Zhen Li


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FAA: Fine-grained Attention Alignment for Cascade Document Ranking
Zhen Li | Chongyang Tao | Jiazhan Feng | Tao Shen | Dongyan Zhao | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document ranking aims at sorting a collection of documents with their relevance to a query. Contemporary methods explore more efficient transformers or divide long documents into passages to handle the long input. However, intensive query-irrelevant content may lead to harmful distraction and high query latency. Some recent works further propose cascade document ranking models that extract relevant passages with an efficient selector before ranking, however, their selection and ranking modules are almost independently optimized and deployed, leading to selecting error reinforcement and sub-optimal performance. In fact, the document ranker can provide fine-grained supervision to make the selector more generalizable and compatible, and the selector built upon a different structure can offer a distinct perspective to assist in document ranking. Inspired by this, we propose a fine-grained attention alignment approach to jointly optimize a cascade document ranking model. Specifically, we utilize the attention activations over the passages from the ranker as fine-grained attention feedback to optimize the selector. Meanwhile, we fuse the relevance scores from the passage selector into the ranker to assist in calculating the cooperative matching representation. Experiments on MS MARCO and TREC DL demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

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PersLEARN: Research Training through the Lens of Perspective Cultivation
Yu-Zhe Shi | Shiqian Li | Xinyi Niu | Qiao Xu | Jiawen Liu | Yifan Xu | Shiyu Gu | Bingru He | Xinyang Li | Xinyu Zhao | Zijian Zhao | Yidong Lyu | Zhen Li | Sijia Liu | Lin Qiu | Jinhao Ji | Lecheng Ruan | Yuxi Ma | Wenjuan Han | Yixin Zhu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

Scientific research is inherently shaped by its authors’ perspectives, influenced by various factorssuch as their personality, community, or society. Junior researchers often face challenges in identifying the perspectives reflected in the existing literature and struggle to develop their own viewpoints. In response to this issue, we introduce PersLEARN , a tool designed to facilitate the cultivation of scientific perspectives, starting from a basic seed idea and progressing to a well-articulated framework. By interacting with a prompt-based model, researchers can develop their perspectives explicitly. Our humanstudy reveals that scientific perspectives developed by students using PersLEARN exhibit a superior level of logical coherence and depth compared to those that did not. Furthermore, our pipeline outperforms baseline approaches across multiple domains of literature from various perspectives. These results suggest that PersLEARN could help foster a greater appreciation of diversity in scientific perspectives as an essential component of research training.

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Composable Text Controls in Latent Space with ODEs
Guangyi Liu | Zeyu Feng | Yuan Gao | Zichao Yang | Xiaodan Liang | Junwei Bao | Xiaodong He | Shuguang Cui | Zhen Li | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Real-world text applications often involve composing a wide range of text control operations, such as editing the text w.r.t. an attribute, manipulating keywords and structure, and generating new text of desired properties. Prior work typically learns/finetunes a language model (LM) to perform individual or specific subsets of operations. Recent research has studied combining operations in a plug-and-play manner, often with costly search or optimization in the complex sequence space. This paper proposes a new efficient approach for composable text operations in the compact latent space of text. The low-dimensionality and differentiability of the text latent vector allow us to develop an efficient sampler based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) given arbitrary plug-in operators (e.g., attribute classifiers). By connecting pretrained LMs (e.g., GPT2) to the latent space through efficient adaption, we then decode the sampled vectors into desired text sequences. The flexible approach permits diverse control operators (sentiment, tense, formality, keywords, etc.) acquired using any relevant data from different domains. Experiments show that composing those operators within our approach manages to generate or edit high-quality text, substantially improving over previous methods in terms of generation quality and efficiency.


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Reciprocal Learning of Knowledge Retriever and Response Ranker for Knowledge-Grounded Conversations
Jiazhan Feng | Chongyang Tao | Zhen Li | Chang Liu | Tao Shen | Dongyan Zhao
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Grounding dialogue agents with knowledge documents has sparked increased attention in both academia and industry. Recently, a growing body of work is trying to build retrieval-based knowledge-grounded dialogue systems. While promising, these approaches require collecting pairs of dialogue context and the corresponding ground-truth knowledge sentences that contain the information regarding the dialogue context. Unfortunately, hand-labeling data to that end is time-consuming, and many datasets and applications lack such knowledge annotations. In this paper, we propose a reciprocal learning approach to jointly optimize a knowledge retriever and a response ranker for knowledge-grounded response retrieval without ground-truth knowledge labels. Specifically, the knowledge retriever uses the feedback from the response ranker as pseudo supervised signals of knowledge retrieval for updating its parameters, while the response ranker also receives the top-ranked knowledge sentences from knowledge retriever for optimization. Evaluation results on two public benchmarks show that our model can significantly outperform previous state-of-the-art methods.

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Graph Enhanced Contrastive Learning for Radiology Findings Summarization
Jinpeng Hu | Zhuo Li | Zhihong Chen | Zhen Li | Xiang Wan | Tsung-Hui Chang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The impression section of a radiology report summarizes the most prominent observation from the findings section and is the most important section for radiologists to communicate to physicians. Summarizing findings is time-consuming and can be prone to error for inexperienced radiologists, and thus automatic impression generation has attracted substantial attention. With the encoder-decoder framework, most previous studies explore incorporating extra knowledge (e.g., static pre-defined clinical ontologies or extra background information). Yet, they encode such knowledge by a separate encoder to treat it as an extra input to their models, which is limited in leveraging their relations with the original findings. To address the limitation, we propose a unified framework for exploiting both extra knowledge and the original findings in an integrated way so that the critical information (i.e., key words and their relations) can be extracted in an appropriate way to facilitate impression generation. In detail, for each input findings, it is encoded by a text encoder and a graph is constructed through its entities and dependency tree. Then, a graph encoder (e.g., graph neural networks (GNNs)) is adopted to model relation information in the constructed graph. Finally, to emphasize the key words in the findings, contrastive learning is introduced to map positive samples (constructed by masking non-key words) closer and push apart negative ones (constructed by masking key words). The experimental results on two datasets, OpenI and MIMIC-CXR, confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method, where the state-of-the-art results are achieved.

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CLMLF:A Contrastive Learning and Multi-Layer Fusion Method for Multimodal Sentiment Detection
Zhen Li | Bing Xu | Conghui Zhu | Tiejun Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Compared with unimodal data, multimodal data can provide more features to help the model analyze the sentiment of data. Previous research works rarely consider token-level feature fusion, and few works explore learning the common features related to sentiment in multimodal data to help the model fuse multimodal features. In this paper, we propose a Contrastive Learning and Multi-Layer Fusion (CLMLF) method for multimodal sentiment detection. Specifically, we first encode text and image to obtain hidden representations, and then use a multi-layer fusion module to align and fuse the token-level features of text and image. In addition to the sentiment analysis task, we also designed two contrastive learning tasks, label based contrastive learning and data based contrastive learning tasks, which will help the model learn common features related to sentiment in multimodal data. Extensive experiments conducted on three publicly available multimodal datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for multimodal sentiment detection compared with existing methods. The codes are available for use at https: //github.com/Link-Li/CLMLF

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FCGCL: Fine- and Coarse-Granularity Contrastive Learning for Speech Translation
Hao Zhang | Nianwen Si | Yaqi Chen | Zhen Li | Tong Niu | Xukui Yang | Dan Qu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

It is notoriously difficult to implement end-to-end speech translation (E2E-ST) model because of the task complexity and data scarcity. Existing techniques often attempt to carry out implicit knowledge transfer from machine translation (MT) to ST model by imposing various constraints. However, in this transfer scenario, a significant problem is that the performance of the MT will drop significantly and the final transfer effect is also restricted. In this article, we recommend Fine and Coarse Granularity Contrastive Learning (FCGCL), which conduct explicit knowledge transfer from MT to ST model. Specially, we ensure through multi granularity contrastive learning that inputs with similar semantic between different modalities are encoded closely in the shared semantic space while inputs with different semantics are kept apart. Experiments on the MuST-C datasets on all 8 languages and further analysis show that our method can effectively improve the E2E-ST performance and achieves an average BLEU of 29.0.

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Don’t Take It Literally: An Edit-Invariant Sequence Loss for Text Generation
Guangyi Liu | Zichao Yang | Tianhua Tao | Xiaodan Liang | Junwei Bao | Zhen Li | Xiaodong He | Shuguang Cui | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Neural text generation models are typically trained by maximizing log-likelihood with the sequence cross entropy (CE) loss, which encourages an exact token-by-token match between a target sequence with a generated sequence. Such training objective is sub-optimal when the target sequence is not perfect, e.g., when the target sequence is corrupted with noises, or when only weak sequence supervision is available. To address the challenge, we propose a novel Edit-Invariant Sequence Loss (EISL), which computes the matching loss of a target n-gram with all n-grams in the generated sequence. EISL is designed to be robust to various noises and edits in the target sequences. Moreover, the EISL computation is essentially an approximate convolution operation with target n-grams as kernels, which is easy to implement and efficient to compute with existing libraries. To demonstrate the effectiveness of EISL, we conduct experiments on a wide range of tasks, including machine translation with noisy target sequences, unsupervised text style transfer with only weak training signals, and non-autoregressive generation with non-predefined generation order. Experimental results show our method significantly outperforms the common CE loss and other strong baselines on all the tasks. EISL has a simple API that can be used as a drop-in replacement of the CE loss: https://github.com/guangyliu/EISL.


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CN-HIT-MI.T at SemEval-2020 Task 8: Memotion Analysis Based on BERT
Zhen Li | Yaojie Zhang | Bing Xu | Tiejun Zhao
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Internet memes emotion recognition is focused by many researchers. In this paper, we adopt BERT and ResNet for evaluation of detecting the emotions of Internet memes. We focus on solving the problem of data imbalance and data contains noise. We use RandAugment to enhance the data of the picture, and use Training Signal Annealing (TSA) to solve the impact of the imbalance of the label. At the same time, a new loss function is designed to ensure that the model is not affected by input noise which will improve the robustness of the model. We participated in sub-task a and our model based on BERT obtains 34.58% macro F1 score, ranking 10/32.

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Hierarchical Chinese Legal event extraction via Pedal Attention Mechanism
Shirong Shen | Guilin Qi | Zhen Li | Sheng Bi | Lusheng Wang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Event extraction plays an important role in legal applications, including case push and auxiliary judgment. However, traditional event structure cannot express the connections between arguments, which are extremely important in legal events. Therefore, this paper defines a dynamic event structure for Chinese legal events. To distinguish between similar events, we design hierarchical event features for event detection. Moreover, to address the problem of long-distance semantic dependence and anaphora resolution in argument classification, we propose a novel pedal attention mechanism to extract the semantic relation between two words through their dependent adjacent words. We label a Chinese legal event dataset and evaluate our model on it. Experimental results demonstrate that our model can surpass other state-of-the-art models.