Yvette Graham


2021

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Improving Unsupervised Question Answering via Summarization-Informed Question Generation
Chenyang Lyu | Lifeng Shang | Yvette Graham | Jennifer Foster | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Question Generation (QG) is the task of generating a plausible question for a given <passage, answer> pair. Template-based QG uses linguistically-informed heuristics to transform declarative sentences into interrogatives, whereas supervised QG uses existing Question Answering (QA) datasets to train a system to generate a question given a passage and an answer. A disadvantage of the heuristic approach is that the generated questions are heavily tied to their declarative counterparts. A disadvantage of the supervised approach is that they are heavily tied to the domain/language of the QA dataset used as training data. In order to overcome these shortcomings, we propose a distantly-supervised QG method which uses questions generated heuristically from summaries as a source of training data for a QG system. We make use of freely available news summary data, transforming declarative summary sentences into appropriate questions using heuristics informed by dependency parsing, named entity recognition and semantic role labeling. The resulting questions are then combined with the original news articles to train an end-to-end neural QG model. We extrinsically evaluate our approach using unsupervised QA: our QG model is used to generate synthetic QA pairs for training a QA model. Experimental results show that, trained with only 20k English Wikipedia-based synthetic QA pairs, the QA model substantially outperforms previous unsupervised models on three in-domain datasets (SQuAD1.1, Natural Questions, TriviaQA) and three out-of-domain datasets (NewsQA, BioASQ, DuoRC), demonstrating the transferability of the approach.

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems (HumEval)
Anya Belz | Shubham Agarwal | Yvette Graham | Ehud Reiter | Anastasia Shimorina
Proceedings of the Workshop on Human Evaluation of NLP Systems (HumEval)

2020

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Statistical Power and Translationese in Machine Translation Evaluation
Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The term translationese has been used to describe features of translated text, and in this paper, we provide detailed analysis of potential adverse effects of translationese on machine translation evaluation. Our analysis shows differences in conclusions drawn from evaluations that include translationese in test data compared to experiments that tested only with text originally composed in that language. For this reason we recommend that reverse-created test data be omitted from future machine translation test sets. In addition, we provide a re-evaluation of a past machine translation evaluation claiming human-parity of MT. One important issue not previously considered is statistical power of significance tests applied to comparison of human and machine translation. Since the very aim of past evaluations was investigation of ties between human and MT systems, power analysis is of particular importance, to avoid, for example, claims of human parity simply corresponding to Type II error resulting from the application of a low powered test. We provide detailed analysis of tests used in such evaluations to provide an indication of a suitable minimum sample size for future studies.

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Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation
Loïc Barrault | Ondřej Bojar | Fethi Bougares | Rajen Chatterjee | Marta R. Costa-jussà | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Alexander Fraser | Yvette Graham | Paco Guzman | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Makoto Morishita | Christof Monz | Masaaki Nagata | Toshiaki Nakazawa | Matteo Negri
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

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Findings of the 2020 Conference on Machine Translation (WMT20)
Loïc Barrault | Magdalena Biesialska | Ondřej Bojar | Marta R. Costa-jussà | Christian Federmann | Yvette Graham | Roman Grundkiewicz | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Eric Joanis | Tom Kocmi | Philipp Koehn | Chi-kiu Lo | Nikola Ljubešić | Christof Monz | Makoto Morishita | Masaaki Nagata | Toshiaki Nakazawa | Santanu Pal | Matt Post | Marcos Zampieri
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents the results of the news translation task and the similar language translation task, both organised alongside the Conference on Machine Translation (WMT) 2020. In the news task, participants were asked to build machine translation systems for any of 11 language pairs, to be evaluated on test sets consisting mainly of news stories. The task was also opened up to additional test suites to probe specific aspects of translation. In the similar language translation task, participants built machine translation systems for translating between closely related pairs of languages.

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation
Anya Belz | Bernd Bohnet | Thiago Castro Ferreira | Yvette Graham | Simon Mille | Leo Wanner
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation

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The Third Multilingual Surface Realisation Shared Task (SR’20): Overview and Evaluation Results
Simon Mille | Anya Belz | Bernd Bohnet | Thiago Castro Ferreira | Yvette Graham | Leo Wanner
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation

This paper presents results from the Third Shared Task on Multilingual Surface Realisation (SR’20) which was organised as part of the COLING’20 Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation. As in SR’18 and SR’19, the shared task comprised two tracks: (1) a Shallow Track where the inputs were full UD structures with word order information removed and tokens lemmatised; and (2) a Deep Track where additionally, functional words and morphological information were removed. Moreover, each track had two subtracks: (a) restricted-resource, where only the data provided or approved as part of a track could be used for training models, and (b) open-resource, where any data could be used. The Shallow Track was offered in 11 languages, whereas the Deep Track in 3 ones. Systems were evaluated using both automatic metrics and direct assessment by human evaluators in terms of Readability and Meaning Similarity to reference outputs. We present the evaluation results, along with descriptions of the SR’19 tracks, data and evaluation methods, as well as brief summaries of the participating systems. For full descriptions of the participating systems, please see the separate system reports elsewhere in this volume.

