbhe Finnerty | Candice Moore | Charles Jochim | Emma Norris | Yufang Hou | Alison J. Wright | Debasis Ganguly | Emily Hayes | Silje Zink | Alessandra Pascale | Pol Mac Aonghusa | Susan Michie
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Due to the fast pace at which research reports in behaviour change are published, researchers, consultants and policymakers would benefit from more automatic ways to process these reports. Automatic extraction of the reports’ intervention content, population, settings and their results etc. are essential in synthesising and summarising the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no unique resource exists at the moment to facilitate this synthesis. In this paper, we describe the construction of a corpus of published behaviour change intervention evaluation reports aimed at smoking cessation. We also describe and release the annotation of 57 entities, that can be used as an off-the-shelf data resource for tasks such as entity recognition, etc. Both the corpus and the annotation dataset are being made available to the community.

2019

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Identification of Tasks, Datasets, Evaluation Metrics, and Numeric Scores for Scientific Leaderboards Construction
Yufang Hou | Charles Jochim | Martin Gleize | Francesca Bonin | Debasis Ganguly
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

While the fast-paced inception of novel tasks and new datasets helps foster active research in a community towards interesting directions, keeping track of the abundance of research activity in different areas on different datasets is likely to become increasingly difficult. The community could greatly benefit from an automatic system able to summarize scientific results, e.g., in the form of a leaderboard. In this paper we build two datasets and develop a framework (TDMS-IE) aimed at automatically extracting task, dataset, metric and score from NLP papers, towards the automatic construction of leaderboards. Experiments show that our model outperforms several baselines by a large margin. Our model is a first step towards automatic leaderboard construction, e.g., in the NLP domain.

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Extracting Factual Min/Max Age Information from Clinical Trial Studies
Yufang Hou | Debasis Ganguly | Léa Deleris | Francesca Bonin
Proceedings of the 2nd Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop

Population age information is an essential characteristic of clinical trials. In this paper, we focus on extracting minimum and maximum (min/max) age values for the study samples from clinical research articles. Specifically, we investigate the use of a neural network model for question answering to address this information extraction task. The min/max age QA model is trained on the massive structured clinical study records from ClinicalTrials.gov. For each article, based on multiple min and max age values extracted from the QA model, we predict both actual min/max age values for the study samples and filter out non-factual age expressions. Our system improves the results over (i) a passage retrieval based IE system and (ii) a CRF-based system by a large margin when evaluated on an annotated dataset consisting of 50 research papers on smoking cessation.

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A Summarization System for Scientific Documents
Shai Erera | Michal Shmueli-Scheuer | Guy Feigenblat | Ora Peled Nakash | Odellia Boni | Haggai Roitman | Doron Cohen | Bar Weiner | Yosi Mass | Or Rivlin | Guy Lev | Achiya Jerbi | Jonathan Herzig | Yufang Hou | Charles Jochim | Martin Gleize | Francesca Bonin | Francesca Bonin | David Konopnicki
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP): System Demonstrations

We present a novel system providing summaries for Computer Science publications. Through a qualitative user study, we identified the most valuable scenarios for discovery, exploration and understanding of scientific documents. Based on these findings, we built a system that retrieves and summarizes scientific documents for a given information need, either in form of a free-text query or by choosing categorized values such as scientific tasks, datasets and more. Our system ingested 270,000 papers, and its summarization module aims to generate concise yet detailed summaries. We validated our approach with human experts.

2018

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Will it Blend? Blending Weak and Strong Labeled Data in a Neural Network for Argumentation Mining
Eyal Shnarch | Carlos Alzate | Lena Dankin | Martin Gleize | Yufang Hou | Leshem Choshen | Ranit Aharonov | Noam Slonim
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

The process of obtaining high quality labeled data for natural language understanding tasks is often slow, error-prone, complicated and expensive. With the vast usage of neural networks, this issue becomes more notorious since these networks require a large amount of labeled data to produce satisfactory results. We propose a methodology to blend high quality but scarce strong labeled data with noisy but abundant weak labeled data during the training of neural networks. Experiments in the context of topic-dependent evidence detection with two forms of weak labeled data show the advantages of the blending scheme. In addition, we provide a manually annotated data set for the task of topic-dependent evidence detection. We believe that blending weak and strong labeled data is a general notion that may be applicable to many language understanding tasks, and can especially assist researchers who wish to train a network but have a small amount of high quality labeled data for their task of interest.

