Zhiting Hu


2023

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BertNet: Harvesting Knowledge Graphs with Arbitrary Relations from Pretrained Language Models
Shibo Hao | Bowen Tan | Kaiwen Tang | Bin Ni | Xiyan Shao | Hengzhe Zhang | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

It is crucial to automatically construct knowledge graphs (KGs) of diverse new relations to support knowledge discovery and broad applications. Previous KG construction methods, based on either crowdsourcing or text mining, are often limited to a small predefined set of relations due to manual cost or restrictions in text corpus. Recent research proposed to use pretrained language models (LMs) as implicit knowledge bases that accept knowledge queries with prompts. Yet, the implicit knowledge lacks many desirable properties of a full-scale symbolic KG, such as easy access, navigation, editing, and quality assurance. In this paper, we propose a new approach of harvesting massive KGs of arbitrary relations from pretrained LMs. With minimal input of a relation definition (a prompt and a few shot of example entity pairs), the approach efficiently searches in the vast entity pair space to extract diverse accurate knowledge of the desired relation. We develop an effective search-and-rescore mechanism for improved efficiency and accuracy. We deploy the approach to harvest KGs of over 400 new relations, from LMs of varying capacities such as RoBERTaNet. Extensive human and automatic evaluations show our approach manages to extract diverse accurate knowledge, including tuples of complex relations (e.g., “A is capable of but not good at B”). The resulting KGs as a symbolic interpretation of the source LMs also reveal new insights into the LMs’ knowledge capacities.

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Reasoning with Language Model is Planning with World Model
Shibo Hao | Yi Gu | Haodi Ma | Joshua Hong | Zhen Wang | Daisy Wang | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large language models (LLMs) have shown remarkable reasoning capabilities, particularly with Chain-of-Thought-style prompts. However, LLMs can still struggle with problems that are easy for humans, such as generating action plans for executing tasks or performing complex math or logical reasoning. This is due to LLMs’ absence of an internal world model for predicting world states (e.g., environment status, variable values) and simulating long-term action outcomes of actions. This prevents LLMs from performing deliberate planning akin to human brains, which involves exploring alternative reasoning paths, anticipating future states and rewards, and iteratively refining existing reasoning steps. To overcome the limitations, we propose a new LLM reasoning framework, Reasoning via Planning (RAP). RAP repurposes the LLM as both a world model and a reasoning agent, and incorporates a principled planning algorithm (based on Monte Carlo Tree Search) for strategic exploration in the vast reasoning space. During reasoning, the LLM (as agent) incrementally builds a reasoning tree under the guidance of the LLM (as world model) and task-specific rewards, properly balancing exploration v.s. exploitation to achieve a high-reward reasoning path efficiently. We apply RAP to a variety of challenging reasoning problems, such as plan generation, math reasoning, and logical inference. Empirical results demonstrate the superiority of RAP over various strong baselines, including CoT and least-to-most prompting with self-consistency, e.g., RAP on LLaMA-33B surpasses CoT on GPT-4 with 33% relative improvement in plan generation.

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Composable Text Controls in Latent Space with ODEs
Guangyi Liu | Zeyu Feng | Yuan Gao | Zichao Yang | Xiaodan Liang | Junwei Bao | Xiaodong He | Shuguang Cui | Zhen Li | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Real-world text applications often involve composing a wide range of text control operations, such as editing the text w.r.t. an attribute, manipulating keywords and structure, and generating new text of desired properties. Prior work typically learns/finetunes a language model (LM) to perform individual or specific subsets of operations. Recent research has studied combining operations in a plug-and-play manner, often with costly search or optimization in the complex sequence space. This paper proposes a new efficient approach for composable text operations in the compact latent space of text. The low-dimensionality and differentiability of the text latent vector allow us to develop an efficient sampler based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) given arbitrary plug-in operators (e.g., attribute classifiers). By connecting pretrained LMs (e.g., GPT2) to the latent space through efficient adaption, we then decode the sampled vectors into desired text sequences. The flexible approach permits diverse control operators (sentiment, tense, formality, keywords, etc.) acquired using any relevant data from different domains. Experiments show that composing those operators within our approach manages to generate or edit high-quality text, substantially improving over previous methods in terms of generation quality and efficiency.

