QA Domain Adaptation using Hidden Space Augmentation and Self-Supervised Contrastive Adaptation
Zhenrui Yue | Huimin Zeng | Bernhard Kratzwald | Stefan Feuerriegel | Dong Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
Question answering (QA) has recently shown impressive results for answering questions from customized domains. Yet, a common challenge is to adapt QA models to an unseen target domain. In this paper, we propose a novel self-supervised framework called QADA for QA domain adaptation. QADA introduces a novel data augmentation pipeline used to augment training QA samples. Different from existing methods, we enrich the samples via hidden space augmentation. For questions, we introduce multi-hop synonyms and sample augmented token embeddings with Dirichlet distributions. For contexts, we develop an augmentation method which learns to drop context spans via a custom attentive sampling strategy. Additionally, contrastive learning is integrated in the proposed self-supervised adaptation framework QADA. Unlike existing approaches, we generate pseudo labels and propose to train the model via a novel attention-based contrastive adaptation method. The attention weights are used to build informative features for discrepancy estimation that helps the QA model separate answers and generalize across source and target domains. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to leverage hidden space augmentation and attention-based contrastive adaptation for self-supervised domain adaptation in QA. Our evaluation shows that QADA achieves considerable improvements on multiple target datasets over state-of-the-art baselines in QA domain adaptation.
Domain Adaptation for Question Answering via Question Classification
Zhenrui Yue | Huimin Zeng | Ziyi Kou | Lanyu Shang | Dong Wang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics
Question answering (QA) has demonstrated impressive progress in answering questions from customized domains. Nevertheless, domain adaptation remains one of the most elusive challenges for QA systems, especially when QA systems are trained in a source domain but deployed in a different target domain. In this work, we investigate the potential benefits of question classification for QA domain adaptation. We propose a novel framework: Question Classification for Question Answering (QC4QA). Specifically, a question classifier is adopted to assign question classes to both the source and target data. Then, we perform joint training in a self-supervised fashion via pseudo-labeling. For optimization, inter-domain discrepancy between the source and target domain is reduced via maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) distance. We additionally minimize intra-class discrepancy among QA samples of the same question class for fine-grained adaptation performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work in QA domain adaptation to leverage question classification with self-supervised adaptation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed QC4QA with consistent improvements against the state-of-the-art baselines on multiple datasets.
Contrastive Domain Adaptation for Question Answering using Limited Text Corpora
Zhenrui Yue | Bernhard Kratzwald | Stefan Feuerriegel
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
Question generation has recently shown impressive results in customizing question answering (QA) systems to new domains. These approaches circumvent the need for manually annotated training data from the new domain and, instead, generate synthetic question-answer pairs that are used for training. However, existing methods for question generation rely on large amounts of synthetically generated datasets and costly computational resources, which render these techniques widely inaccessible when the text corpora is of limited size. This is problematic as many niche domains rely on small text corpora, which naturally restricts the amount of synthetic data that can be generated. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for domain adaptation called contrastive domain adaptation for QA (CAQA). Specifically, CAQA combines techniques from question generation and domain-invariant learning to answer out-of-domain questions in settings with limited text corpora. Here, we train a QA system on both source data and generated data from the target domain with a contrastive adaptation loss that is incorporated in the training objective. By combining techniques from question generation and domain-invariant learning, our model achieved considerable improvements compared to state-of-the-art baselines.
- Bernhard Kratzwald 2
- Stefan Feuerriegel 2
- Huimin Zeng 2
- Dong Wang 2
- Ziyi Kou 1
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