Zhanming Jie


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Leveraging Training Data in Few-Shot Prompting for Numerical Reasoning
Zhanming Jie | Wei Lu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Chain-of-thought (CoT) prompting with large language models has proven effective in numerous natural language process tasks, but designing prompts that generalize well to diverse problem types can be challenging CITATION, especially in the context of math word problem solving. Additionally, it is common to have a large amount of training data that have a better diversity coverage but CoT annotations are not available, which limits the use of supervised learning techniques. To address these issues, we investigate two approaches to leverage the training data in few-shot prompting scenario: dynamic program prompting and program distillation.Our approach is largely inspired by CITATION where they proposed to replace the CoT with the programs as the intermediate reasoning step. Such a prompting strategy allows us to accurately verify the answer correctness through program execution in MWP solving.Our dynamic program prompting involves annotating the training data by sampling correct programs from a large language model, while program distillation involves adapting a smaller model to the program-annotated training data.Our experiments on three standard MWP datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of these approaches, yielding significant improvements over previous baselines for prompting and fine-tuning.Our results suggest that leveraging a large amount of training data can improve the generalization ability of prompts and boost the performance of fine-tuned smaller models in MWP solving.


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Learning to Reason Deductively: Math Word Problem Solving as Complex Relation Extraction
Zhanming Jie | Jierui Li | Wei Lu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Solving math word problems requires deductive reasoning over the quantities in the text. Various recent research efforts mostly relied on sequence-to-sequence or sequence-to-tree models to generate mathematical expressions without explicitly performing relational reasoning between quantities in the given context. While empirically effective, such approaches typically do not provide explanations for the generated expressions. In this work, we view the task as a complex relation extraction problem, proposing a novel approach that presents explainable deductive reasoning steps to iteratively construct target expressions, where each step involves a primitive operation over two quantities defining their relation. Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, we show that the proposed model significantly outperforms existing strong baselines. We further demonstrate that the deductive procedure not only presents more explainable steps but also enables us to make more accurate predictions on questions that require more complex reasoning.


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Better Feature Integration for Named Entity Recognition
Lu Xu | Zhanming Jie | Wei Lu | Lidong Bing
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

It has been shown that named entity recognition (NER) could benefit from incorporating the long-distance structured information captured by dependency trees. We believe this is because both types of features - the contextual information captured by the linear sequences and the structured information captured by the dependency trees may complement each other. However, existing approaches largely focused on stacking the LSTM and graph neural networks such as graph convolutional networks (GCNs) for building improved NER models, where the exact interaction mechanism between the two types of features is not very clear, and the performance gain does not appear to be significant. In this work, we propose a simple and robust solution to incorporate both types of features with our Synergized-LSTM (Syn-LSTM), which clearly captures how the two types of features interact. We conduct extensive experiments on several standard datasets across four languages. The results demonstrate that the proposed model achieves better performance than previous approaches while requiring fewer parameters. Our further analysis demonstrates that our model can capture longer dependencies compared with strong baselines.

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To be Closer: Learning to Link up Aspects with Opinions
Yuxiang Zhou | Lejian Liao | Yang Gao | Zhanming Jie | Wei Lu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Dependency parse trees are helpful for discovering the opinion words in aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) (CITATION). However, the trees obtained from off-the-shelf dependency parsers are static, and could be sub-optimal in ABSA. This is because the syntactic trees are not designed for capturing the interactions between opinion words and aspect words. In this work, we aim to shorten the distance between aspects and corresponding opinion words by learning an aspect-centric tree structure. The aspect and opinion words are expected to be closer along such tree structure compared to the standard dependency parse tree. The learning process allows the tree structure to adaptively correlate the aspect and opinion words, enabling us to better identify the polarity in the ABSA task. We conduct experiments on five aspect-based sentiment datasets, and the proposed model significantly outperforms recent strong baselines. Furthermore, our thorough analysis demonstrates the average distance between aspect and opinion words are shortened by at least 19% on the standard SemEval Restaurant14 (CITATION) dataset.


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ENT-DESC: Entity Description Generation by Exploring Knowledge Graph
Liying Cheng | Dekun Wu | Lidong Bing | Yan Zhang | Zhanming Jie | Wei Lu | Luo Si
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Previous works on knowledge-to-text generation take as input a few RDF triples or key-value pairs conveying the knowledge of some entities to generate a natural language description. Existing datasets, such as WIKIBIO, WebNLG, and E2E, basically have a good alignment between an input triple/pair set and its output text. However, in practice, the input knowledge could be more than enough, since the output description may only cover the most significant knowledge. In this paper, we introduce a large-scale and challenging dataset to facilitate the study of such a practical scenario in KG-to-text. Our dataset involves retrieving abundant knowledge of various types of main entities from a large knowledge graph (KG), which makes the current graph-to-sequence models severely suffer from the problems of information loss and parameter explosion while generating the descriptions. We address these challenges by proposing a multi-graph structure that is able to represent the original graph information more comprehensively. Furthermore, we also incorporate aggregation methods that learn to extract the rich graph information. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model architecture.


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Better Modeling of Incomplete Annotations for Named Entity Recognition
Zhanming Jie | Pengjun Xie | Wei Lu | Ruixue Ding | Linlin Li
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Supervised approaches to named entity recognition (NER) are largely developed based on the assumption that the training data is fully annotated with named entity information. However, in practice, annotated data can often be imperfect with one typical issue being the training data may contain incomplete annotations. We highlight several pitfalls associated with learning under such a setup in the context of NER and identify limitations associated with existing approaches, proposing a novel yet easy-to-implement approach for recognizing named entities with incomplete data annotations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through extensive experiments.

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Dependency-Guided LSTM-CRF for Named Entity Recognition
Zhanming Jie | Wei Lu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Dependency tree structures capture long-distance and syntactic relationships between words in a sentence. The syntactic relations (e.g., nominal subject, object) can potentially infer the existence of certain named entities. In addition, the performance of a named entity recognizer could benefit from the long-distance dependencies between the words in dependency trees. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective dependency-guided LSTM-CRF model to encode the complete dependency trees and capture the above properties for the task of named entity recognition (NER). The data statistics show strong correlations between the entity types and dependency relations. We conduct extensive experiments on several standard datasets and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in improving NER and achieving state-of-the-art performance. Our analysis reveals that the significant improvements mainly result from the dependency relations and long-distance interactions provided by dependency trees.


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Dependency-based Hybrid Trees for Semantic Parsing
Zhanming Jie | Wei Lu
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We propose a novel dependency-based hybrid tree model for semantic parsing, which converts natural language utterance into machine interpretable meaning representations. Unlike previous state-of-the-art models, the semantic information is interpreted as the latent dependency between the natural language words in our joint representation. Such dependency information can capture the interactions between the semantics and natural language words. We integrate a neural component into our model and propose an efficient dynamic-programming algorithm to perform tractable inference. Through extensive experiments on the standard multilingual GeoQuery dataset with eight languages, we demonstrate that our proposed approach is able to achieve state-of-the-art performance across several languages. Analysis also justifies the effectiveness of using our new dependency-based representation.


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Multilingual Semantic Parsing : Parsing Multiple Languages into Semantic Representations
Zhanming Jie | Wei Lu
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers