Zhen Han


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Multi-Hop Open-Domain Question Answering over Structured and Unstructured Knowledge
Yue Feng | Zhen Han | Mingming Sun | Ping Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Open-domain question answering systems need to answer question of our interests with structured and unstructured information. However, existing approaches only select one source to generate answer or only conduct reasoning on structured information. In this paper, we pro- pose a Document-Entity Heterogeneous Graph Network, referred to as DEHG, to effectively integrate different sources of information, and conduct reasoning on heterogeneous information. DEHG employs a graph constructor to integrate structured and unstructured information, a context encoder to represent nodes and question, a heterogeneous information reasoning layer to conduct multi-hop reasoning on both information sources, and an answer decoder to generate answers for the question. Experimental results on HybirdQA dataset show that DEHG outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

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TempCaps: A Capsule Network-based Embedding Model for Temporal Knowledge Graph Completion
Guirong Fu | Zhao Meng | Zhen Han | Zifeng Ding | Yunpu Ma | Matthias Schubert | Volker Tresp | Roger Wattenhofer
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP

Temporal knowledge graphs store the dynamics of entities and relations during a time period. However, typical temporal knowledge graphs often suffer from incomplete dynamics with missing facts in real-world scenarios. Hence, modeling temporal knowledge graphs to complete the missing facts is important. In this paper, we tackle the temporal knowledge graph completion task by proposing TempCaps, which is a Capsule network-based embedding model for Temporal knowledge graph completion. TempCaps models temporal knowledge graphs by introducing a novel dynamic routing aggregator inspired by Capsule Networks. Specifically, TempCaps builds entity embeddings by dynamically routing retrieved temporal relation and neighbor information. Experimental results demonstrate that TempCaps reaches state-of-the-art performance for temporal knowledge graph completion. Additional analysis also shows that TempCaps is efficient.

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Continuous Temporal Graph Networks for Event-Based Graph Data
Jin Guo | Zhen Han | Su Zhou | Jiliang Li | Volker Tresp | Yuyi Wang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning on Graphs for Natural Language Processing (DLG4NLP 2022)

There has been an increasing interest in modeling continuous-time dynamics of temporal graph data. Previous methods encode time-evolving relational information into a low-dimensional representation by specifying discrete layers of neural networks, while real-world dynamic graphs often vary continuously over time. Hence, we propose Continuous Temporal Graph Networks (CTGNs) to capture continuous dynamics of temporal graph data. We use both the link starting timestamps and link duration as evolving information to model continuous dynamics of nodes. The key idea is to use neural ordinary differential equations (ODE) to characterize the continuous dynamics of node representations over dynamic graphs. We parameterize ordinary differential equations using a novel graph neural network. The existing dynamic graph networks can be considered as a specific discretization of CTGNs. Experiment results on both transductive and inductive tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach over competitive baselines.


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Time-dependent Entity Embedding is not All You Need: A Re-evaluation of Temporal Knowledge Graph Completion Models under a Unified Framework
Zhen Han | Gengyuan Zhang | Yunpu Ma | Volker Tresp
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Various temporal knowledge graph (KG) completion models have been proposed in the recent literature. The models usually contain two parts, a temporal embedding layer and a score function derived from existing static KG modeling approaches. Since the approaches differ along several dimensions, including different score functions and training strategies, the individual contributions of different temporal embedding techniques to model performance are not always clear. In this work, we systematically study six temporal embedding approaches and empirically quantify their performance across a wide range of configurations with about 3000 experiments and 13159 GPU hours. We classify the temporal embeddings into two classes: (1) timestamp embeddings and (2) time-dependent entity embeddings. Despite the common belief that the latter is more expressive, an extensive experimental study shows that timestamp embeddings can achieve on-par or even better performance with significantly fewer parameters. Moreover, we find that when trained appropriately, the relative performance differences between various temporal embeddings often shrink and sometimes even reverse when compared to prior results. For example, TTransE (CITATION), one of the first temporal KG models, can outperform more recent architectures on ICEWS datasets. To foster further research, we provide the first unified open-source framework for temporal KG completion models with full composability, where temporal embeddings, score functions, loss functions, regularizers, and the explicit modeling of reciprocal relations can be combined arbitrarily.

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TimeTraveler: Reinforcement Learning for Temporal Knowledge Graph Forecasting
Haohai Sun | Jialun Zhong | Yunpu Ma | Zhen Han | Kun He
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Temporal knowledge graph (TKG) reasoning is a crucial task that has gained increasing research interest in recent years. Most existing methods focus on reasoning at past timestamps to complete the missing facts, and there are only a few works of reasoning on known TKGs to forecast future facts. Compared with the completion task, the forecasting task is more difficult that faces two main challenges: (1) how to effectively model the time information to handle future timestamps? (2) how to make inductive inference to handle previously unseen entities that emerge over time? To address these challenges, we propose the first reinforcement learning method for forecasting. Specifically, the agent travels on historical knowledge graph snapshots to search for the answer. Our method defines a relative time encoding function to capture the timespan information, and we design a novel time-shaped reward based on Dirichlet distribution to guide the model learning. Furthermore, we propose a novel representation method for unseen entities to improve the inductive inference ability of the model. We evaluate our method for this link prediction task at future timestamps. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets demonstrate substantial performance improvement meanwhile with higher explainability, less calculation, and fewer parameters when compared with existing state-of-the-art methods.

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Learning Neural Ordinary Equations for Forecasting Future Links on Temporal Knowledge Graphs
Zhen Han | Zifeng Ding | Yunpu Ma | Yujia Gu | Volker Tresp
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

There has been an increasing interest in inferring future links on temporal knowledge graphs (KG). While links on temporal KGs vary continuously over time, the existing approaches model the temporal KGs in discrete state spaces. To this end, we propose a novel continuum model by extending the idea of neural ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to multi-relational graph convolutional networks. The proposed model preserves the continuous nature of dynamic multi-relational graph data and encodes both temporal and structural information into continuous-time dynamic embeddings. In addition, a novel graph transition layer is applied to capture the transitions on the dynamic graph, i.e., edge formation and dissolution. We perform extensive experiments on five benchmark datasets for temporal KG reasoning, showing our model’s superior performance on the future link forecasting task.


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DyERNIE: Dynamic Evolution of Riemannian Manifold Embeddings for Temporal Knowledge Graph Completion
Zhen Han | Peng Chen | Yunpu Ma | Volker Tresp
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

There has recently been increasing interest in learning representations of temporal knowledge graphs (KGs), which record the dynamic relationships between entities over time. Temporal KGs often exhibit multiple simultaneous non-Euclidean structures, such as hierarchical and cyclic structures. However, existing embedding approaches for temporal KGs typically learn entity representations and their dynamic evolution in the Euclidean space, which might not capture such intrinsic structures very well. To this end, we propose DyERNIE, a non-Euclidean embedding approach that learns evolving entity representations in a product of Riemannian manifolds, where the composed spaces are estimated from the sectional curvatures of underlying data. Product manifolds enable our approach to better reflect a wide variety of geometric structures on temporal KGs. Besides, to capture the evolutionary dynamics of temporal KGs, we let the entity representations evolve according to a velocity vector defined in the tangent space at each timestamp. We analyze in detail the contribution of geometric spaces to representation learning of temporal KGs and evaluate our model on temporal knowledge graph completion tasks. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets demonstrate significantly improved performance, indicating that the dynamics of multi-relational graph data can be more properly modeled by the evolution of embeddings on Riemannian manifolds.