Masked language models (MLMs) have contributed to drastic performance improvements with regard to zero anaphora resolution (ZAR). To further improve this approach, in this study, we made two proposals. The first is a new pretraining task that trains MLMs on anaphoric relations with explicit supervision, and the second proposal is a new finetuning method that remedies a notorious issue, the pretrain-finetune discrepancy. Our experiments on Japanese ZAR demonstrated that our two proposals boost the state-of-the-art performance, and our detailed analysis provides new insights on the remaining challenges.
One critical issue of zero anaphora resolution (ZAR) is the scarcity of labeled data. This study explores how effectively this problem can be alleviated by data augmentation. We adopt a state-of-the-art data augmentation method, called the contextual data augmentation (CDA), that generates labeled training instances using a pretrained language model. The CDA has been reported to work well for several other natural language processing tasks, including text classification and machine translation. This study addresses two underexplored issues on CDA, that is, how to reduce the computational cost of data augmentation and how to ensure the quality of the generated data. We also propose two methods to adapt CDA to ZAR: [MASK]-based augmentation and linguistically-controlled masking. Consequently, the experimental results on Japanese ZAR show that our methods contribute to both the accuracy gainand the computation cost reduction. Our closer analysis reveals that the proposed method can improve the quality of the augmented training data when compared to the conventional CDA.
Many recent Short Answer Scoring (SAS) systems have employed Quadratic Weighted Kappa (QWK) as the evaluation measure of their systems. However, we hypothesize that QWK is unsatisfactory for the evaluation of the SAS systems when we consider measuring their effectiveness in actual usage. We introduce a new task formulation of SAS that matches the actual usage. In our formulation, the SAS systems should extract as many scoring predictions that are not critical scoring errors (CSEs). We conduct the experiments in our new task formulation and demonstrate that a typical SAS system can predict scores with zero CSE for approximately 50% of test data at maximum by filtering out low-reliablility predictions on the basis of a certain confidence estimation. This result directly indicates the possibility of reducing half the scoring cost of human raters, which is more preferable for the evaluation of SAS systems.
This paper presents a novel, data-driven language model that produces entire lyrics for a given input melody. Previously proposed models for lyrics generation suffer from the inability of capturing the relationship between lyrics and melody partly due to the unavailability of lyrics-melody aligned data. In this study, we first propose a new practical method for creating a large collection of lyrics-melody aligned data and then create a collection of 1,000 lyrics-melody pairs augmented with precise syllable-note alignments and word/sentence/paragraph boundaries. We then provide a quantitative analysis of the correlation between word/sentence/paragraph boundaries in lyrics and melodies. We then propose an RNN-based lyrics language model conditioned on a featurized melody. Experimental results show that the proposed model generates fluent lyrics while maintaining the compatibility between boundaries of lyrics and melody structures.
Capturing interactions among multiple predicate-argument structures (PASs) is a crucial issue in the task of analyzing PAS in Japanese. In this paper, we propose new Japanese PAS analysis models that integrate the label prediction information of arguments in multiple PASs by extending the input and last layers of a standard deep bidirectional recurrent neural network (bi-RNN) model. In these models, using the mechanisms of pooling and attention, we aim to directly capture the potential interactions among multiple PASs, without being disturbed by the word order and distance. Our experiments show that the proposed models improve the prediction accuracy specifically for cases where the predicate and argument are in an indirect dependency relation and achieve a new state of the art in the overall F1 on a standard benchmark corpus.
The research trend in Japanese predicate-argument structure (PAS) analysis is shifting from pointwise prediction models with local features to global models designed to search for globally optimal solutions. However, the existing global models tend to employ only relatively simple local features; therefore, the overall performance gains are rather limited. The importance of designing a local model is demonstrated in this study by showing that the performance of a sophisticated local model can be considerably improved with recent feature embedding methods and a feature combination learning based on a neural network, outperforming the state-of-the-art global models in F1 on a common benchmark dataset.
This study proposes a computational model of the discourse segments in lyrics to understand and to model the structure of lyrics. To test our hypothesis that discourse segmentations in lyrics strongly correlate with repeated patterns, we conduct the first large-scale corpus study on discourse segments in lyrics. Next, we propose the task to automatically identify segment boundaries in lyrics and train a logistic regression model for the task with the repeated pattern and textual features. The results of our empirical experiments illustrate the significance of capturing repeated patterns in predicting the boundaries of discourse segments in lyrics.
This paper proposes a novel problem setting of selectional preference (SP) between a predicate and its arguments, called as context-sensitive SP (CSP). CSP models the narrative consistency between the predicate and preceding contexts of its arguments, in addition to the conventional SP based on semantic types. Furthermore, we present a novel CSP model that extends the neural SP model (Van de Cruys, 2014) to incorporate contextual information into the distributed representations of arguments. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CSP model successfully learns CSP and outperforms the conventional SP model in coreference cluster ranking.
This paper introduces our study on creating a Japanese corpus that is annotated using semantically-motivated predicate-argument structures. We propose an annotation framework based on Lexical Conceptual Structure (LCS), where semantic roles of arguments are represented through a semantic structure decomposed by several primitive predicates. As a first stage of the project, we extended Jackendoff 's LCS theory to increase generality of expression and coverage for verbs frequently appearing in the corpus, and successfully created LCS structures for 60 frequent Japanese predicates in Kyoto university Text Corpus (KTC). In this paper, we report our framework for creating the corpus and the current status of creating an LCS dictionary for Japanese predicates.