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AlignScore: Evaluating Factual Consistency with A Unified Alignment Function
Yuheng Zha | Yichi Yang | Ruichen Li | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Many text generation applications require the generated text to be factually consistent with input information. Automatic evaluation of factual consistency is challenging. Previous work has developed various metrics that often depend on specific functions, such as natural language inference (NLI) or question answering (QA), trained on limited data. Those metrics thus can hardly assess diverse factual inconsistencies (e.g., contradictions, hallucinations) that occur in varying inputs/outputs (e.g., sentences, documents) from different tasks. In this paper, we propose AlignScore, a new holistic metric that applies to a variety of factual inconsistency scenarios as above. AlignScore is based on a general function of information alignment between two arbitrary text pieces. Crucially, we develop a unified training framework of the alignment function by integrating a large diversity of data sources, resulting in 4.7M training examples from 7 well-established tasks (NLI, QA, paraphrasing, fact verification, information retrieval, semantic similarity, and summarization). We conduct extensive experiments on large-scale benchmarks including 22 evaluation datasets, where 19 of the datasets were never seen in the alignment training. AlignScore achieves substantial improvement over a wide range of previous metrics. Moreover, AlignScore (355M parameters) matches or even outperforms metrics based on ChatGPT and GPT-4 that are orders of magnitude larger.

2022

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ASDOT: Any-Shot Data-to-Text Generation with Pretrained Language Models
Jiannan Xiang | Zhengzhong Liu | Yucheng Zhou | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Data-to-text generation is challenging due to the great variety of the input data in terms of domains (e.g., finance vs sports) or schemata (e.g., diverse predicates). Recent end-to-end neural methods thus require substantial training examples to learn to disambiguate and describe the data. Yet, real-world data-to-text problems often suffer from various data-scarce issues: one may have access to only a handful of or no training examples, and/or have to rely on examples in a different domain or schema. To fill this gap, we propose Any-Shot Data-to-Text (ASDOT), a new approach flexibly applicable to diverse settings by making efficient use of any given (or no) examples. ASDOT consists of two steps, data disambiguation and sentence fusion, both of which are amenable to be solved with off-the-shelf pretrained language models (LMs) with optional finetuning. In the data disambiguation stage, we employ the prompted GPT-3 model to understand possibly ambiguous triples from the input data and convert each into a short sentence with reduced ambiguity. The sentence fusion stage then uses an LM like T5 to fuse all the resulting sentences into a coherent paragraph as the final description. We evaluate extensively on various datasets in different scenarios, including the zero-/few-/full-shot settings, and generalization to unseen predicates and out-of-domain data. Experimental results show that ASDOT consistently achieves significant improvement over baselines, e.g., a 30.81 BLEU gain on the DART dataset under the zero-shot setting.

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Efficient (Soft) Q-Learning for Text Generation with Limited Good Data
Han Guo | Bowen Tan | Zhengzhong Liu | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is the predominant algorithm for training text generation models. This paradigm relies on direct supervision examples, which is not applicable to many emerging applications, such as generating adversarial attacks or generating prompts to control language models. Reinforcement learning (RL) on the other hand offers a more flexible solution by allowing users to plug in arbitrary task metrics as reward. Yet previous RL algorithms for text generation, such as policy gradient (on-policy RL) and Q-learning (off-policy RL), are often notoriously inefficient or unstable to train due to the large sequence space and the sparse reward received only at the end of sequences. In this paper, we introduce a new RL formulation for text generation from the soft Q-learning (SQL) perspective. It enables us to draw from the latest RL advances, such as path consistency learning, to combine the best of on-/off-policy updates, and learn effectively from sparse reward. We apply the approach to a wide range of novel text generation tasks, including learning from noisy/negative examples, adversarial attacks, and prompt generation. Experiments show our approach consistently outperforms both task-specialized algorithms and the previous RL methods.

