Automatic product attribute value extraction refers to the task of identifying values of an attribute from the product information. Product attributes are essential in improving online shopping experience for customers. Most existing methods focus on extracting attribute values from product title and description.However, in many real-world applications, a product is usually represented by multiple modalities beyond title and description, such as product specifications, text and visual information from the product image, etc. In this paper, we propose SMARTAVE, a Structure Mltimodal trAnsformeR for producT Attribute Value Extraction, which jointly encodes the structured product information from multiple modalities. Specifically, in SMARTAVE encoder, we introduce hyper-tokens to represent the modality-level information, and local-tokens to represent the original text and visual inputs. Structured attention patterns are designed among the hyper-tokens and local-tokens for learning effective product representation. The attribute values are then extracted based on the learned embeddings. We conduct extensive experiments on two multimodal product datasets. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach over several state-of-the-art methods. Ablation studies validate the effectiveness of the structured attentions in modeling the multimodal product information.
Aspect category detection (ACD) aims to automatically identify user-concerned aspects from online reviews, which is of great value for evaluating the fine-grained performance of a product. The most recent solutions tackle this problem via weakly supervised methods, achieving remarkable improvement over unsupervised methods. However, a closer look at these methods reveals that the required human efforts are nontrivial and can sometimes be hard to obtain. In this study, we explore the possibility of minimizing human guidance while improving detection performance, with a deep clustering method that relies merely on the category name of each aspect and a pretrained language model (LM). The LM, combined with prompt techniques, is employed as a knowledge base to automatically generate constraints for clustering, as well as to provide a representation space to perform the clustering. Our method (1) extracts extensive keywords to expand our understanding of each aspect, (2) automatically generates instance-level and concept-level constraints for clustering, and (3) trains the clustering model with the above constraints. We demonstrate the capability of the proposed framework through extensive experiments on nine benchmark datasets. Our model not only performs noticeably better than existing unsupervised approaches but also considerably surpasses weakly supervised methods that require more human efforts.
Automatic question generation (AQG) is the task of generating a question from a given passage and an answer. Most existing AQG methods aim at encoding the passage and the answer to generate the question. However, limited work has focused on modeling the correlation between the target answer and the generated question. Moreover, unseen or rare word generation has not been studied in previous works. In this paper, we propose a novel approach which incorporates question generation with its dual problem, question answering, into a unified primal-dual framework. Specifically, the question generation component consists of an encoder that jointly encodes the answer with the passage, and a decoder that produces the question. The question answering component then re-asks the generated question on the passage to ensure that the target answer is obtained. We further introduce a knowledge distillation module to improve the model generalization ability. We conduct an extensive set of experiments on SQuAD and HotpotQA benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach over several state-of-the-art methods.
With the necessity of privacy protection, it becomes increasingly vital to train deep neural models in a federated learning manner for natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, recent studies show eavesdroppers (i.e., dishonest servers) can still reconstruct the private input in federated learning (FL). Such a data reconstruction attack relies on the mappings between vocabulary and associated word embedding in NLP tasks, which are unfortunately less studied in current FL methods. In this paper, we propose a fedrated model decomposition method that protects the privacy of vocabularies, shorted as FEDEVOCAB. In FEDEVOCAB, each participant keeps the local embedding layer in the local device and detaches the local embedding parameters from federated aggregation. However, it is challenging to train an accurate NLP model when the private mappings are unknown and vary across participants in a cross-device FL setting. To address this problem, we further propose an adaptive updating technique to improve the performance of local models. Experimental results show that FEDEVOCAB maintains competitive performance and provides better privacy-preserving capacity compared to status quo methods.
In this paper, we develop Sindhi subjective lexicon using a merger of existing English resources: NRC lexicon, list of opinion words, SentiWordNet, Sindhi-English bilingual dictionary, and collection of Sindhi modifiers. The positive or negative sentiment score is assigned to each Sindhi opinion word. Afterwards, we determine the coverage of the proposed lexicon with subjectivity analysis. Moreover, we crawl multi-domain tweet corpus of news, sports, and finance. The crawled corpus is annotated by experienced annotators using the Doccano text annotation tool. The sentiment annotated corpus is evaluated by employing support vector machine (SVM), recurrent neural network (RNN) variants, and convolutional neural network (CNN).
In this paper, we introduce the SiPOS dataset for part-of-speech tagging in the low-resource Sindhi language with quality baselines. The dataset consists of more than 293K tokens annotated with sixteen universal part-of-speech categories. Two experienced native annotators annotated the SiPOS using the Doccano text annotation tool with an inter-annotation agreement of 0.872. We exploit the conditional random field, the popular bidirectional long-short-term memory neural model, and self-attention mechanism with various settings to evaluate the proposed dataset. Besides pre-trained GloVe and fastText representation, the character-level representations are incorporated to extract character-level information using the bidirectional long-short-term memory encoder. The high accuracy of 96.25% is achieved with the task-specific joint word-level and character-level representations. The SiPOS dataset is likely to be a significant resource for the low-resource Sindhi language.
We introduce the SiNER: a named entity recognition (NER) dataset for low-resourced Sindhi language with quality baselines. It contains 1,338 news articles and more than 1.35 million tokens collected from Kawish and Awami Awaz Sindhi newspapers using the begin-inside-outside (BIO) tagging scheme. The proposed dataset is likely to be a significant resource for statistical Sindhi language processing. The ultimate goal of developing SiNER is to present a gold-standard dataset for Sindhi NER along with quality baselines. We implement several baseline approaches of conditional random field (CRF) and recent popular state-of-the-art bi-directional long-short term memory (Bi-LSTM) models. The promising F1-score of 89.16 outputted by the Bi-LSTM-CRF model with character-level representations demonstrates the quality of our proposed SiNER dataset.
Response selection plays an important role in fully automated dialogue systems. Given the dialogue context, the goal of response selection is to identify the best-matched next utterance (i.e., response) from multiple candidates. Despite the efforts of many previous useful models, this task remains challenging due to the huge semantic gap and also the large size of candidate set. To address these issues, we propose a Spatio-Temporal Matching network (STM) for response selection. In detail, soft alignment is first used to obtain the local relevance between the context and the response. And then, we construct spatio-temporal features by aggregating attention images in time dimension and make use of 3D convolution and pooling operations to extract matching information. Evaluation on two large-scale multi-turn response selection tasks has demonstrated that our proposed model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art model. Particularly, visualization analysis shows that the spatio-temporal features enables matching information in segment pairs and time sequences, and have good interpretability for multi-turn text matching.