Open Information Extraction (OIE) seeks to extract structured information from raw text without the limitations of close ontology. Recently, the detection-based OIE methods have received great attention from the community due to their parallelism. However, as the essential step of those models, how to assign ground truth labels to the parallelly generated tuple proposals remains under-exploited. The commonly utilized Hungarian algorithm for this procedure is restricted to handling one-to-one assignment among the desired tuples and tuple proposals, which ignores the correlation between proposals and affects the recall of the models. To solve this problem, we propose a dynamic many-to-one label assignment strategy named IOT. Concretely, the label assignment process in OIE is formulated as an Optimal Transport (OT) problem. We leverage the intersection-over-union (IoU) as the assignment quality measurement, and convert the problem of finding the best assignment solution to the one of solving the optimal transport plan by maximizing the IoU values. To further utilize the knowledge from the assignment, we design an Assignment-guided Multi-granularity loss (AM) by simultaneously considering word-level and tuple-level information. Experiment results show the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art models on three benchmarks.
Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) is a new fine-grained sentiment analysis task that aims to extract triplets of aspect terms, sentiments, and opinion terms from review sentences. Recently, span-level models achieve gratifying results on ASTE task by taking advantage of the predictions of all possible spans. Since all possible spans significantly increases the number of potential aspect and opinion candidates, it is crucial and challenging to efficiently extract the triplet elements among them. In this paper, we present a span-level bidirectional network which utilizes all possible spans as input and extracts triplets from spans bidirectionally. Specifically, we devise both the aspect decoder and opinion decoder to decode the span representations and extract triples from aspect-to-opinion and opinion-to-aspect directions. With these two decoders complementing with each other, the whole network can extract triplets from spans more comprehensively. Moreover, considering that mutual exclusion cannot be guaranteed between the spans, we design a similar span separation loss to facilitate the downstream task of distinguishing the correct span by expanding the KL divergence of similar spans during the training process; in the inference process, we adopt an inference strategy to remove conflicting triplets from the results base on their confidence scores. Experimental results show that our framework not only significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods, but achieves better performance in predicting triplets with multi-token entities and extracting triplets in sentences contain multi-triplets.
Implicit Event Argument Extraction seeks to identify arguments that play direct or implicit roles in a given event. However, most prior works focus on capturing direct relations between arguments and the event trigger. The lack of reasoning ability brings many challenges to the extraction of implicit arguments. In this work, we present a Frame-aware Event Argument Extraction (FEAE) learning framework to tackle this issue through reasoning in event frame-level scope. The proposed method leverages related arguments of the expected one as clues to guide the reasoning process. To bridge the gap between oracle knowledge used in the training phase and the imperfect related arguments in the test stage, we further introduce a curriculum knowledge distillation strategy to drive a final model that could operate without extra inputs through mimicking the behavior of a well-informed teacher model. Experimental results demonstrate FEAE obtains new state-of-the-art performance on the RAMS dataset.