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Deep Learning for Text Style Transfer: A Survey
Di Jin | Zhijing Jin | Zhiting Hu | Olga Vechtomova | Rada Mihalcea
Computational Linguistics, Volume 48, Issue 1 - March 2022

Text style transfer is an important task in natural language generation, which aims to control certain attributes in the generated text, such as politeness, emotion, humor, and many others. It has a long history in the field of natural language processing, and recently has re-gained significant attention thanks to the promising performance brought by deep neural models. In this article, we present a systematic survey of the research on neural text style transfer, spanning over 100 representative articles since the first neural text style transfer work in 2017. We discuss the task formulation, existing datasets and subtasks, evaluation, as well as the rich methodologies in the presence of parallel and non-parallel data. We also provide discussions on a variety of important topics regarding the future development of this task.1

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Don’t Take It Literally: An Edit-Invariant Sequence Loss for Text Generation
Guangyi Liu | Zichao Yang | Tianhua Tao | Xiaodan Liang | Junwei Bao | Zhen Li | Xiaodong He | Shuguang Cui | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Neural text generation models are typically trained by maximizing log-likelihood with the sequence cross entropy (CE) loss, which encourages an exact token-by-token match between a target sequence with a generated sequence. Such training objective is sub-optimal when the target sequence is not perfect, e.g., when the target sequence is corrupted with noises, or when only weak sequence supervision is available. To address the challenge, we propose a novel Edit-Invariant Sequence Loss (EISL), which computes the matching loss of a target n-gram with all n-grams in the generated sequence. EISL is designed to be robust to various noises and edits in the target sequences. Moreover, the EISL computation is essentially an approximate convolution operation with target n-grams as kernels, which is easy to implement and efficient to compute with existing libraries. To demonstrate the effectiveness of EISL, we conduct experiments on a wide range of tasks, including machine translation with noisy target sequences, unsupervised text style transfer with only weak training signals, and non-autoregressive generation with non-predefined generation order. Experimental results show our method significantly outperforms the common CE loss and other strong baselines on all the tasks. EISL has a simple API that can be used as a drop-in replacement of the CE loss: https://github.com/guangyliu/EISL.

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RLPrompt: Optimizing Discrete Text Prompts with Reinforcement Learning
Mingkai Deng | Jianyu Wang | Cheng-Ping Hsieh | Yihan Wang | Han Guo | Tianmin Shu | Meng Song | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Prompting has shown impressive success in enabling large pre-trained language models (LMs) to perform diverse NLP tasks, especially with only few downstream data. Automatically finding the optimal prompt for each task, however, is challenging. Most existing work resorts to tuning *soft* prompts (e.g., embeddings) which fall short of interpretability, reusability across LMs, and applicability when gradients are not accessible. *Discrete* prompts, on the other hand, are difficult to optimize, and are often created by “enumeration (e.g., paraphrasing)-then-selection” heuristics that do not explore the prompt space systematically. This paper proposes RLPrompt, an efficient discrete prompt optimization approach with reinforcement learning (RL). RLPrompt formulates a parameter-efficient policy network that generates the optimized discrete prompt after training with reward. To harness the complex and stochastic reward signals from the large LM environment, we incorporate effective reward stabilization that substantially enhances training efficiency. RLPrompt is flexibly applicable to different types of LMs, such as masked (e.g., BERT) and left-to-right models (e.g., GPTs), for both classification and generation tasks. Experiments on few-shot classification and unsupervised text style transfer show superior performance over a wide range of existing fine-tuning or prompting methods. Interestingly, the resulting optimized prompts are often ungrammatical gibberish text; and surprisingly, those gibberish prompts are transferrable between different LMs to retain significant performance, indicating that LM prompting may not follow human language patterns.

2021

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Semantic Aligned Multi-modal Transformer for Vision-LanguageUnderstanding: A Preliminary Study on Visual QA
Han Ding | Li Erran Li | Zhiting Hu | Yi Xu | Dilek Hakkani-Tur | Zheng Du | Belinda Zeng
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Multimodal Artificial Intelligence

Recent vision-language understanding approaches adopt a multi-modal transformer pre-training and finetuning paradigm. Prior work learns representations of text tokens and visual features with cross-attention mechanisms and captures the alignment solely based on indirect signals. In this work, we propose to enhance the alignment mechanism by incorporating image scene graph structures as the bridge between the two modalities, and learning with new contrastive objectives. In our preliminary study on the challenging compositional visual question answering task, we show the proposed approach achieves improved results, demonstrating potentials to enhance vision-language understanding.

