Yukio Matsumura


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Filtering Pseudo-References by Paraphrasing for Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation
Ryoma Yoshimura | Hiroki Shimanaka | Yukio Matsumura | Hayahide Yamagishi | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

In this paper, we introduce our participation in the WMT 2019 Metric Shared Task. We propose an improved version of sentence BLEU using filtered pseudo-references. We propose a method to filter pseudo-references by paraphrasing for automatic evaluation of machine translation (MT). We use the outputs of off-the-shelf MT systems as pseudo-references filtered by paraphrasing in addition to a single human reference (gold reference). We use BERT fine-tuned with paraphrase corpus to filter pseudo-references by checking the paraphrasability with the gold reference. Our experimental results of the WMT 2016 and 2017 datasets show that our method achieved higher correlation with human evaluation than the sentence BLEU (SentBLEU) baselines with a single reference and with unfiltered pseudo-references.

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Multimodal Machine Translation with Embedding Prediction
Tosho Hirasawa | Hayahide Yamagishi | Yukio Matsumura | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Multimodal machine translation is an attractive application of neural machine translation (NMT). It helps computers to deeply understand visual objects and their relations with natural languages. However, multimodal NMT systems suffer from a shortage of available training data, resulting in poor performance for translating rare words. In NMT, pretrained word embeddings have been shown to improve NMT of low-resource domains, and a search-based approach is proposed to address the rare word problem. In this study, we effectively combine these two approaches in the context of multimodal NMT and explore how we can take full advantage of pretrained word embeddings to better translate rare words. We report overall performance improvements of 1.24 METEOR and 2.49 BLEU and achieve an improvement of 7.67 F-score for rare word translation.


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TMU Japanese-English Neural Machine Translation System using Generative Adversarial Network for WAT 2018
Yukio Matsumura | Satoru Katsumata | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the 32nd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation: 5th Workshop on Asian Translation: 5th Workshop on Asian Translation

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Japanese Predicate Conjugation for Neural Machine Translation
Michiki Kurosawa | Yukio Matsumura | Hayahide Yamagishi | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Neural machine translation (NMT) has a drawback in that can generate only high-frequency words owing to the computational costs of the softmax function in the output layer. In Japanese-English NMT, Japanese predicate conjugation causes an increase in vocabulary size. For example, one verb can have as many as 19 surface varieties. In this research, we focus on predicate conjugation for compressing the vocabulary size in Japanese. The vocabulary list is filled with the various forms of verbs. We propose methods using predicate conjugation information without discarding linguistic information. The proposed methods can generate low-frequency words and deal with unknown words. Two methods were considered to introduce conjugation information: the first considers it as a token (conjugation token) and the second considers it as an embedded vector (conjugation feature). The results using these methods demonstrate that the vocabulary size can be compressed by approximately 86.1% (Tanaka corpus) and the NMT models can output the words not in the training data set. Furthermore, BLEU scores improved by 0.91 points in Japanese-to-English translation, and 0.32 points in English-to-Japanese translation with ASPEC.

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Graph-based Filtering of Out-of-Vocabulary Words for Encoder-Decoder Models
Satoru Katsumata | Yukio Matsumura | Hayahide Yamagishi | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of ACL 2018, Student Research Workshop

Encoder-decoder models typically only employ words that are frequently used in the training corpus because of the computational costs and/or to exclude noisy words. However, this vocabulary set may still include words that interfere with learning in encoder-decoder models. This paper proposes a method for selecting more suitable words for learning encoders by utilizing not only frequency, but also co-occurrence information, which we capture using the HITS algorithm. The proposed method is applied to two tasks: machine translation and grammatical error correction. For Japanese-to-English translation, this method achieved a BLEU score that was 0.56 points more than that of a baseline. It also outperformed the baseline method for English grammatical error correction, with an F-measure that was 1.48 points higher.


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Tokyo Metropolitan University Neural Machine Translation System for WAT 2017
Yukio Matsumura | Mamoru Komachi
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Asian Translation (WAT2017)

In this paper, we describe our neural machine translation (NMT) system, which is based on the attention-based NMT and uses long short-term memories (LSTM) as RNN. We implemented beam search and ensemble decoding in the NMT system. The system was tested on the 4th Workshop on Asian Translation (WAT 2017) shared tasks. In our experiments, we participated in the scientific paper subtasks and attempted Japanese-English, English-Japanese, and Japanese-Chinese translation tasks. The experimental results showed that implementation of beam search and ensemble decoding can effectively improve the translation quality.