End-to-end models on data-to-text learn the mapping of data and text from the aligned pairs in the dataset. However, these alignments are not always obtained reliably, especially for the time-series data, for which real time comments are given to some situation and there might be a delay in the comment delivery time compared to the actual event time. To handle this issue of possible noisy alignments in the dataset, we propose a neural network model with multi-timestep data and a copy mechanism, which allows the models to learn the correspondences between data and text from the dataset with noisier alignments. We focus on generating market comments in Japanese that are delivered each time an event occurs in the market. The core idea of our approach is to utilize multi-timestep data, which is not only the latest market price data when the comment is delivered, but also the data obtained at several timesteps earlier. On top of this, we employ a copy mechanism that is suitable for referring to the content of data records in the market price data. We confirm the superiority of our proposal by two evaluation metrics and show the accuracy improvement of the sentence generation using the time series data by our proposed method.
Existing models for data-to-text tasks generate fluent but sometimes incorrect sentences e.g., “Nikkei gains” is generated when “Nikkei drops” is expected. We investigate models trained on contrastive examples i.e., incorrect sentences or terms, in addition to correct ones to reduce such errors. We first create rules to produce contrastive examples from correct ones by replacing frequent crucial terms such as “gain” or “drop”. We then use learning methods with several losses that exploit contrastive examples. Experiments on the market comment generation task show that 1) exploiting contrastive examples improves the capability of generating sentences with better lexical choice, without degrading the fluency, 2) the choice of the loss function is an important factor because the performances on different metrics depend on the types of loss functions, and 3) the use of the examples produced by some specific rules further improves performance. Human evaluation also supports the effectiveness of using contrastive examples.
We propose a data-to-text generation model with two modules, one for tracking and the other for text generation. Our tracking module selects and keeps track of salient information and memorizes which record has been mentioned. Our generation module generates a summary conditioned on the state of tracking module. Our proposed model is considered to simulate the human-like writing process that gradually selects the information by determining the intermediate variables while writing the summary. In addition, we also explore the effectiveness of the writer information for generations. Experimental results show that our proposed model outperforms existing models in all evaluation metrics even without writer information. Incorporating writer information further improves the performance, contributing to content planning and surface realization.