Zhen Huang


2022

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IMCI: Integrate Multi-view Contextual Information for Fact Extraction and Verification
Hao Wang | Yangguang Li | Zhen Huang | Yong Dou
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

With the rapid development of automatic fake news detection technology, fact extraction and verification (FEVER) has been attracting more attention. The task aims to extract the most related fact evidences from millions of open-domain Wikipedia documents and then verify the credibility of corresponding claims. Although several strong models have been proposed for the task and they have made great process, we argue that they fail to utilize multi-view contextual information and thus cannot obtain better performance. In this paper, we propose to integrate multi-view contextual information (IMCI) for fact extraction and verification. For each evidence sentence, we define two kinds of context, i.e. intra-document context and inter-document context. Intra-document context consists of the document title and all the other sentences from the same document. Inter-document context consists of all other evidences which may come from different documents. Then we integrate the multi-view contextual information to encode the evidence sentences to handle the task. Our experimental results on FEVER 1.0 shared task show that our IMCI framework makes great progress on both fact extraction and verification, and achieves state-of-the-art performance with a winning FEVER score of 73.96% and label accuracy of 77.25% on the online blind test set. We also conduct ablation study to detect the impact of multi-view contextual information.

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Adaptive Threshold Selective Self-Attention for Chinese NER
Biao Hu | Zhen Huang | Minghao Hu | Ziwen Zhang | Yong Dou
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recently, Transformer has achieved great success in Chinese named entity recognition (NER) owing to its good parallelism and ability to model long-range dependencies, which utilizes self-attention to encode context. However, the fully connected way of self-attention may scatter the attention distribution and allow some irrelevant character information to be integrated, leading to entity boundaries being misidentified. In this paper, we propose a data-driven Adaptive Threshold Selective Self-Attention (ATSSA) mechanism that aims to dynamically select the most relevant characters to enhance the Transformer architecture for Chinese NER. In ATSSA, the attention score threshold of each query is automatically generated, and characters with attention score higher than the threshold are selected by the query while others are discarded, so as to address irrelevant attention integration. Experiments on four benchmark Chinese NER datasets show that the proposed ATSSA brings 1.68 average F1 score improvements to the baseline model and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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Social Bot-Aware Graph Neural Network for Early Rumor Detection
Zhen Huang | Zhilong Lv | Xiaoyun Han | Binyang Li | Menglong Lu | Dongsheng Li
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Early rumor detection is a key challenging task to prevent rumors from spreading widely. Sociological research shows that social bots’ behavior in the early stage has become the main reason for rumors’ wide spread. However, current models do not explicitly distinguish genuine users from social bots, and their failure in identifying rumors timely. Therefore, this paper aims at early rumor detection by accounting for social bots’ behavior, and presents a Social Bot-Aware Graph Neural Network, named SBAG. SBAG firstly pre-trains a multi-layer perception network to capture social bot features, and then constructs multiple graph neural networks by embedding the features to model the early propagation of posts, which is further used to detect rumors. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that SBAG achieves significant improvements against the baselines and also identifies rumors within 3 hours while maintaining more than 90% accuracy.

2020

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Using a Penalty-based Loss Re-estimation Method to Improve Implicit Discourse Relation Classification
Xiao Li | Yu Hong | Huibin Ruan | Zhen Huang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We tackle implicit discourse relation classification, a task of automatically determining semantic relationships between arguments. The attention-worthy words in arguments are crucial clues for classifying the discourse relations. Attention mechanisms have been proven effective in highlighting the attention-worthy words during encoding. However, our survey shows that some inessential words are unintentionally misjudged as the attention-worthy words and, therefore, assigned heavier attention weights than should be. We propose a penalty-based loss re-estimation method to regulate the attention learning process, integrating penalty coefficients into the computation of loss by means of overstability of attention weight distributions. We conduct experiments on the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB) corpus. The test results show that our loss re-estimation method leads to substantial improvements for a variety of attention mechanisms, and it obtains highly competitive performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

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Interactively-Propagative Attention Learning for Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition
Huibin Ruan | Yu Hong | Yang Xu | Zhen Huang | Guodong Zhou | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We tackle implicit discourse relation recognition. Both self-attention and interactive-attention mechanisms have been applied for attention-aware representation learning, which improves the current discourse analysis models. To take advantages of the two attention mechanisms simultaneously, we develop a propagative attention learning model using a cross-coupled two-channel network. We experiment on Penn Discourse Treebank. The test results demonstrate that our model yields substantial improvements over the baselines (BiLSTM and BERT).