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Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Generation
Brian Davis | Yvette Graham | John Kelleher | Yaji Sripada
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

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Improving Document-Level Sentiment Analysis with User and Product Context
Chenyang Lyu | Jennifer Foster | Yvette Graham
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Past work that improves document-level sentiment analysis by encoding user and product in- formation has been limited to considering only the text of the current review. We investigate incorporating additional review text available at the time of sentiment prediction that may prove meaningful for guiding prediction. Firstly, we incorporate all available historical review text belonging to the author of the review in question. Secondly, we investigate the inclusion of his- torical reviews associated with the current product (written by other users). We achieve this by explicitly storing representations of reviews written by the same user and about the same product and force the model to memorize all reviews for one particular user and product. Additionally, we drop the hierarchical architecture used in previous work to enable words in the text to directly attend to each other. Experiment results on IMDB, Yelp 2013 and Yelp 2014 datasets show improvement to state-of-the-art of more than 2 percentage points in the best case.

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Assessing Human-Parity in Machine Translation on the Segment Level
Yvette Graham | Christian Federmann | Maria Eskevich | Barry Haddow
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Recent machine translation shared tasks have shown top-performing systems to tie or in some cases even outperform human translation. Such conclusions about system and human performance are, however, based on estimates aggregated from scores collected over large test sets of translations and unfortunately leave some remaining questions unanswered. For instance, simply because a system significantly outperforms the human translator on average may not necessarily mean that it has done so for every translation in the test set. Firstly, are there remaining source segments present in evaluation test sets that cause significant challenges for top-performing systems and can such challenging segments go unnoticed due to the opacity of current human evaluation procedures? To provide insight into these issues we carefully inspect the outputs of top-performing systems in the most recent WMT-19 news translation shared task for all language pairs in which a system either tied or outperformed human translation. Our analysis provides a new method of identifying the remaining segments for which either machine or human perform poorly. For example, in our close inspection of WMT-19 English to German and German to English we discover the segments that disjointly proved a challenge for human and machine. For English to Russian, there were no segments included in our sample of translations that caused a significant challenge for the human translator, while we again identify the set of segments that caused issues for the top-performing system.

2019

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Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation (MSR 2019)
Simon Mille | Anja Belz | Bernd Bohnet | Yvette Graham | Leo Wanner
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation (MSR 2019)

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The Second Multilingual Surface Realisation Shared Task (SR’19): Overview and Evaluation Results
Simon Mille | Anja Belz | Bernd Bohnet | Yvette Graham | Leo Wanner
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation (MSR 2019)

We report results from the SR’19 Shared Task, the second edition of a multilingual surface realisation task organised as part of the EMNLP’19 Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation. As in SR’18, the shared task comprised two tracks with different levels of complexity: (a) a shallow track where the inputs were full UD structures with word order information removed and tokens lemmatised; and (b) a deep track where additionally, functional words and morphological information were removed. The shallow track was offered in eleven, and the deep track in three languages. Systems were evaluated (a) automatically, using a range of intrinsic metrics, and (b) by human judges in terms of readability and meaning similarity. This report presents the evaluation results, along with descriptions of the SR’19 tracks, data and evaluation methods. For full descriptions of the participating systems, please see the separate system reports elsewhere in this volume.

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

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Findings of the 2019 Conference on Machine Translation (WMT19)
Loïc Barrault | Ondřej Bojar | Marta R. Costa-jussà | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Philipp Koehn | Shervin Malmasi | Christof Monz | Mathias Müller | Santanu Pal | Matt Post | Marcos Zampieri
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

This paper presents the results of the premier shared task organized alongside the Conference on Machine Translation (WMT) 2019. Participants were asked to build machine translation systems for any of 18 language pairs, to be evaluated on a test set of news stories. The main metric for this task is human judgment of translation quality. The task was also opened up to additional test suites to probe specific aspects of translation.

