Zhihong Chen


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Toward Expanding the Scope of Radiology Report Summarization to Multiple Anatomies and Modalities
Zhihong Chen | Maya Varma | Xiang Wan | Curtis Langlotz | Jean-Benoit Delbrouck
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Radiology report summarization (RRS) is a growing area of research. Given the Findings section of a radiology report, the goal is to generate a summary (called an Impression section) that highlights the key observations and conclusions of the radiology study. However, RRS currently faces essential limitations. First, many prior studies conduct experiments on private datasets, preventing reproduction of results and fair comparisons across different systems and solutions. Second, most prior approaches are evaluated solely on chest X-rays. To address these limitations, we propose a dataset (MIMIC-RRS) involving three new modalities and seven new anatomies based on the MIMIC-III and MIMIC-CXR datasets. We then conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the performance of models both within and across modality-anatomy pairs in MIMIC-RRS. In addition, we evaluate their clinical efficacy via RadGraph, a factual correctness metric.

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Improving Radiology Summarization with Radiograph and Anatomy Prompts
Jinpeng Hu | Zhihong Chen | Yang Liu | Xiang Wan | Tsung-Hui Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

The impression is crucial for the referring physicians to grasp key information since it is concluded from the findings and reasoning of radiologists. To alleviate the workload of radiologists and reduce repetitive human labor in impression writing, many researchers have focused on automatic impression generation. However, recent works on this task mainly summarize the corresponding findings and pay less attention to the radiology images. In clinical, radiographs can provide more detailed valuable observations to enhance radiologists’ impression writing, especially for complicated cases. Besides, each sentence in findings usually focuses on single anatomy, such that they only need to be matched to corresponding anatomical regions instead of the whole image, which is beneficial for textual and visual features alignment. Therefore, we propose a novel anatomy-enhanced multimodal model to promote impression generation. In detail, we first construct a set of rules to extract anatomies and put these prompts into each sentence to highlight anatomy characteristics. Then, two separate encoders are applied to extract features from the radiograph and findings. Afterward, we utilize a contrastive learning module to align these two representations at the overall level and use a co-attention to fuse them at the sentence level with the help of anatomy-enhanced sentence representation. The experimental results on two benchmark datasets confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method, which achieves state-of-the-art results.

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On the Difference of BERT-style and CLIP-style Text Encoders
Zhihong Chen | Guiming Chen | Shizhe Diao | Xiang Wan | Benyou Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Masked language modeling (MLM) has been one of the most popular pretraining recipes in natural language processing, e.g., BERT, one of the representative models. Recently, contrastive language-image pretraining (CLIP) has also attracted attention, especially its vision models that achieve excellent performance on a broad range of vision tasks. However, few studies are dedicated to studying the text encoders learned by CLIP. In this paper, we analyze the difference between BERT-style and CLIP-style text encoders from three experiments: (i) general text understanding, (ii) vision-centric text understanding, and (iii) text-to-image generation. Experimental analyses show that although CLIP-style text encoders underperform BERT-style ones for general text understanding tasks, they are equipped with a unique ability, i.e., synesthesia, for the cross-modal association, which is more similar to the senses of humans.

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HuatuoGPT, Towards Taming Language Model to Be a Doctor
Hongbo Zhang | Junying Chen | Feng Jiang | Fei Yu | Zhihong Chen | Guiming Chen | Jianquan Li | Xiangbo Wu | Zhang Zhiyi | Qingying Xiao | Xiang Wan | Benyou Wang | Haizhou Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

In this paper, we present HuatuoGPT, a Large Language Model (LLM) for medical consultation. The core recipe of HuatuoGPT is to leverage both distilled data from **ChatGPT** and real-world data from **doctors** in the supervised fine-tuning stage. This is not only because purely using **ChatGPT**-distilled data might cause ‘model collapse’, but also because real-world data from **doctors** would be complementary to **ChatGPT**-distilled data. The responses from ChatGPT are usually detailed, well-presented, fluent, and instruction-followed, but it cannot perform like a doctor in many aspects, e.g. for interactive diagnosis. Therefore, the extra doctors’ data could tame a distilled language model to perform like doctors. To synergize the strengths of both data sources, we introduce RLMF (Reinforcement Learning from Mixed Feedback) where a reward model is trained to align the language model with the merits that both sources (ChatGPT and doctors) bring. Experimental results (in GPT-4 evaluation, human evaluation, and medical benchmark datasets) demonstrate that HuatuoGPT achieves state-of-the-art results in performing medical consultation among open-source LLMs. It is worth noting that by using additional real-world data and RLMF, the distilled language model (i.e., HuatuoGPT) outperforms its teacher model (i.e., ChatGPT) in most cases.


