Zheng Wang


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Exploring the Impact of Negative Samples of Contrastive Learning: A Case Study of Sentence Embedding
Rui Cao | Yihao Wang | Yuxin Liang | Ling Gao | Jie Zheng | Jie Ren | Zheng Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Contrastive learning is emerging as a powerful technique for extracting knowledge from unlabeled data. This technique requires a balanced mixture of two ingredients: positive (similar) and negative (dissimilar) samples. This is typically achieved by maintaining a queue of negative samples during training. Prior works in the area typically uses a fixed-length negative sample queue, but how the negative sample size affects the model performance remains unclear. The opaque impact of the number of negative samples on performance when employing contrastive learning aroused our in-depth exploration. This paper presents a momentum contrastive learning model with negative sample queue for sentence embedding, namely MoCoSE. We add the prediction layer to the online branch to make the model asymmetric and together with EMA update mechanism of the target branch to prevent the model from collapsing. We define a maximum traceable distance metric, through which we learn to what extent the text contrastive learning benefits from the historical information of negative samples. Our experiments find that the best results are obtained when the maximum traceable distance is at a certain range, demonstrating that there is an optimal range of historical information for a negative sample queue. We evaluate the proposed unsupervised MoCoSE on the semantic text similarity (STS) task and obtain an average Spearman’s correlation of 77.27%. Source code is available here.


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Gaussian Process based Deep Dyna-Q approach for Dialogue Policy Learning
Guanlin Wu | Wenqi Fang | Ji Wang | Jiang Cao | Weidong Bao | Yang Ping | Xiaomin Zhu | Zheng Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Modularized Interaction Network for Named Entity Recognition
Fei Li | Zheng Wang | Siu Cheung Hui | Lejian Liao | Dandan Song | Jing Xu | Guoxiu He | Meihuizi Jia
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Although the existing Named Entity Recognition (NER) models have achieved promising performance, they suffer from certain drawbacks. The sequence labeling-based NER models do not perform well in recognizing long entities as they focus only on word-level information, while the segment-based NER models which focus on processing segment instead of single word are unable to capture the word-level dependencies within the segment. Moreover, as boundary detection and type prediction may cooperate with each other for the NER task, it is also important for the two sub-tasks to mutually reinforce each other by sharing their information. In this paper, we propose a novel Modularized Interaction Network (MIN) model which utilizes both segment-level information and word-level dependencies, and incorporates an interaction mechanism to support information sharing between boundary detection and type prediction to enhance the performance for the NER task. We have conducted extensive experiments based on three NER benchmark datasets. The performance results have shown that the proposed MIN model has outperformed the current state-of-the-art models.


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Towards Context-Aware Code Comment Generation
Xiaohan Yu | Quzhe Huang | Zheng Wang | Yansong Feng | Dongyan Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Code comments are vital for software maintenance and comprehension, but many software projects suffer from the lack of meaningful and up-to-date comments in practice. This paper presents a novel approach to automatically generate code comments at a function level by targeting object-oriented programming languages. Unlike prior work that only uses information locally available within the target function, our approach leverages broader contextual information by considering all other functions of the same class. To propagate and integrate information beyond the scope of the target function, we design a novel learning framework based on the bidirectional gated recurrent unit and a graph attention network with a pointer mechanism. We apply our approach to produce code comments for Java methods and compare it against four strong baseline methods. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms most methods by a large margin and achieves a comparable result with the state-of-the-art method.

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Neighborhood Matching Network for Entity Alignment
Yuting Wu | Xiao Liu | Yansong Feng | Zheng Wang | Dongyan Zhao
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Structural heterogeneity between knowledge graphs is an outstanding challenge for entity alignment. This paper presents Neighborhood Matching Network (NMN), a novel entity alignment framework for tackling the structural heterogeneity challenge. NMN estimates the similarities between entities to capture both the topological structure and the neighborhood difference. It provides two innovative components for better learning representations for entity alignment. It first uses a novel graph sampling method to distill a discriminative neighborhood for each entity. It then adopts a cross-graph neighborhood matching module to jointly encode the neighborhood difference for a given entity pair. Such strategies allow NMN to effectively construct matching-oriented entity representations while ignoring noisy neighbors that have a negative impact on the alignment task. Extensive experiments performed on three entity alignment datasets show that NMN can well estimate the neighborhood similarity in more tough cases and significantly outperforms 12 previous state-of-the-art methods.


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Jointly Learning Entity and Relation Representations for Entity Alignment
Yuting Wu | Xiao Liu | Yansong Feng | Zheng Wang | Dongyan Zhao
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Entity alignment is a viable means for integrating heterogeneous knowledge among different knowledge graphs (KGs). Recent developments in the field often take an embedding-based approach to model the structural information of KGs so that entity alignment can be easily performed in the embedding space. However, most existing works do not explicitly utilize useful relation representations to assist in entity alignment, which, as we will show in the paper, is a simple yet effective way for improving entity alignment. This paper presents a novel joint learning framework for entity alignment. At the core of our approach is a Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) based framework for learning both entity and relation representations. Rather than relying on pre-aligned relation seeds to learn relation representations, we first approximate them using entity embeddings learned by the GCN. We then incorporate the relation approximation into entities to iteratively learn better representations for both. Experiments performed on three real-world cross-lingual datasets show that our approach substantially outperforms state-of-the-art entity alignment methods.


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Marrying Up Regular Expressions with Neural Networks: A Case Study for Spoken Language Understanding
Bingfeng Luo | Yansong Feng | Zheng Wang | Songfang Huang | Rui Yan | Dongyan Zhao
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The success of many natural language processing (NLP) tasks is bound by the number and quality of annotated data, but there is often a shortage of such training data. In this paper, we ask the question: “Can we combine a neural network (NN) with regular expressions (RE) to improve supervised learning for NLP?”. In answer, we develop novel methods to exploit the rich expressiveness of REs at different levels within a NN, showing that the combination significantly enhances the learning effectiveness when a small number of training examples are available. We evaluate our approach by applying it to spoken language understanding for intent detection and slot filling. Experimental results show that our approach is highly effective in exploiting the available training data, giving a clear boost to the RE-unaware NN.


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Learning with Noise: Enhance Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction with Dynamic Transition Matrix
Bingfeng Luo | Yansong Feng | Zheng Wang | Zhanxing Zhu | Songfang Huang | Rui Yan | Dongyan Zhao
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Distant supervision significantly reduces human efforts in building training data for many classification tasks. While promising, this technique often introduces noise to the generated training data, which can severely affect the model performance. In this paper, we take a deep look at the application of distant supervision in relation extraction. We show that the dynamic transition matrix can effectively characterize the noise in the training data built by distant supervision. The transition matrix can be effectively trained using a novel curriculum learning based method without any direct supervision about the noise. We thoroughly evaluate our approach under a wide range of extraction scenarios. Experimental results show that our approach consistently improves the extraction results and outperforms the state-of-the-art in various evaluation scenarios.