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Results of the WMT19 Metrics Shared Task: Segment-Level and Strong MT Systems Pose Big Challenges
Qingsong Ma | Johnny Wei | Ondřej Bojar | Yvette Graham
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

This paper presents the results of the WMT19 Metrics Shared Task. Participants were asked to score the outputs of the translations systems competing in the WMT19 News Translation Task with automatic metrics. 13 research groups submitted 24 metrics, 10 of which are reference-less “metrics” and constitute submissions to the joint task with WMT19 Quality Estimation Task, “QE as a Metric”. In addition, we computed 11 baseline metrics, with 8 commonly applied baselines (BLEU, SentBLEU, NIST, WER, PER, TER, CDER, and chrF) and 3 reimplementations (chrF+, sacreBLEU-BLEU, and sacreBLEU-chrF). Metrics were evaluated on the system level, how well a given metric correlates with the WMT19 official manual ranking, and segment level, how well the metric correlates with human judgements of segment quality. This year, we use direct assessment (DA) as our only form of manual evaluation.

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

2018

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The First Multilingual Surface Realisation Shared Task (SR’18): Overview and Evaluation Results
Simon Mille | Anja Belz | Bernd Bohnet | Yvette Graham | Emily Pitler | Leo Wanner
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation

We report results from the SR’18 Shared Task, a new multilingual surface realisation task organised as part of the ACL’18 Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation. As in its English-only predecessor task SR’11, the shared task comprised two tracks with different levels of complexity: (a) a shallow track where the inputs were full UD structures with word order information removed and tokens lemmatised; and (b) a deep track where additionally, functional words and morphological information were removed. The shallow track was offered in ten, and the deep track in three languages. Systems were evaluated (a) automatically, using a range of intrinsic metrics, and (b) by human judges in terms of readability and meaning similarity. This report presents the evaluation results, along with descriptions of the SR’18 tracks, data and evaluation methods. For full descriptions of the participating systems, please see the separate system reports elsewhere in this volume.

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Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Lucia Specia | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

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Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Lucia Specia | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

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Findings of the 2018 Conference on Machine Translation (WMT18)
Ondřej Bojar | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Philipp Koehn | Christof Monz
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

This paper presents the results of the premier shared task organized alongside the Conference on Machine Translation (WMT) 2018. Participants were asked to build machine translation systems for any of 7 language pairs in both directions, to be evaluated on a test set of news stories. The main metric for this task is human judgment of translation quality. This year, we also opened up the task to additional test sets to probe specific aspects of translation.

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Results of the WMT18 Metrics Shared Task: Both characters and embeddings achieve good performance
Qingsong Ma | Ondřej Bojar | Yvette Graham
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

This paper presents the results of the WMT18 Metrics Shared Task. We asked participants of this task to score the outputs of the MT systems involved in the WMT18 News Translation Task with automatic metrics. We collected scores of 10 metrics and 8 research groups. In addition to that, we computed scores of 8 standard metrics (BLEU, SentBLEU, chrF, NIST, WER, PER, TER and CDER) as baselines. The collected scores were evaluated in terms of system-level correlation (how well each metric’s scores correlate with WMT18 official manual ranking of systems) and in terms of segment-level correlation (how often a metric agrees with humans in judging the quality of a particular sentence relative to alternate outputs). This year, we employ a single kind of manual evaluation: direct assessment (DA).

2017

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Improving Evaluation of Document-level Machine Translation Quality Estimation
Yvette Graham | Qingsong Ma | Timothy Baldwin | Qun Liu | Carla Parra | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers

Meaningful conclusions about the relative performance of NLP systems are only possible if the gold standard employed in a given evaluation is both valid and reliable. In this paper, we explore the validity of human annotations currently employed in the evaluation of document-level quality estimation for machine translation (MT). We demonstrate the degree to which MT system rankings are dependent on weights employed in the construction of the gold standard, before proposing direct human assessment as a valid alternative. Experiments show direct assessment (DA) scores for documents to be highly reliable, achieving a correlation of above 0.9 in a self-replication experiment, in addition to a substantial estimated cost reduction through quality controlled crowd-sourcing. The original gold standard based on post-edits incurs a 10–20 times greater cost than DA.

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Further Investigation into Reference Bias in Monolingual Evaluation of Machine Translation
Qingsong Ma | Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Monolingual evaluation of Machine Translation (MT) aims to simplify human assessment by requiring assessors to compare the meaning of the MT output with a reference translation, opening up the task to a much larger pool of genuinely qualified evaluators. Monolingual evaluation runs the risk, however, of bias in favour of MT systems that happen to produce translations superficially similar to the reference and, consistent with this intuition, previous investigations have concluded monolingual assessment to be strongly biased in this respect. On re-examination of past analyses, we identify a series of potential analytical errors that force some important questions to be raised about the reliability of past conclusions, however. We subsequently carry out further investigation into reference bias via direct human assessment of MT adequacy via quality controlled crowd-sourcing. Contrary to both intuition and past conclusions, results for show no significant evidence of reference bias in monolingual evaluation of MT.