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A Deterministic Algorithm for Bridging Anaphora Resolution
Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Previous work on bridging anaphora resolution (Poesio et al., 2004; Hou et al., 2013) use syntactic preposition patterns to calculate word relatedness. However, such patterns only consider NPs’ head nouns and hence do not fully capture the semantics of NPs. Recently, Hou (2018) created word embeddings (embeddings_PP) to capture associative similarity (i.e., relatedness) between nouns by exploring the syntactic structure of noun phrases. But embeddings_PP only contains word representations for nouns. In this paper, we create new word vectors by combining embeddings_PP with GloVe. This new word embeddings (embeddings_bridging) are a more general lexical knowledge resource for bridging and allow us to represent the meaning of an NP beyond its head easily. We therefore develop a deterministic approach for bridging anaphora resolution, which represents the semantics of an NP based on its head noun and modifications. We show that this simple approach achieves the competitive results compared to the best system in Hou et al. (2013) which explores Markov Logic Networks to model the problem. Additionally, we further improve the results for bridging anaphora resolution reported in Hou (2018) by combining our simple deterministic approach with Hou et al. (2013)’s best system MLN II.

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Unrestricted Bridging Resolution
Yufang Hou | Katja Markert | Michael Strube
Computational Linguistics, Volume 44, Issue 2 - June 2018

In contrast to identity anaphors, which indicate coreference between a noun phrase and its antecedent, bridging anaphors link to their antecedent(s) via lexico-semantic, frame, or encyclopedic relations. Bridging resolution involves recognizing bridging anaphors and finding links to antecedents. In contrast to most prior work, we tackle both problems. Our work also follows a more wide-ranging definition of bridging than most previous work and does not impose any restrictions on the type of bridging anaphora or relations between anaphor and antecedent. We create a corpus (ISNotes) annotated for information status (IS), bridging being one of the IS subcategories. The annotations reach high reliability for all categories and marginal reliability for the bridging subcategory. We use a two-stage statistical global inference method for bridging resolution. Given all mentions in a document, the first stage, bridging anaphora recognition, recognizes bridging anaphors as a subtask of learning fine-grained IS. We use a cascading collective classification method where (i) collective classification allows us to investigate relations among several mentions and autocorrelation among IS classes and (ii) cascaded classification allows us to tackle class imbalance, important for minority classes such as bridging. We show that our method outperforms current methods both for IS recognition overall as well as for bridging, specifically. The second stage, bridging antecedent selection, finds the antecedents for all predicted bridging anaphors. We investigate the phenomenon of semantically or syntactically related bridging anaphors that share the same antecedent, a phenomenon we call sibling anaphors. We show that taking sibling anaphors into account in a joint inference model improves antecedent selection performance. In addition, we develop semantic and salience features for antecedent selection and suggest a novel method to build the candidate antecedent list for an anaphor, using the discourse scope of the anaphor. Our model outperforms previous work significantly.

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Enhanced Word Representations for Bridging Anaphora Resolution
Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Most current models of word representations (e.g., GloVe) have successfully captured fine-grained semantics. However, semantic similarity exhibited in these word embeddings is not suitable for resolving bridging anaphora, which requires the knowledge of associative similarity (i.e., relatedness) instead of semantic similarity information between synonyms or hypernyms. We create word embeddings (embeddings_PP) to capture such relatedness by exploring the syntactic structure of noun phrases. We demonstrate that using embeddings _PP alone achieves around 30% of accuracy for bridging anaphora resolution on the ISNotes corpus. Furthermore, we achieve a substantial gain over the state-of-the-art system (Hou et al., 2013b) for bridging antecedent selection.