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Compression, Transduction, and Creation: A Unified Framework for Evaluating Natural Language Generation
Mingkai Deng | Bowen Tan | Zhengzhong Liu | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Natural language generation (NLG) spans a broad range of tasks, each of which serves for specific objectives and desires different properties of generated text. The complexity makes automatic evaluation of NLG particularly challenging. Previous work has typically focused on a single task and developed individual evaluation metrics based on specific intuitions. In this paper, we propose a unifying perspective based on the nature of information change in NLG tasks, including compression (e.g., summarization), transduction (e.g., text rewriting), and creation (e.g., dialog). _Information alignment_ between input, context, and output text plays a common central role in characterizing the generation. With automatic alignment prediction models, we develop a family of interpretable metrics that are suitable for evaluating key aspects of different NLG tasks, often without need of gold reference data. Experiments show the uniformly designed metrics achieve stronger or comparable correlations with human judgement compared to state-of-the-art metrics in each of diverse tasks, including text summarization, style transfer, and knowledge-grounded dialog.

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Knowledge-Enriched Natural Language Generation
Wenhao Yu | Meng Jiang | Zhiting Hu | Qingyun Wang | Heng Ji | Nazneen Rajani
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts

Knowledge-enriched text generation poses unique challenges in modeling and learning, driving active research in several core directions, ranging from integrated modeling of neural representations and symbolic information in the sequential/hierarchical/graphical structures, learning without direct supervisions due to the cost of structured annotation, efficient optimization and inference with massive and global constraints, to language grounding on multiple modalities, and generative reasoning with implicit commonsense knowledge and background knowledge. In this tutorial we will present a roadmap to line up the state-of-the-art methods to tackle these challenges on this cutting-edge problem. We will dive deep into various technical components: how to represent knowledge, how to feed knowledge into a generation model, how to evaluate generation results, and what are the remaining challenges?

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Progressive Generation of Long Text with Pretrained Language Models
Bowen Tan | Zichao Yang | Maruan Al-Shedivat | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Large-scale language models (LMs) pretrained on massive corpora of text, such as GPT-2, are powerful open-domain text generators. However, as our systematic examination reveals, it is still challenging for such models to generate coherent long passages of text (e.g., 1000 tokens), especially when the models are fine-tuned to the target domain on a small corpus. Previous planning-then-generation methods also fall short of producing such long text in various domains. To overcome the limitations, we propose a simple but effective method of generating text in a progressive manner, inspired by generating images from low to high resolution. Our method first produces domain-specific content keywords and then progressively refines them into complete passages in multiple stages. The simple design allows our approach to take advantage of pretrained LMs at each stage and effectively adapt to any target domain given only a small set of examples. We conduct a comprehensive empirical study with a broad set of evaluation metrics, and show that our approach significantly improves upon the fine-tuned large LMs and various planning-then-generation methods in terms of quality and sample efficiency. Human evaluation also validates that our model generations are more coherent.

2020

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Summarizing Text on Any Aspects: A Knowledge-Informed Weakly-Supervised Approach
Bowen Tan | Lianhui Qin | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Given a document and a target aspect (e.g., a topic of interest), aspect-based abstractive summarization attempts to generate a summary with respect to the aspect. Previous studies usually assume a small pre-defined set of aspects and fall short of summarizing on other diverse topics. In this work, we study summarizing on arbitrary aspects relevant to the document, which significantly expands the application of the task in practice. Due to the lack of supervision data, we develop a new weak supervision construction method and an aspect modeling scheme, both of which integrate rich external knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and Wikipedia. Experiments show our approach achieves performance boosts on summarizing both real and synthetic documents given pre-defined or arbitrary aspects.

