Recent machine reading comprehension datasets such as ReClor and LogiQA require performing logical reasoning over text. Conventional neural models are insufficient for logical reasoning, while symbolic reasoners cannot directly apply to text. To meet the challenge, we present a neural-symbolic approach which, to predict an answer, passes messages over a graph representing logical relations between text units. It incorporates an adaptive logic graph network (AdaLoGN) which adaptively infers logical relations to extend the graph and, essentially, realizes mutual and iterative reinforcement between neural and symbolic reasoning. We also implement a novel subgraph-to-node message passing mechanism to enhance context-option interaction for answering multiple-choice questions. Our approach shows promising results on ReClor and LogiQA.
Answering factual questions with temporal intent over knowledge graphs (temporal KGQA) attracts rising attention in recent years.In the generation of temporal queries, existing KGQA methods ignore the fact that some intrinsic connections between events can make them temporally related, which may limit their capability.We systematically analyze the possible interpretation of temporal constraints and conclude the interpretation structures as the Semantic Framework of Temporal Constraints, SF-TCons.Based on the semantic framework, we propose a temporal question answering method, SF-TQA, which generates query graphs by exploring the relevant facts of mentioned entities, where the exploring process is restricted by SF-TCons. Our evaluations show that SF-TQA significantly outperforms existing methods on two benchmarks over different knowledge graphs.
Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have shown their effectiveness in multiple scenarios. However, KBQA remains challenging, especially regarding coverage and generalization settings. This is due to two main factors: i) understanding the semantics of both questions and relevant knowledge from the KB; ii) generating executable logical forms with both semantic and syntactic correctness. In this paper, we present a new KBQA model, TIARA, which addresses those issues by applying multi-grained retrieval to help the PLM focus on the most relevant KB context, viz., entities, exemplary logical forms, and schema items. Moreover, constrained decoding is used to control the output space and reduce generation errors. Experiments over important benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. TIARA outperforms previous SOTA, including those using PLMs or oracle entity annotations, by at least 4.1 and 1.1 F1 points on GrailQA and WebQuestionsSP, respectively. Specifically on GrailQA, TIARA outperforms previous models in all categories, with an improvement of 4.7 F1 points in zero-shot generalization.
Question answering over knowledge bases (KBQA) for complex questions is a challenging task in natural language processing. Recently, generation-based methods that translate natural language questions to executable logical forms have achieved promising performance. These methods use auxiliary information to augment the logical form generation of questions with unseen KB items or novel combinations, but the noise introduced can also leads to more incorrect results. In this work, we propose GMT-KBQA, a Generation-based KBQA method via Multi-Task learning, to better retrieve and utilize auxiliary information. GMT-KBQA first obtains candidate entities and relations through dense retrieval, and then introduces a multi-task model which jointly learns entity disambiguation, relation classification, and logical form generation. Experimental results show that GMT-KBQA achieves state-of-the-art results on both ComplexWebQuestions and WebQuestionsSP datasets. Furthermore, the detailed evaluation demonstrates that GMT-KBQA benefits from the auxiliary tasks and has a strong generalization capability.
Scenario-based question answering (SQA) requires retrieving and reading paragraphs from a large corpus to answer a question which is contextualized by a long scenario description. Since a scenario contains both keyphrases for retrieval and much noise, retrieval for SQA is extremely difficult. Moreover, it can hardly be supervised due to the lack of relevance labels of paragraphs for SQA. To meet the challenge, in this paper we propose a joint retriever-reader model called JEEVES where the retriever is implicitly supervised only using QA labels via a novel word weighting mechanism. JEEVES significantly outperforms a variety of strong baselines on multiple-choice questions in three SQA datasets.
The understanding of time expressions includes two sub-tasks: recognition and normalization. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the recognition of time expressions while research on normalization has lagged behind. Existing SOTA normalization methods highly rely on rules or grammars designed by experts, which limits their performance on emerging corpora, such as social media texts. In this paper, we model time expression normalization as a sequence of operations to construct the normalized temporal value, and we present a novel method called ARTime, which can automatically generate normalization rules from training data without expert interventions. Specifically, ARTime automatically captures possible operation sequences from annotated data and generates normalization rules on time expressions with common surface forms. The experimental results show that ARTime can significantly surpass SOTA methods on the Tweets benchmark, and achieves competitive results with existing expert-engineered rule methods on the TempEval-3 benchmark.
Formal query generation aims to generate correct executable queries for question answering over knowledge bases (KBs), given entity and relation linking results. Current approaches build universal paraphrasing or ranking models for the whole questions, which are likely to fail in generating queries for complex, long-tail questions. In this paper, we propose SubQG, a new query generation approach based on frequent query substructures, which helps rank the existing (but nonsignificant) query structures or build new query structures. Our experiments on two benchmark datasets show that our approach significantly outperforms the existing ones, especially for complex questions. Also, it achieves promising performance with limited training data and noisy entity/relation linking results.
Scenario-based question answering (SQA) has attracted increasing research attention. It typically requires retrieving and integrating knowledge from multiple sources, and applying general knowledge to a specific case described by a scenario. SQA widely exists in the medical, geography, and legal domains—both in practice and in the exams. In this paper, we introduce the GeoSQA dataset. It consists of 1,981 scenarios and 4,110 multiple-choice questions in the geography domain at high school level, where diagrams (e.g., maps, charts) have been manually annotated with natural language descriptions to benefit NLP research. Benchmark results on a variety of state-of-the-art methods for question answering, textual entailment, and reading comprehension demonstrate the unique challenges presented by SQA for future research.
Complex questions in reading comprehension tasks require integrating information from multiple sentences. In this work, to answer such questions involving temporal and causal relations, we generate event graphs from text based on dependencies, and rank answers by aligning event graphs. In particular, the alignments are constrained by graph-based reasoning to ensure temporal and causal agreement. Our focused approach self-adaptively complements existing solutions; it is automatically triggered only when applicable. Experiments on RACE and MCTest show that state-of-the-art methods are notably improved by using our approach as an add-on.