Zdeněk Žabokrtský

Also published as: Zdenek Zabokrtsky, Zdenek Žabokrtsky, Zdenĕk Žabokrtský


2020

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Sentence Meaning Representations Across Languages: What Can We Learn from Existing Frameworks?
Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Daniel Zeman | Magda Ševčíková
Computational Linguistics, Volume 46, Issue 3 - September 2020

This article gives an overview of how sentence meaning is represented in eleven deep-syntactic frameworks, ranging from those based on linguistic theories elaborated for decades to rather lightweight NLP-motivated approaches. We outline the most important characteristics of each framework and then discuss how particular language phenomena are treated across those frameworks, while trying to shed light on commonalities as well as differences.

2019

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Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Resources and Tools for Derivational Morphology
Magda Ševčíková | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Eleonora Litta | Marco Passarotti
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Resources and Tools for Derivational Morphology

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Attempting to separate inflection and derivation using vector space representations
Rudolf Rosa | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Resources and Tools for Derivational Morphology

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DeriNet 2.0: Towards an All-in-One Word-Formation Resource
Jonáš Vidra | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Magda Ševčíková | Lukáš Kyjánek
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Resources and Tools for Derivational Morphology

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Building a Morphological Network for Persian on Top of a Morpheme-Segmented Lexicon
Hamid Haghdoost | Ebrahim Ansari | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Mahshid Nikravesh
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Resources and Tools for Derivational Morphology

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Universal Derivations Kickoff: A Collection of Harmonized Derivational Resources for Eleven Languages
Lukáš Kyjánek | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Magda Ševčíková | Jonáš Vidra
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Resources and Tools for Derivational Morphology

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Supervised Morphological Segmentation Using Rich Annotated Lexicon
Ebrahim Ansari | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Mohammad Mahmoudi | Hamid Haghdoost | Jonáš Vidra
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2019)

Morphological segmentation of words is the process of dividing a word into smaller units called morphemes; it is tricky especially when a morphologically rich or polysynthetic language is under question. In this work, we designed and evaluated several Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based models as well as various other machine learning based approaches for the morphological segmentation task. We trained our models using annotated segmentation lexicons. To evaluate the effect of the training data size on our models, we decided to create a large hand-annotated morphologically segmented corpus of Persian words, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first and the only segmentation lexicon for the Persian language. In the experimental phase, using the hand-annotated Persian lexicon and two smaller similar lexicons for Czech and Finnish languages, we evaluated the effect of the training data size, different hyper-parameters settings as well as different RNN-based models.

2018

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Semi-Automatic Construction of Word-Formation Networks (for Polish and Spanish)
Mateusz Lango | Magda Ševčíková | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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SumeCzech: Large Czech News-Based Summarization Dataset
Milan Straka | Nikita Mediankin | Tom Kocmi | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Vojtěch Hudeček | Jan Hajič
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Using Adversarial Examples in Natural Language Processing
Petr Bělohlávek | Ondřej Plátek | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Milan Straka
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

2017

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Udapi: Universal API for Universal Dependencies
Martin Popel | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Martin Vojtek
Proceedings of the NoDaLiDa 2017 Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW 2017)

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Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood
Rudolf Rosa | Daniel Zeman | David Mareček | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on NLP for Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects (VarDial)

We once had a corp, or should we say, it once had us They showed us its tags, isn’t it great, unified tags They asked us to parse and they told us to use everything So we looked around and we noticed there was near nothing We took other langs, bitext aligned: words one-to-one We played for two weeks, and then they said, here is the test The parser kept training till morning, just until deadline So we had to wait and hope what we get would be just fine And, when we awoke, the results were done, we saw we’d won So, we wrote this paper, isn’t it good, Norwegian wood.

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Projection-based Coreference Resolution Using Deep Syntax
Michal Novák | Anna Nedoluzhko | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Coreference Resolution Beyond OntoNotes (CORBON 2017)

The paper describes the system for coreference resolution in German and Russian, trained exclusively on coreference relations project ed through a parallel corpus from English. The resolver operates on the level of deep syntax and makes use of multiple specialized models. It achieves 32 and 22 points in terms of CoNLL score for Russian and German, respectively. Analysis of the evaluation results show that the resolver for Russian is able to preserve 66% of the English resolver’s quality in terms of CoNLL score. The system was submitted to the Closed track of the CORBON 2017 Shared task.

