Zhenyu Zhang


2023

pdf bib
Dialog-Post: Multi-Level Self-Supervised Objectives and Hierarchical Model for Dialogue Post-Training
Zhenyu Zhang | Lei Shen | Yuming Zhao | Meng Chen | Xiaodong He
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Dialogue representation and understanding aim to convert conversational inputs into embeddings and fulfill discriminative tasks. Compared with free-form text, dialogue has two important characteristics, hierarchical semantic structure and multi-facet attributes. Therefore, directly applying the pretrained language models (PLMs) might result in unsatisfactory performance. Recently, several work focused on the dialogue-adaptive post-training (DialPost) that further trains PLMs to fit dialogues. To model dialogues more comprehensively, we propose a DialPost method, Dialog-Post, with multi-level self-supervised objectives and a hierarchical model. These objectives leverage dialogue-specific attributes and use self-supervised signals to fully facilitate the representation and understanding of dialogues. The novel model is a hierarchical segment-wise self-attention network, which contains inner-segment and inter-segment self-attention sub-layers followed by an aggregation and updating module. To evaluate the effectiveness of our methods, we first apply two public datasets for the verification of representation ability. Then we conduct experiments on a newly-labelled dataset that is annotated with 4 dialogue understanding tasks. Experimental results show that our method outperforms existing SOTA models and achieves a 3.3% improvement on average.

2022

pdf bib
Enhancing Chinese Pre-trained Language Model via Heterogeneous Linguistics Graph
Yanzeng Li | Jiangxia Cao | Xin Cong | Zhenyu Zhang | Bowen Yu | Hongsong Zhu | Tingwen Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Chinese pre-trained language models usually exploit contextual character information to learn representations, while ignoring the linguistics knowledge, e.g., word and sentence information. Hence, we propose a task-free enhancement module termed as Heterogeneous Linguistics Graph (HLG) to enhance Chinese pre-trained language models by integrating linguistics knowledge. Specifically, we construct a hierarchical heterogeneous graph to model the characteristics linguistics structure of Chinese language, and conduct a graph-based method to summarize and concretize information on different granularities of Chinese linguistics hierarchies. Experimental results demonstrate our model has the ability to improve the performance of vanilla BERT, BERTwwm and ERNIE 1.0 on 6 natural language processing tasks with 10 benchmark datasets. Further, the detailed experimental analyses have proven that this kind of modelization achieves more improvements compared with previous strong baseline MWA. Meanwhile, our model introduces far fewer parameters (about half of MWA) and the training/inference speed is about 7x faster than MWA.

pdf bib
Towards Generalized Open Information Extraction
Bowen Yu | Zhenyu Zhang | Jingyang Li | Haiyang Yu | Tingwen Sun | Jian Liu | Yongbin Li | Bin Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Open Information Extraction (OpenIE) facilitates the open-domain discovery of textual facts. However, the prevailing solutions evaluate OpenIE models on in-domain test sets aside from the training corpus, which certainly violates the initial task principle of domain-independence. In this paper, we propose to advance OpenIE towards a more realistic scenario: generalizing over unseen target domains with different data distributions from the source training domains, termed Generalized OpenIE. For this purpose, we first introduce GLOBE, a large-scale human-annotated multi-domain OpenIE benchmark, to examine the robustness of recent OpenIE models to domain shifts, and the relative performance degradation of up to 70% implies the challenges of generalized OpenIE. Then, we propose DragonIE, which explores a minimalist expression of textual fact: directed acyclic graph, to improve the OpenIE generalization ability. Extensive experiments demonstrate that DragonIE beats the previous methods in both in-domain and out-of-domain settings by as much as 6.0% in F1 score absolutely, but there is still ample room for improvement.

