Personalized response generation is essential for more human-like conversations. However, how to model user personalization information with no explicit user persona descriptions or demographics still remains under-investigated. To tackle the data sparsity problem and the huge number of users, we utilize tensor factorization to model users’ personalization information with their posting histories. Specifically, we introduce the personalized response embedding for all question-user pairs and form them into a three-mode tensor, decomposed by Tucker decomposition. The personalized response embedding is fed to either the decoder of an LSTM-based Seq2Seq model or a transformer language model to help generate more personalized responses. To evaluate how personalized the generated responses are, we further propose a novel ranking-based metric called Per-Hits@k which measures how likely are the generated responses come from the corresponding users. Results on a large-scale conversation dataset show that our proposed tensor factorization based models generate more personalized and higher quality responses compared to baselines.
Named Entity Recognition (NER) is one of the first stages in deep language understanding yet current NER models heavily rely on human-annotated data. In this work, to alleviate the dependence on labeled data, we propose a Local Additivity based Data Augmentation (LADA) method for semi-supervised NER, in which we create virtual samples by interpolating sequences close to each other. Our approach has two variations: Intra-LADA and Inter-LADA, where Intra-LADA performs interpolations among tokens within one sentence, and Inter-LADA samples different sentences to interpolate. Through linear additions between sampled training data, LADA creates an infinite amount of labeled data and improves both entity and context learning. We further extend LADA to the semi-supervised setting by designing a novel consistency loss for unlabeled data. Experiments conducted on two NER benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods over several strong baselines. We have publicly released our code at https://github.com/GT-SALT/LADA
We study the problem of named entity recognition (NER) from electronic medical records, which is one of the most fundamental and critical problems for medical text mining. Medical records which are written by clinicians from different specialties usually contain quite different terminologies and writing styles. The difference of specialties and the cost of human annotation makes it particularly difficult to train a universal medical NER system. In this paper, we propose a label-aware double transfer learning framework (La-DTL) for cross-specialty NER, so that a medical NER system designed for one specialty could be conveniently applied to another one with minimal annotation efforts. The transferability is guaranteed by two components: (i) we propose label-aware MMD for feature representation transfer, and (ii) we perform parameter transfer with a theoretical upper bound which is also label aware. We conduct extensive experiments on 12 cross-specialty NER tasks. The experimental results demonstrate that La-DTL provides consistent accuracy improvement over strong baselines. Besides, the promising experimental results on non-medical NER scenarios indicate that La-DTL is potential to be seamlessly adapted to a wide range of NER tasks.