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A Data-Centric Framework for Composable NLP Workflows
Zhengzhong Liu | Guanxiong Ding | Avinash Bukkittu | Mansi Gupta | Pengzhi Gao | Atif Ahmed | Shikun Zhang | Xin Gao | Swapnil Singhavi | Linwei Li | Wei Wei | Zecong Hu | Haoran Shi | Xiaodan Liang | Teruko Mitamura | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Empirical natural language processing (NLP) systems in application domains (e.g., healthcare, finance, education) involve interoperation among multiple components, ranging from data ingestion, human annotation, to text retrieval, analysis, generation, and visualization. We establish a unified open-source framework to support fast development of such sophisticated NLP workflows in a composable manner. The framework introduces a uniform data representation to encode heterogeneous results by a wide range of NLP tasks. It offers a large repository of processors for NLP tasks, visualization, and annotation, which can be easily assembled with full interoperability under the unified representation. The highly extensible framework allows plugging in custom processors from external off-the-shelf NLP and deep learning libraries. The whole framework is delivered through two modularized yet integratable open-source projects, namely Forte (for workflow infrastructure and NLP function processors) and Stave (for user interaction, visualization, and annotation).

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Data-to-Text Generation with Style Imitation
Shuai Lin | Wentao Wang | Zichao Yang | Xiaodan Liang | Frank F. Xu | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Recent neural approaches to data-to-text generation have mostly focused on improving content fidelity while lacking explicit control over writing styles (e.g., sentence structures, word choices). More traditional systems use templates to determine the realization of text. Yet manual or automatic construction of high-quality templates is difficult, and a template acting as hard constraints could harm content fidelity when it does not match the record perfectly. We study a new way of stylistic control by using existing sentences as “soft” templates. That is, a model learns to imitate the writing style of any given exemplar sentence, with automatic adaptions to faithfully describe the record. The problem is challenging due to the lack of parallel data. We develop a neural approach that includes a hybrid attention-copy mechanism, learns with weak supervisions, and is enhanced with a new content coverage constraint. We conduct experiments in restaurants and sports domains. Results show our approach achieves stronger performance than a range of comparison methods. Our approach balances well between content fidelity and style control given exemplars that match the records to varying degrees.

2019

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Target-Guided Open-Domain Conversation
Jianheng Tang | Tiancheng Zhao | Chenyan Xiong | Xiaodan Liang | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Many real-world open-domain conversation applications have specific goals to achieve during open-ended chats, such as recommendation, psychotherapy, education, etc. We study the problem of imposing conversational goals on open-domain chat agents. In particular, we want a conversational system to chat naturally with human and proactively guide the conversation to a designated target subject. The problem is challenging as no public data is available for learning such a target-guided strategy. We propose a structured approach that introduces coarse-grained keywords to control the intended content of system responses. We then attain smooth conversation transition through turn-level supervised learning, and drive the conversation towards the target with discourse-level constraints. We further derive a keyword-augmented conversation dataset for the study. Quantitative and human evaluations show our system can produce meaningful and effective conversations, significantly improving over other approaches

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Texar: A Modularized, Versatile, and Extensible Toolkit for Text Generation
Zhiting Hu | Haoran Shi | Bowen Tan | Wentao Wang | Zichao Yang | Tiancheng Zhao | Junxian He | Lianhui Qin | Di Wang | Xuezhe Ma | Zhengzhong Liu | Xiaodan Liang | Wanrong Zhu | Devendra Sachan | Eric Xing
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We introduce Texar, an open-source toolkit aiming to support the broad set of text generation tasks that transform any inputs into natural language, such as machine translation, summarization, dialog, content manipulation, and so forth. With the design goals of modularity, versatility, and extensibility in mind, Texar extracts common patterns underlying the diverse tasks and methodologies, creates a library of highly reusable modules and functionalities, and allows arbitrary model architectures and algorithmic paradigms. In Texar, model architecture, inference, and learning processes are properly decomposed. Modules at a high concept level can be freely assembled or plugged in/swapped out. Texar is thus particularly suitable for researchers and practitioners to do fast prototyping and experimentation. The versatile toolkit also fosters technique sharing across different text generation tasks. Texar supports both TensorFlow and PyTorch, and is released under Apache License 2.0 at https://www.texar.io.

