Zhiwei Liu


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DialogStudio: Towards Richest and Most Diverse Unified Dataset Collection for Conversational AI
Jianguo Zhang | Kun Qian | Zhiwei Liu | Shelby Heinecke | Rui Meng | Ye Liu | Zhou Yu | Huan Wang | Silvio Savarese | Caiming Xiong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2024

Despite advancements in conversational AI, language models encounter challenges to handle diverse conversational tasks, and existing dialogue dataset collections often lack diversity and comprehensiveness. To tackle these issues, we introduce DialogStudio: the largest and most diverse collection of dialogue datasets, unified under a consistent format while preserving their original information. Our collection encompasses data from open-domain dialogues, task-oriented dialogues, natural language understanding, conversational recommendation, dialogue summarization, and knowledge-grounded dialogues, making it an incredibly rich and diverse resource for dialogue research and model training.To further enhance the utility of DialogStudio, we identify the licenses for each dataset, design external knowledge and domain-aware prompts for selected dialogues to facilitate instruction-aware fine-tuning. To improve transparency and support dataset and task-based research, as well as language model pre-training, all datasets, licenses, codes, and models associated with DialogStudio will be made publicly accessible.


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Enhancing Performance on Seen and Unseen Dialogue Scenarios using Retrieval-Augmented End-to-End Task-Oriented System
Jianguo Zhang | Stephen Roller | Kun Qian | Zhiwei Liu | Rui Meng | Shelby Heinecke | Huan Wang | Silvio Savarese | Caiming Xiong
Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

End-to-end task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems have achieved promising performance by leveraging sophisticated natural language understanding and natural language generation capabilities of pre-trained models. This work enables the TOD systems with more flexibility through a simple cache. The cache provides the flexibility to dynamically update the TOD systems and handle both existing and unseen dialogue scenarios. Towards this end, we first fine-tune a retrieval module to effectively retrieve the most relevant information entries from the cache. We then train end-to-end TOD models that can refer to and ground on both dialogue history and retrieved information during TOD generation. The introduced cache is straightforward to construct, and the backbone models of TOD systems are compatible with existing pre-trained generative models. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our framework, with a notable improvement in non-empty joint goal accuracy by 6.7% compared to strong baselines.

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CHEER: Centrality-aware High-order Event Reasoning Network for Document-level Event Causality Identification
Meiqi Chen | Yixin Cao | Yan Zhang | Zhiwei Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document-level Event Causality Identification (DECI) aims to recognize causal relations between events within a document. Recent studies focus on building a document-level graph for cross-sentence reasoning, but ignore important causal structures — there are one or two “central” events that prevail throughout the document, with most other events serving as either their cause or consequence. In this paper, we manually annotate central events for a systematical investigation and propose a novel DECI model, CHEER, which performs high-order reasoning while considering event centrality. First, we summarize a general GNN-based DECI model and provide a unified view for better understanding. Second, we design an Event Interaction Graph (EIG) involving the interactions among events (e.g., coreference) and event pairs, e.g., causal transitivity, cause(A, B) AND cause(B, C) → cause(A, C). Finally, we incorporate event centrality information into the EIG reasoning network via well-designed features and multi-task learning. We have conducted extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets. The results present great improvements (5.9% F1 gains on average) and demonstrate the effectiveness of each main component.


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Choose Your QA Model Wisely: A Systematic Study of Generative and Extractive Readers for Question Answering
Man Luo | Kazuma Hashimoto | Semih Yavuz | Zhiwei Liu | Chitta Baral | Yingbo Zhou
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Semiparametric Methods in NLP: Decoupling Logic from Knowledge

While both extractive and generative readers have been successfully applied to the Question Answering (QA) task, little attention has been paid toward the systematic comparison of them. Characterizing the strengths and weaknesses of the two readers is crucial not only for making a more informed reader selection in practice but also for developing a deeper understanding to foster further research on improving readers in a principled manner. Motivated by this goal, we make the first attempt to systematically study the comparison of extractive and generative readers for question answering. To be aligned with the state-of-the-art, we explore nine transformer-based large pre-trained language models (PrLMs) as backbone architectures. Furthermore, we organize our findings under two main categories: (1) keeping the architecture invariant, and (2) varying the underlying PrLMs. Among several interesting findings, it is important to highlight that (1) the generative readers perform better in long context QA, (2) the extractive readers perform better in short context while also showing better out-of-domain generalization, and (3) the encoder of encoder-decoder PrLMs (e.g., T5) turns out to be a strong extractive reader and outperforms the standard choice of encoder-only PrLMs (e.g., RoBERTa). We also study the effect of multi-task learning on the two types of readers varying the underlying PrLMs and perform qualitative and quantitative diagnosis to provide further insights into future directions in modeling better readers.

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Are Pre-trained Transformers Robust in Intent Classification? A Missing Ingredient in Evaluation of Out-of-Scope Intent Detection
Jianguo Zhang | Kazuma Hashimoto | Yao Wan | Zhiwei Liu | Ye Liu | Caiming Xiong | Philip Yu
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on NLP for Conversational AI

Pre-trained Transformer-based models were reported to be robust in intent classification. In this work, we first point out the importance of in-domain out-of-scope detection in few-shot intent recognition tasks and then illustrate the vulnerability of pre-trained Transformer-based models against samples that are in-domain but out-of-scope (ID-OOS). We construct two new datasets, and empirically show that pre-trained models do not perform well on both ID-OOS examples and general out-of-scope examples, especially on fine-grained few-shot intent detection tasks.


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Few-Shot Intent Detection via Contrastive Pre-Training and Fine-Tuning
Jianguo Zhang | Trung Bui | Seunghyun Yoon | Xiang Chen | Zhiwei Liu | Congying Xia | Quan Hung Tran | Walter Chang | Philip Yu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this work, we focus on a more challenging few-shot intent detection scenario where many intents are fine-grained and semantically similar. We present a simple yet effective few-shot intent detection schema via contrastive pre-training and fine-tuning. Specifically, we first conduct self-supervised contrastive pre-training on collected intent datasets, which implicitly learns to discriminate semantically similar utterances without using any labels. We then perform few-shot intent detection together with supervised contrastive learning, which explicitly pulls utterances from the same intent closer and pushes utterances across different intents farther. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on three challenging intent detection datasets under 5-shot and 10-shot settings.

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PDALN: Progressive Domain Adaptation over a Pre-trained Model for Low-Resource Cross-Domain Named Entity Recognition
Tao Zhang | Congying Xia | Philip S. Yu | Zhiwei Liu | Shu Zhao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Cross-domain Named Entity Recognition (NER) transfers the NER knowledge from high-resource domains to the low-resource target domain. Due to limited labeled resources and domain shift, cross-domain NER is a challenging task. To address these challenges, we propose a progressive domain adaptation Knowledge Distillation (KD) approach – PDALN. It achieves superior domain adaptability by employing three components: (1) Adaptive data augmentation techniques, which alleviate cross-domain gap and label sparsity simultaneously; (2) Multi-level Domain invariant features, derived from a multi-grained MMD (Maximum Mean Discrepancy) approach, to enable knowledge transfer across domains; (3) Advanced KD schema, which progressively enables powerful pre-trained language models to perform domain adaptation. Extensive experiments on four benchmarks show that PDALN can effectively adapt high-resource domains to low-resource target domains, even if they are diverse in terms and writing styles. Comparison with other baselines indicates the state-of-the-art performance of PDALN.