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Graph Enhanced Contrastive Learning for Radiology Findings Summarization
Jinpeng Hu | Zhuo Li | Zhihong Chen | Zhen Li | Xiang Wan | Tsung-Hui Chang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The impression section of a radiology report summarizes the most prominent observation from the findings section and is the most important section for radiologists to communicate to physicians. Summarizing findings is time-consuming and can be prone to error for inexperienced radiologists, and thus automatic impression generation has attracted substantial attention. With the encoder-decoder framework, most previous studies explore incorporating extra knowledge (e.g., static pre-defined clinical ontologies or extra background information). Yet, they encode such knowledge by a separate encoder to treat it as an extra input to their models, which is limited in leveraging their relations with the original findings. To address the limitation, we propose a unified framework for exploiting both extra knowledge and the original findings in an integrated way so that the critical information (i.e., key words and their relations) can be extracted in an appropriate way to facilitate impression generation. In detail, for each input findings, it is encoded by a text encoder and a graph is constructed through its entities and dependency tree. Then, a graph encoder (e.g., graph neural networks (GNNs)) is adopted to model relation information in the constructed graph. Finally, to emphasize the key words in the findings, contrastive learning is introduced to map positive samples (constructed by masking non-key words) closer and push apart negative ones (constructed by masking key words). The experimental results on two datasets, OpenI and MIMIC-CXR, confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method, where the state-of-the-art results are achieved.


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Cross-modal Memory Networks for Radiology Report Generation
Zhihong Chen | Yaling Shen | Yan Song | Xiang Wan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Medical imaging plays a significant role in clinical practice of medical diagnosis, where the text reports of the images are essential in understanding them and facilitating later treatments. By generating the reports automatically, it is beneficial to help lighten the burden of radiologists and significantly promote clinical automation, which already attracts much attention in applying artificial intelligence to medical domain. Previous studies mainly follow the encoder-decoder paradigm and focus on the aspect of text generation, with few studies considering the importance of cross-modal mappings and explicitly exploit such mappings to facilitate radiology report generation. In this paper, we propose a cross-modal memory networks (CMN) to enhance the encoder-decoder framework for radiology report generation, where a shared memory is designed to record the alignment between images and texts so as to facilitate the interaction and generation across modalities. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed model, where state-of-the-art performance is achieved on two widely used benchmark datasets, i.e., IU X-Ray and MIMIC-CXR. Further analyses also prove that our model is able to better align information from radiology images and texts so as to help generating more accurate reports in terms of clinical indicators.

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Word Graph Guided Summarization for Radiology Findings
Jinpeng Hu | Jianling Li | Zhihong Chen | Yaling Shen | Yan Song | Xiang Wan | Tsung-Hui Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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Generating Radiology Reports via Memory-driven Transformer
Zhihong Chen | Yan Song | Tsung-Hui Chang | Xiang Wan
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Medical imaging is frequently used in clinical practice and trials for diagnosis and treatment. Writing imaging reports is time-consuming and can be error-prone for inexperienced radiologists. Therefore, automatically generating radiology reports is highly desired to lighten the workload of radiologists and accordingly promote clinical automation, which is an essential task to apply artificial intelligence to the medical domain. In this paper, we propose to generate radiology reports with memory-driven Transformer, where a relational memory is designed to record key information of the generation process and a memory-driven conditional layer normalization is applied to incorporating the memory into the decoder of Transformer. Experimental results on two prevailing radiology report datasets, IU X-Ray and MIMIC-CXR, show that our proposed approach outperforms previous models with respect to both language generation metrics and clinical evaluations. Particularly, this is the first work reporting the generation results on MIMIC-CXR to the best of our knowledge. Further analyses also demonstrate that our approach is able to generate long reports with necessary medical terms as well as meaningful image-text attention mappings.