Image-to-text tasks such as open-ended image captioning and controllable image description have received extensive attention for decades. Here we advance this line of work further, presenting Visual Spatial Description (VSD), a new perspective for image-to-text toward spatial semantics. Given an image and two objects inside it, VSD aims to produce one description focusing on the spatial perspective between the two objects. Accordingly, we annotate a dataset manually to facilitate the investigation of the newly-introduced task, and then build several benchmark encoder-decoder models by using VL-BART and VL-T5 as backbones. In addition, we investigate visual spatial relationship classification (VSRC) information into our model by pipeline and end-to-end architectures. Finally, we conduct experiments on our benchmark dataset to evaluate all our models. Results show that our models are awe-inspiring, offering accurate and human-like spatial-oriented text descriptions. Besides, VSRC has great potential for VSD, and the joint end-to-end architecture is the better choice for their integration. We will make the dataset and codes publicly available for research purposes.
Research on overlapped and discontinuous named entity recognition (NER) has received increasing attention. The majority of previous work focuses on either overlapped or discontinuous entities. In this paper, we propose a novel span-based model that can recognize both overlapped and discontinuous entities jointly. The model includes two major steps. First, entity fragments are recognized by traversing over all possible text spans, thus, overlapped entities can be recognized. Second, we perform relation classification to judge whether a given pair of entity fragments to be overlapping or succession. In this way, we can recognize not only discontinuous entities, and meanwhile doubly check the overlapped entities. As a whole, our model can be regarded as a relation extraction paradigm essentially. Experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets (i.e., CLEF, GENIA and ACE05) show that our model is highly competitive for overlapped and discontinuous NER.
Frame semantic parsing is a semantic analysis task based on FrameNet which has received great attention recently. The task usually involves three subtasks sequentially: (1) target identification, (2) frame classification and (3) semantic role labeling. The three subtasks are closely related while previous studies model them individually, which ignores their intern connections and meanwhile induces error propagation problem. In this work, we propose an end-to-end neural model to tackle the task jointly. Concretely, we exploit a graph-based method, regarding frame semantic parsing as a graph construction problem. All predicates and roles are treated as graph nodes, and their relations are taken as graph edges. Experiment results on two benchmark datasets of frame semantic parsing show that our method is highly competitive, resulting in better performance than pipeline models.