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Error Analysis of Cross-lingual Tagging and Parsing
Rudolf Rosa | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories

2016

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If You Even Don’t Have a Bit of Bible: Learning Delexicalized POS Taggers
Zhiwei Yu | David Mareček | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Daniel Zeman
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Part-of-speech (POS) induction is one of the most popular tasks in research on unsupervised NLP. Various unsupervised and semi-supervised methods have been proposed to tag an unseen language. However, many of them require some partial understanding of the target language because they rely on dictionaries or parallel corpora such as the Bible. In this paper, we propose a different method named delexicalized tagging, for which we only need a raw corpus of the target language. We transfer tagging models trained on annotated corpora of one or more resource-rich languages. We employ language-independent features such as word length, frequency, neighborhood entropy, character classes (alphabetic vs. numeric vs. punctuation) etc. We demonstrate that such features can, to certain extent, serve as predictors of the part of speech, represented by the universal POS tag.

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Merging Data Resources for Inflectional and Derivational Morphology in Czech
Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Magda Ševčíková | Milan Straka | Jonáš Vidra | Adéla Limburská
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

The paper deals with merging two complementary resources of morphological data previously existing for Czech, namely the inflectional dictionary MorfFlex CZ and the recently developed lexical network DeriNet. The MorfFlex CZ dictionary has been used by a morphological analyzer capable of analyzing/generating several million Czech word forms according to the rules of Czech inflection. The DeriNet network contains several hundred thousand Czech lemmas interconnected with links corresponding to derivational relations (relations between base words and words derived from them). After summarizing basic characteristics of both resources, the process of merging is described, focusing on both rather technical aspects (growth of the data, measuring the quality of newly added derivational relations) and linguistic issues (treating lexical homonymy and vowel/consonant alternations). The resulting resource contains 970 thousand lemmas connected with 715 thousand derivational relations and is publicly available on the web under the CC-BY-NC-SA license. The data were incorporated in the MorphoDiTa library version 2.0 (which provides morphological analysis, generation, tagging and lemmatization for Czech) and can be browsed and searched by two web tools (DeriNet Viewer and DeriNet Search tool).

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Planting Trees in the Desert: Delexicalized Tagging and Parsing Combined
Daniel Zeman | David Mareček | Zhiwei Yu | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 30th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation: Oral Papers

2015

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MSTParser Model Interpolation for Multi-Source Delexicalized Transfer
Rudolf Rosa | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Parsing Technologies

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KLcpos3 - a Language Similarity Measure for Delexicalized Parser Transfer
Rudolf Rosa | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2014

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Cross-lingual Coreference Resolution of Pronouns
Michal Novák | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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Word-Formation Network for Czech
Magda Ševčíková | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

In the present paper, we describe the development of the lexical network DeriNet, which captures core word-formation relations on the set of around 266 thousand Czech lexemes. The network is currently limited to derivational relations because derivation is the most frequent and most productive word-formation process in Czech. This limitation is reflected in the architecture of the network: each lexeme is allowed to be linked up with just a single base word; composition as well as combined processes (composition with derivation) are thus not included. After a brief summarization of theoretical descriptions of Czech derivation and the state of the art of NLP approaches to Czech derivation, we discuss the linguistic background of the network and introduce the formal structure of the network and the semi-automatic annotation procedure. The network was initialized with a set of lexemes whose existence was supported by corpus evidence. Derivational links were created using three sources of information: links delivered by a tool for morphological analysis, links based on an automatically discovered set of derivation rules, and on a grammar-based set of rules. Finally, we propose some research topics which could profit from the existence of such lexical network.