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Argumentation Mining on Essays at Multi Scales
Hao Wang | Zhen Huang | Yong Dou | Yu Hong
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Argumentation mining on essays is a new challenging task in natural language processing, which aims to identify the types and locations of argumentation components. Recent research mainly models the task as a sequence tagging problem and deal with all the argumentation components at word level. However, this task is not scale-independent. Some types of argumentation components which serve as core opinions on essays or paragraphs, are at essay level or paragraph level. Sequence tagging method conducts reasoning by local context words, and fails to effectively mine these components. To this end, we propose a multi-scale argumentation mining model, where we respectively mine different types of argumentation components at corresponding levels. Besides, an effective coarse-to-fine argumentation fusion mechanism is proposed to further improve the performance. We conduct a serial of experiments on the Persuasive Essay dataset (PE2.0). Experimental results indicate that our model outperforms existing models on mining all types of argumentation components.

2019

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A Multi-Type Multi-Span Network for Reading Comprehension that Requires Discrete Reasoning
Minghao Hu | Yuxing Peng | Zhen Huang | Dongsheng Li
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Rapid progress has been made in the field of reading comprehension and question answering, where several systems have achieved human parity in some simplified settings. However, the performance of these models degrades significantly when they are applied to more realistic scenarios, such as answers involve various types, multiple text strings are correct answers, or discrete reasoning abilities are required. In this paper, we introduce the Multi-Type Multi-Span Network (MTMSN), a neural reading comprehension model that combines a multi-type answer predictor designed to support various answer types (e.g., span, count, negation, and arithmetic expression) with a multi-span extraction method for dynamically producing one or multiple text spans. In addition, an arithmetic expression reranking mechanism is proposed to rank expression candidates for further confirming the prediction. Experiments show that our model achieves 79.9 F1 on the DROP hidden test set, creating new state-of-the-art results. Source code (https://github.com/huminghao16/MTMSN) is released to facilitate future work.

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Open-Domain Targeted Sentiment Analysis via Span-Based Extraction and Classification
Minghao Hu | Yuxing Peng | Zhen Huang | Dongsheng Li | Yiwei Lv
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Open-domain targeted sentiment analysis aims to detect opinion targets along with their sentiment polarities from a sentence. Prior work typically formulates this task as a sequence tagging problem. However, such formulation suffers from problems such as huge search space and sentiment inconsistency. To address these problems, we propose a span-based extract-then-classify framework, where multiple opinion targets are directly extracted from the sentence under the supervision of target span boundaries, and corresponding polarities are then classified using their span representations. We further investigate three approaches under this framework, namely the pipeline, joint, and collapsed models. Experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our approach consistently outperforms the sequence tagging baseline. Moreover, we find that the pipeline model achieves the best performance compared with the other two models.

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Retrieve, Read, Rerank: Towards End-to-End Multi-Document Reading Comprehension
Minghao Hu | Yuxing Peng | Zhen Huang | Dongsheng Li
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper considers the reading comprehension task in which multiple documents are given as input. Prior work has shown that a pipeline of retriever, reader, and reranker can improve the overall performance. However, the pipeline system is inefficient since the input is re-encoded within each module, and is unable to leverage upstream components to help downstream training. In this work, we present RE3QA, a unified question answering model that combines context retrieving, reading comprehension, and answer reranking to predict the final answer. Unlike previous pipelined approaches, RE3QA shares contextualized text representation across different components, and is carefully designed to use high-quality upstream outputs (e.g., retrieved context or candidate answers) for directly supervising downstream modules (e.g., the reader or the reranker). As a result, the whole network can be trained end-to-end to avoid the context inconsistency problem. Experiments show that our model outperforms the pipelined baseline and achieves state-of-the-art results on two versions of TriviaQA and two variants of SQuAD.

2018

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Attention-Guided Answer Distillation for Machine Reading Comprehension
Minghao Hu | Yuxing Peng | Furu Wei | Zhen Huang | Dongsheng Li | Nan Yang | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite that current reading comprehension systems have achieved significant advancements, their promising performances are often obtained at the cost of making an ensemble of numerous models. Besides, existing approaches are also vulnerable to adversarial attacks. This paper tackles these problems by leveraging knowledge distillation, which aims to transfer knowledge from an ensemble model to a single model. We first demonstrate that vanilla knowledge distillation applied to answer span prediction is effective for reading comprehension systems. We then propose two novel approaches that not only penalize the prediction on confusing answers but also guide the training with alignment information distilled from the ensemble. Experiments show that our best student model has only a slight drop of 0.4% F1 on the SQuAD test set compared to the ensemble teacher, while running 12x faster during inference. It even outperforms the teacher on adversarial SQuAD datasets and NarrativeQA benchmark.