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Know Who Your Friends Are: Understanding Social Connections from Unstructured Text
Léa Deleris | Francesca Bonin | Elizabeth Daly | Stéphane Deparis | Yufang Hou | Charles Jochim | Yassine Lassoued | Killian Levacher
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations

Having an understanding of interpersonal relationships is helpful in many contexts. Our system seeks to assist humans with that task, using textual information (e.g., case notes, speech transcripts, posts, books) as input. Specifically, our system first extracts qualitative and quantitative information elements (which we call signals) about interactions among persons, aggregates those to provide a condensed view of relationships and then enables users to explore all facets of the resulting social (multi-)graph through a visual interface.

2017

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Computational Argumentation Quality Assessment in Natural Language
Henning Wachsmuth | Nona Naderi | Yufang Hou | Yonatan Bilu | Vinodkumar Prabhakaran | Tim Alberdingk Thijm | Graeme Hirst | Benno Stein
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Research on computational argumentation faces the problem of how to automatically assess the quality of an argument or argumentation. While different quality dimensions have been approached in natural language processing, a common understanding of argumentation quality is still missing. This paper presents the first holistic work on computational argumentation quality in natural language. We comprehensively survey the diverse existing theories and approaches to assess logical, rhetorical, and dialectical quality dimensions, and we derive a systematic taxonomy from these. In addition, we provide a corpus with 320 arguments, annotated for all 15 dimensions in the taxonomy. Our results establish a common ground for research on computational argumentation quality assessment.

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Argumentation Quality Assessment: Theory vs. Practice
Henning Wachsmuth | Nona Naderi | Ivan Habernal | Yufang Hou | Graeme Hirst | Iryna Gurevych | Benno Stein
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Argumentation quality is viewed differently in argumentation theory and in practical assessment approaches. This paper studies to what extent the views match empirically. We find that most observations on quality phrased spontaneously are in fact adequately represented by theory. Even more, relative comparisons of arguments in practice correlate with absolute quality ratings based on theory. Our results clarify how the two views can learn from each other.

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Argument Relation Classification Using a Joint Inference Model
Yufang Hou | Charles Jochim
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Argument Mining

In this paper, we address the problem of argument relation classification where argument units are from different texts. We design a joint inference method for the task by modeling argument relation classification and stance classification jointly. We show that our joint model improves the results over several strong baselines.

2016

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Incremental Fine-grained Information Status Classification Using Attention-based LSTMs
Yufang Hou
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Information status plays an important role in discourse processing. According to the hearer’s common sense knowledge and his comprehension of the preceding text, a discourse entity could be old, mediated or new. In this paper, we propose an attention-based LSTM model to address the problem of fine-grained information status classification in an incremental manner. Our approach resembles how human beings process the task, i.e., decide the information status of the current discourse entity based on its preceding context. Experimental results on the ISNotes corpus (Markert et al., 2012) reveal that (1) despite its moderate result, our model with only word embedding features captures the necessary semantic knowledge needed for the task by a large extent; and (2) when incorporating with additional several simple features, our model achieves the competitive results compared to the state-of-the-art approach (Hou et al., 2013) which heavily depends on lots of hand-crafted semantic features.

2015

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Analyzing Sentiment in Classical Chinese Poetry
Yufang Hou | Anette Frank
Proceedings of the 9th SIGHUM Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities (LaTeCH)

2014

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A Rule-Based System for Unrestricted Bridging Resolution: Recognizing Bridging Anaphora and Finding Links to Antecedents
Yufang Hou | Katja Markert | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

2013

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Cascading Collective Classification for Bridging Anaphora Recognition using a Rich Linguistic Feature Set
Yufang Hou | Katja Markert | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Global Inference for Bridging Anaphora Resolution
Yufang Hou | Katja Markert | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2012

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Collective Classification for Fine-grained Information Status
Katja Markert | Yufang Hou | Michael Strube
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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