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HamleDT 2.0: Thirty Dependency Treebanks Stanfordized
Rudolf Rosa | Jan Mašek | David Mareček | Martin Popel | Daniel Zeman | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

We present HamleDT 2.0 (HArmonized Multi-LanguagE Dependency Treebank). HamleDT 2.0 is a collection of 30 existing treebanks harmonized into a common annotation style, the Prague Dependencies, and further transformed into Stanford Dependencies, a treebank annotation style that became popular in recent years. We use the newest basic Universal Stanford Dependencies, without added language-specific subtypes. We describe both of the annotation styles, including adjustments that were necessary to make, and provide details about the conversion process. We also discuss the differences between the two styles, evaluating their advantages and disadvantages, and note the effects of the differences on the conversion. We regard the stanfordization as generally successful, although we admit several shortcomings, especially in the distinction between direct and indirect objects, that have to be addressed in future. We release part of HamleDT 2.0 freely; we are not allowed to redistribute the whole dataset, but we do provide the conversion pipeline.

2013

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Two Case Studies on Translating Pronouns in a Deep Syntax Framework
Michal Novák | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Anna Nedoluzhko
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Improvements to Syntax-based Machine Translation using Ensemble Dependency Parsers
Nathan Green | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Hybrid Approaches to Translation

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Translation of “It” in a Deep Syntax Framework
Michal Novák | Anna Nedoluzhko | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Workshop on Discourse in Machine Translation

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Coordination Structures in Dependency Treebanks
Martin Popel | David Mareček | Jan Štěpánek | Daniel Zeman | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2012

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Exploiting Reducibility in Unsupervised Dependency Parsing
David Mareček | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

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Hybrid Combination of Constituency and Dependency Trees into an Ensemble Dependency Parser
Nathan Green | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Workshop on Innovative Hybrid Approaches to the Processing of Textual Data

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Unsupervised Dependency Parsing using Reducibility and Fertility features
David Mareček | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the NAACL-HLT Workshop on the Induction of Linguistic Structure

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Formemes in English-Czech Deep Syntactic MT
Ondřej Dušek | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Martin Popel | Martin Majliš | Michal Novák | David Mareček
Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Using an SVM Ensemble System for Improved Tamil Dependency Parsing
Nathan Green | Loganathan Ramasamy | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the ACL 2012 Joint Workshop on Statistical Parsing and Semantic Processing of Morphologically Rich Languages

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The Study of Effect of Length in Morphological Segmentation of Agglutinative Languages
Loganathan Ramasamy | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Sowmya Vajjala
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Multilingual Modeling

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Morphological Processing for English-Tamil Statistical Machine Translation
Loganathan Ramasamy | Ondřej Bojar | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Workshop on Machine Translation and Parsing in Indian Languages

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Language Richness of the Web
Martin Majliš | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

We have built a corpus containing texts in 106 languages from texts available on the Internet and on Wikipedia. The W2C Web Corpus contains 54.7~GB of text and the W2C Wiki Corpus contains 8.5~GB of text. The W2C Web Corpus contains more than 100~MB of text available for 75 languages. At least 10~MB of text is available for 100 languages. These corpora are a unique data source for linguists, since they outclass all published works both in the size of the material collected and the number of languages covered. This language data resource can be of use particularly to researchers specialized in multilingual technologies development. We also developed software that greatly simplifies the creation of a new text corpus for a given language, using text materials freely available on the Internet. Special attention was given to components for filtering and de-duplication that allow to keep the material quality very high.

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HamleDT: To Parse or Not to Parse?
Daniel Zeman | David Mareček | Martin Popel | Loganathan Ramasamy | Jan Štěpánek | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Jan Hajič
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

We propose HamleDT ― HArmonized Multi-LanguagE Dependency Treebank. HamleDT is a compilation of existing dependency treebanks (or dependency conversions of other treebanks), transformed so that they all conform to the same annotation style. While the license terms prevent us from directly redistributing the corpora, most of them are easily acquirable for research purposes. What we provide instead is the software that normalizes tree structures in the data obtained by the user from their original providers.