pdf bib
ERNIE-Layout: Layout Knowledge Enhanced Pre-training for Visually-rich Document Understanding
Qiming Peng | Yinxu Pan | Wenjin Wang | Bin Luo | Zhenyu Zhang | Zhengjie Huang | Yuhui Cao | Weichong Yin | Yongfeng Chen | Yin Zhang | Shikun Feng | Yu Sun | Hao Tian | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Recent years have witnessed the rise and success of pre-training techniques in visually-rich document understanding. However, most existing methods lack the systematic mining and utilization of layout-centered knowledge, leading to sub-optimal performances. In this paper, we propose ERNIE-Layout, a novel document pre-training solution with layout knowledge enhancement in the whole workflow, to learn better representations that combine the features from text, layout, and image. Specifically, we first rearrange input sequences in the serialization stage, and then present a correlative pre-training task, reading order prediction, to learn the proper reading order of documents. To improve the layout awareness of the model, we integrate a spatial-aware disentangled attention into the multi-modal transformer and a replaced regions prediction task into the pre-training phase. Experimental results show that ERNIE-Layout achieves superior performance on various downstream tasks, setting new state-of-the-art on key information extraction, document image classification, and document question answering datasets. The code and models are publicly available at PaddleNLP.

pdf bib
Label Anchored Contrastive Learning for Language Understanding
Zhenyu Zhang | Yuming Zhao | Meng Chen | Xiaodong He
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Contrastive learning (CL) has achieved astonishing progress in computer vision, speech, and natural language processing fields recently with self-supervised learning. However, CL approach to the supervised setting is not fully explored, especially for the natural language understanding classification task. Intuitively, the class label itself has the intrinsic ability to perform hard positive/negative mining, which is crucial for CL. Motivated by this, we propose a novel label anchored contrastive learning approach (denoted as LaCon) for language understanding. Specifically, three contrastive objectives are devised, including a multi-head instance-centered contrastive loss (ICL), a label-centered contrastive loss (LCL), and a label embedding regularizer (LER). Our approach does not require any specialized network architecture or any extra data augmentation, thus it can be easily plugged into existing powerful pre-trained language models. Compared to the state-of-the-art baselines, LaCon obtains up to 4.1% improvement on the popular datasets of GLUE and CLUE benchmarks. Besides, LaCon also demonstrates significant advantages under the few-shot and data imbalance settings, which obtains up to 9.4% improvement on the FewGLUE and FewCLUE benchmarking tasks.

2021

pdf bib
Improving Distantly-Supervised Named Entity Recognition with Self-Collaborative Denoising Learning
Xinghua Zhang | Bowen Yu | Tingwen Liu | Zhenyu Zhang | Jiawei Sheng | Xue Mengge | Hongbo Xu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Distantly supervised named entity recognition (DS-NER) efficiently reduces labor costs but meanwhile intrinsically suffers from the label noise due to the strong assumption of distant supervision. Typically, the wrongly labeled instances comprise numbers of incomplete and inaccurate annotations, while most prior denoising works are only concerned with one kind of noise and fail to fully explore useful information in the training set. To address this issue, we propose a robust learning paradigm named Self-Collaborative Denoising Learning (SCDL), which jointly trains two teacher-student networks in a mutually-beneficial manner to iteratively perform noisy label refinery. Each network is designed to exploit reliable labels via self denoising, and two networks communicate with each other to explore unreliable annotations by collaborative denoising. Extensive experimental results on five real-world datasets demonstrate that SCDL is superior to state-of-the-art DS-NER denoising methods.

pdf bib
From What to Why: Improving Relation Extraction with Rationale Graph
Zhenyu Zhang | Bowen Yu | Xiaobo Shu | Xue Mengge | Tingwen Liu | Li Guo
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

pdf bib
Improving Distantly-Supervised Named Entity Recognition with Self-Collaborative Denoising Learning
Xinghua Zhang | Bowen Yu | Tingwen Liu | Zhenyu Zhang | Jiawei Sheng | Xue Mengge | Hongbo Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Distantly supervised named entity recognition (DS-NER) efficiently reduces labor costs but meanwhile intrinsically suffers from the label noise due to the strong assumption of distant supervision. Typically, the wrongly labeled instances comprise numbers of incomplete and inaccurate annotations, while most prior denoising works are only concerned with one kind of noise and fail to fully explore useful information in the training set. To address this issue, we propose a robust learning paradigm named Self-Collaborative Denoising Learning (SCDL), which jointly trains two teacher-student networks in a mutually-beneficial manner to iteratively perform noisy label refinery. Each network is designed to exploit reliable labels via self denoising, and two networks communicate with each other to explore unreliable annotations by collaborative denoising. Extensive experimental results on five real-world datasets demonstrate that SCDL is superior to state-of-the-art DS-NER denoising methods.