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Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation
Ondřej Bojar | Christian Buck | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Julia Kreutzer
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

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Findings of the 2017 Conference on Machine Translation (WMT17)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Shujian Huang | Matthias Huck | Philipp Koehn | Qun Liu | Varvara Logacheva | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Matt Post | Raphael Rubino | Lucia Specia | Marco Turchi
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

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Results of the WMT17 Metrics Shared Task
Ondřej Bojar | Yvette Graham | Amir Kamran
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

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Blend: a Novel Combined MT Metric Based on Direct Assessment — CASICT-DCU submission to WMT17 Metrics Task
Qingsong Ma | Yvette Graham | Shugen Wang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

2016

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Findings of the 2016 Conference on Machine Translation
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Varvara Logacheva | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Martin Popel | Matt Post | Raphael Rubino | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor | Marcos Zampieri
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Results of the WMT16 Metrics Shared Task
Ondřej Bojar | Yvette Graham | Amir Kamran | Miloš Stanojević
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Is all that Glitters in Machine Translation Quality Estimation really Gold?
Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin | Meghan Dowling | Maria Eskevich | Teresa Lynn | Lamia Tounsi
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Human-targeted metrics provide a compromise between human evaluation of machine translation, where high inter-annotator agreement is difficult to achieve, and fully automatic metrics, such as BLEU or TER, that lack the validity of human assessment. Human-targeted translation edit rate (HTER) is by far the most widely employed human-targeted metric in machine translation, commonly employed, for example, as a gold standard in evaluation of quality estimation. Original experiments justifying the design of HTER, as opposed to other possible formulations, were limited to a small sample of translations and a single language pair, however, and this motivates our re-evaluation of a range of human-targeted metrics on a substantially larger scale. Results show significantly stronger correlation with human judgment for HBLEU over HTER for two of the nine language pairs we include and no significant difference between correlations achieved by HTER and HBLEU for the remaining language pairs. Finally, we evaluate a range of quality estimation systems employing HTER and direct assessment (DA) of translation adequacy as gold labels, resulting in a divergence in system rankings, and propose employment of DA for future quality estimation evaluations.

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Achieving Accurate Conclusions in Evaluation of Automatic Machine Translation Metrics
Yvette Graham | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2015

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Improving Evaluation of Machine Translation Quality Estimation
Yvette Graham
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Re-evaluating Automatic Summarization with BLEU and 192 Shades of ROUGE
Yvette Graham
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Accurate Evaluation of Segment-level Machine Translation Metrics
Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin | Nitika Mathur
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2014

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Testing for Significance of Increased Correlation with Human Judgment
Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Is Machine Translation Getting Better over Time?
Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin | Alistair Moffat | Justin Zobel
Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Randomized Significance Tests in Machine Translation
Yvette Graham | Nitika Mathur | Timothy Baldwin
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2013

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Umelb: Cross-lingual Textual Entailment with Word Alignment and String Similarity Features
Yvette Graham | Bahar Salehi | Timothy Baldwin
Second Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM), Volume 2: Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2013)

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Crowd-Sourcing of Human Judgments of Machine Translation Fluency
Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin | Alistair Moffat | Justin Zobel
Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop 2013 (ALTA 2013)

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A Dependency-Constrained Hierarchical Model with Moses
Yvette Graham
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Continuous Measurement Scales in Human Evaluation of Machine Translation
Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin | Alistair Moffat | Justin Zobel
Proceedings of the 7th Linguistic Annotation Workshop and Interoperability with Discourse

2012

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Measurement of Progress in Machine Translation
Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin | Aaron Harwood | Alistair Moffat | Justin Zobel
Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop 2012

2010

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Factor templates for factored machine translation models
Yvette Graham | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Papers

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Deep Syntax Language Models and Statistical Machine Translation
Yvette Graham | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Syntax and Structure in Statistical Translation

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Multi-Word Expression-Sensitive Word Alignment
Tsuyoshi Okita | Alfredo Maldonado Guerra | Yvette Graham | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Cross Lingual Information Access

2009

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Guessing the Grammatical Function of a Non-Root F-Structure in LFG
Anton Bryl | Josef van Genabith | Yvette Graham
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT’09)

2008

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Packed rules for automatic transfer-rule induction
Yvette Graham | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 12th Annual conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

2007

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Automatic evaluation of generation and parsing for machine translation with automatically acquired transfer rules
Yvette Graham | Deirdre Hogan | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the Workshop on Using corpora for natural language generation