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Prague Dependency Style Treebank for Tamil
Loganathan Ramasamy | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

Annotated corpora such as treebanks are important for the development of parsers, language applications as well as understanding of the language itself. Only very few languages possess these scarce resources. In this paper, we describe our efforts in syntactically annotating a small corpora (600 sentences) of Tamil language. Our annotation is similar to Prague Dependency Treebank (PDT) and consists of annotation at 2 levels or layers: (i) morphological layer (m-layer) and (ii) analytical layer (a-layer). For both the layers, we introduce annotation schemes i.e. positional tagging for m-layer and dependency relations for a-layers. Finally, we discuss some of the issues in treebank development for Tamil.

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Announcing Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank 2.0
Jan Hajič | Eva Hajičová | Jarmila Panevová | Petr Sgall | Ondřej Bojar | Silvie Cinková | Eva Fučíková | Marie Mikulová | Petr Pajas | Jan Popelka | Jiří Semecký | Jana Šindlerová | Jan Štěpánek | Josef Toman | Zdeňka Urešová | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

We introduce a substantial update of the Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank, a parallel corpus manually annotated at the deep syntactic layer of linguistic representation. The English part consists of the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) section of the Penn Treebank. The Czech part was translated from the English source sentence by sentence. This paper gives a high level overview of the underlying linguistic theory (the so-called tectogrammatical annotation) with some details of the most important features like valency annotation, ellipsis reconstruction or coreference.

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The Joy of Parallelism with CzEng 1.0
Ondřej Bojar | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Ondřej Dušek | Petra Galuščáková | Martin Majliš | David Mareček | Jiří Maršík | Michal Novák | Martin Popel | Aleš Tamchyna
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

CzEng 1.0 is an updated release of our Czech-English parallel corpus, freely available for non-commercial research or educational purposes. In this release, we approximately doubled the corpus size, reaching 15 million sentence pairs (about 200 million tokens per language). More importantly, we carefully filtered the data to reduce the amount of non-matching sentence pairs. CzEng 1.0 is automatically aligned at the level of sentences as well as words. We provide not only the plain text representation, but also automatic morphological tags, surface syntactic as well as deep syntactic dependency parse trees and automatic co-reference links in both English and Czech. This paper describes key properties of the released resource including the distribution of text domains, the corpus data formats, and a toolkit to handle the provided rich annotation. We also summarize the procedure of the rich annotation (incl. co-reference resolution) and of the automatic filtering. Finally, we provide some suggestions on exploiting such an automatically annotated sentence-parallel corpus.

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Prague Dependency Treebank 2.5 – a Revisited Version of PDT 2.0
Eduard Bejček | Jarmila Panevová | Jan Popelka | Pavel Straňák | Magda Ševčíková | Jan Štěpánek | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of COLING 2012

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Indonesian Dependency Treebank: Annotation and Parsing
Nathan Green | Septina Dian Larasati | Zdenek Zabokrtsky
Proceedings of the 26th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information, and Computation

2011

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Influence of Parser Choice on Dependency-Based MT
Martin Popel | David Mareček | Nathan Green | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Gibbs Sampling with Treeness Constraint in Unsupervised Dependency Parsing
David Mareček | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of Workshop on Robust Unsupervised and Semisupervised Methods in Natural Language Processing

2010

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Maximum Entropy Translation Model in Dependency-Based MT Framework
Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Martin Popel | David Mareček
Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR

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Evaluating Utility of Data Sources in a Large Parallel Czech-English Corpus CzEng 0.9
Ondřej Bojar | Adam Liška | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

CzEng 0.9 is the third release of a large parallel corpus of Czech and English. For the current release, CzEng was extended by significant amount of texts from various types of sources, including parallel web pages, electronically available books and subtitles. This paper describes and evaluates filtering techniques employed in the process in order to avoid misaligned or otherwise damaged parallel sentences in the collection. We estimate the precision and recall of two sets of filters. The first set was used to process the data before their inclusion into CzEng. The filters from the second set were newly created to improve the filtering process for future releases of CzEng. Given the overall amount and variance of sources of the data, our experiments illustrate the utility of parallel data sources with respect to extractable parallel segments. As a similar behaviour can be expected for other language pairs, our results can be interpreted as guidelines indicating which sources should other researchers exploit first.