2018

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Texar: A Modularized, Versatile, and Extensible Toolbox for Text Generation
Zhiting Hu | Zichao Yang | Tiancheng Zhao | Haoran Shi | Junxian He | Di Wang | Xuezhe Ma | Zhengzhong Liu | Xiaodan Liang | Lianhui Qin | Devendra Singh Chaplot | Bowen Tan | Xingjiang Yu | Eric Xing
Proceedings of Workshop for NLP Open Source Software (NLP-OSS)

We introduce Texar, an open-source toolkit aiming to support the broad set of text generation tasks. Different from many existing toolkits that are specialized for specific applications (e.g., neural machine translation), Texar is designed to be highly flexible and versatile. This is achieved by abstracting the common patterns underlying the diverse tasks and methodologies, creating a library of highly reusable modules and functionalities, and enabling arbitrary model architectures and various algorithmic paradigms. The features make Texar particularly suitable for technique sharing and generalization across different text generation applications. The toolkit emphasizes heavily on extensibility and modularized system design, so that components can be freely plugged in or swapped out. We conduct extensive experiments and case studies to demonstrate the use and advantage of the toolkit.

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Automatic Article Commenting: the Task and Dataset
Lianhui Qin | Lemao Liu | Wei Bi | Yan Wang | Xiaojiang Liu | Zhiting Hu | Hai Zhao | Shuming Shi
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Comments of online articles provide extended views and improve user engagement. Automatically making comments thus become a valuable functionality for online forums, intelligent chatbots, etc. This paper proposes the new task of automatic article commenting, and introduces a large-scale Chinese dataset with millions of real comments and a human-annotated subset characterizing the comments’ varying quality. Incorporating the human bias of comment quality, we further develop automatic metrics that generalize a broad set of popular reference-based metrics and exhibit greatly improved correlations with human evaluations.

2017

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Adversarial Connective-exploiting Networks for Implicit Discourse Relation Classification
Lianhui Qin | Zhisong Zhang | Hai Zhao | Zhiting Hu | Eric Xing
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Implicit discourse relation classification is of great challenge due to the lack of connectives as strong linguistic cues, which motivates the use of annotated implicit connectives to improve the recognition. We propose a feature imitation framework in which an implicit relation network is driven to learn from another neural network with access to connectives, and thus encouraged to extract similarly salient features for accurate classification. We develop an adversarial model to enable an adaptive imitation scheme through competition between the implicit network and a rival feature discriminator. Our method effectively transfers discriminability of connectives to the implicit features, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on the PDTB benchmark.

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Neural Machine Translation with Recurrent Attention Modeling
Zichao Yang | Zhiting Hu | Yuntian Deng | Chris Dyer | Alex Smola
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers

Knowing which words have been attended to in previous time steps while generating a translation is a rich source of information for predicting what words will be attended to in the future. We improve upon the attention model of Bahdanau et al. (2014) by explicitly modeling the relationship between previous and subsequent attention levels for each word using one recurrent network per input word. This architecture easily captures informative features, such as fertility and regularities in relative distortion. In experiments, we show our parameterization of attention improves translation quality.

2016

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Learning Concept Taxonomies from Multi-modal Data
Hao Zhang | Zhiting Hu | Yuntian Deng | Mrinmaya Sachan | Zhicheng Yan | Eric Xing
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Harnessing Deep Neural Networks with Logic Rules
Zhiting Hu | Xuezhe Ma | Zhengzhong Liu | Eduard Hovy | Eric Xing
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Deep Neural Networks with Massive Learned Knowledge
Zhiting Hu | Zichao Yang | Ruslan Salakhutdinov | Eric Xing
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Joint Embedding of Hierarchical Categories and Entities for Concept Categorization and Dataless Classification
Yuezhang Li | Ronghuo Zheng | Tian Tian | Zhiting Hu | Rahul Iyer | Katia Sycara
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Existing work learning distributed representations of knowledge base entities has largely failed to incorporate rich categorical structure, and is unable to induce category representations. We propose a new framework that embeds entities and categories jointly into a semantic space, by integrating structured knowledge and taxonomy hierarchy from large knowledge bases. Our framework enables to compute meaningful semantic relatedness between entities and categories in a principled way, and can handle both single-word and multiple-word concepts. Our method shows significant improvement on the tasks of concept categorization and dataless hierarchical classification.

2015

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Entity Hierarchy Embedding
Zhiting Hu | Poyao Huang | Yuntian Deng | Yingkai Gao | Eric Xing
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)