2020

pdf bib
Coarse-to-Fine Pre-training for Named Entity Recognition
Xue Mengge | Bowen Yu | Zhenyu Zhang | Tingwen Liu | Yue Zhang | Bin Wang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

More recently, Named Entity Recognition hasachieved great advances aided by pre-trainingapproaches such as BERT. However, currentpre-training techniques focus on building lan-guage modeling objectives to learn a gen-eral representation, ignoring the named entity-related knowledge. To this end, we proposea NER-specific pre-training framework to in-ject coarse-to-fine automatically mined entityknowledge into pre-trained models. Specifi-cally, we first warm-up the model via an en-tity span identification task by training it withWikipedia anchors, which can be deemed asgeneral-typed entities. Then we leverage thegazetteer-based distant supervision strategy totrain the model extract coarse-grained typedentities. Finally, we devise a self-supervisedauxiliary task to mine the fine-grained namedentity knowledge via clustering.Empiricalstudies on three public NER datasets demon-strate that our framework achieves significantimprovements against several pre-trained base-lines, establishing the new state-of-the-art per-formance on three benchmarks. Besides, weshow that our framework gains promising re-sults without using human-labeled trainingdata, demonstrating its effectiveness in label-few and low-resource scenarios.

pdf bib
Document-level Relation Extraction with Dual-tier Heterogeneous Graph
Zhenyu Zhang | Bowen Yu | Xiaobo Shu | Tingwen Liu | Hengzhu Tang | Wang Yubin | Li Guo
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Document-level relation extraction (RE) poses new challenges over its sentence-level counterpart since it requires an adequate comprehension of the whole document and the multi-hop reasoning ability across multiple sentences to reach the final result. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based model with Dual-tier Heterogeneous Graph (DHG) for document-level RE. In particular, DHG is composed of a structure modeling layer followed by a relation reasoning layer. The major advantage is that it is capable of not only capturing both the sequential and structural information of documents but also mixing them together to benefit for multi-hop reasoning and final decision-making. Furthermore, we employ Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) based message propagation strategy to accumulate information on DHG. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on two widely used datasets, and further analyses suggest that all the modules in our model are indispensable for document-level RE.

pdf bib
Learning to Prune Dependency Trees with Rethinking for Neural Relation Extraction
Bowen Yu | Xue Mengge | Zhenyu Zhang | Tingwen Liu | Wang Yubin | Bin Wang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Dependency trees have been shown to be effective in capturing long-range relations between target entities. Nevertheless, how to selectively emphasize target-relevant information and remove irrelevant content from the tree is still an open problem. Existing approaches employing pre-defined rules to eliminate noise may not always yield optimal results due to the complexity and variability of natural language. In this paper, we present a novel architecture named Dynamically Pruned Graph Convolutional Network (DP-GCN), which learns to prune the dependency tree with rethinking in an end-to-end scheme. In each layer of DP-GCN, we employ a selection module to concentrate on nodes expressing the target relation by a set of binary gates, and then augment the pruned tree with a pruned semantic graph to ensure the connectivity. After that, we introduce a rethinking mechanism to guide and refine the pruning operation by feeding back the high-level learned features repeatedly. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model achieves impressive results compared to strong competitors.

pdf bib
Edge-Enhanced Graph Convolution Networks for Event Detection with Syntactic Relation
Shiyao Cui | Bowen Yu | Tingwen Liu | Zhenyu Zhang | Xuebin Wang | Jinqiao Shi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Event detection (ED), a key subtask of information extraction, aims to recognize instances of specific event types in text. Previous studies on the task have verified the effectiveness of integrating syntactic dependency into graph convolutional networks. However, these methods usually ignore dependency label information, which conveys rich and useful linguistic knowledge for ED. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture named Edge-Enhanced Graph Convolution Networks (EE-GCN), which simultaneously exploits syntactic structure and typed dependency label information to perform ED. Specifically, an edge-aware node update module is designed to generate expressive word representations by aggregating syntactically-connected words through specific dependency types. Furthermore, to fully explore clues hidden from dependency edges, a node-aware edge update module is introduced, which refines the relation representations with contextual information. These two modules are complementary to each other and work in a mutual promotion way. We conduct experiments on the widely used ACE2005 dataset and the results show significant improvement over competitive baseline methods.