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Annotation Tool for Discourse in PDT
Jiří Mírovský | Lucie Mladová | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Coling 2010: Demonstrations

2009

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Hidden Markov Tree Model in Dependency-based Machine Translation
Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Martin Popel
Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Conference Short Papers

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English-Czech MT in 2008
Ondřej Bojar | David Mareček | Václav Novák | Martin Popel | Jan Ptáček | Jan Rouš | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Czech Named Entity Corpus and SVM-based Recognizer
Jana Kravalová | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 2009 Named Entities Workshop: Shared Task on Transliteration (NEWS 2009)

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Comparison of Classification and Ranking Approaches to Pronominal Anaphora Resolution in Czech
Giang Linh Ngụy | Václav Novák | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2009 Conference

2008

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TectoMT: Highly Modular MT System with Tectogrammatics Used as Transfer Layer
Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Jan Ptáček | Petr Pajas
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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CzEng 0.7: Parallel Corpus with Community-Supplied Translations
Ondřej Bojar | Miroslav Janíček | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Pavel Češka | Peter Beňa
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

This paper describes CzEng 0.7, a new release of Czech-English parallel corpus freely available for research and educational purposes. We provide basic statistics of the corpus and focus on data produced by a community of volunteers. Anonymous contributors manually correct the output of a machine translation (MT) system, generating on average 2000 sentences a month, 70% of which are indeed correct translations. We compare the utility of community-supplied and of professionally translated training data for a baseline English-to-Czech MT system.

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Automatic alignment of Czech and English deep syntactic dependency trees
David Mareček | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Václav Novák
Proceedings of the 12th Annual conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

2006

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Towards a Slovene Dependency Treebank
Sašo Džeroski | Tomaž Erjavec | Nina Ledinek | Petr Pajas | Zdenek Žabokrtsky | Andreja Žele
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

The paper presents the initial release of the Slovene Dependency Treebank, currently containing 2000 sentences or 30.000 words. Ourapproach to annotation is based on the Prague Dependency Treebank, which serves as an excellent model due to the similarity of the languages, the existence of a detailed annotation guide and an annotation editor. The initial treebank contains a portion of theMULTEXT-East parallel word-level annotated corpus, namely the firstpart of the Slovene translation of Orwell's “1984”. This corpus was first parsed automatically, to arrive at the initial analytic level dependency trees. These were then hand corrected using the tree editorTrEd; simultaneously, the Czech annotation manual was modified forSlovene. The current version is available in XML/TEI, as well asderived formats, and has been used in a comparative evaluation using the MALT parser, and as one of the languages present in the CoNLL-Xshared task on dependency parsing. The paper also discusses further work, in the first instance the composition of the corpus to be annotated next.

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Valency Lexicon of Czech Verbs: Alternation-Based Model
Markéta Lopatková | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Karolina Skwarska
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

The main objective of this paper is to introduce an alternation-based model of valency lexicon of Czech verbs VALLEX. Alternations describe regular changes in valency structure of verbs -- they are seen as transformations taking one lexical unit and return a modified lexical unit as a result. We characterize and exemplify “syntactically-based” and “semantically-based'” alternations and their effects on verb argument structure. The alternation-based model allows to distinguish a minimal form of lexicon, which provides compact characterization of valency structure of Czech verbs, and an expanded form of lexicon useful for some applications.

2005

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Improving Parsing Accuracy by Combining Diverse Dependency Parsers
Daniel Zeman | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Parsing Technology

2004

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Valency Frames of Czech Verbs in VALLEX 1.0
Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Markéta Lopatková
Proceedings of the Workshop Frontiers in Corpus Annotation at HLT-NAACL 2004

2003

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Arabic Syntactic Trees: from Constituency to Dependency
Zdenek Zabokrtsky | Otakar Smrz
10th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2002

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A Machine Learning Approach to Automatic Functor Assignment in the Prague Dependency Treebank
Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Petr Sgall | Sašo Džeroski
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’02)

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Valency Dictionary of Czech Verbs: Complex Tectogrammatical Annotation
Markéta Straňáková-Lopatková | Zdenĕk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’02)