Dependency trees have been intensively used with graph neural networks for aspect-based sentiment classification. Though being effective, such methods rely on external dependency parsers, which can be unavailable for low-resource languages or perform worse in low-resource domains. In addition, dependency trees are also not optimized for aspect-based sentiment classification. In this paper, we propose an aspect-specific and language-agnostic discrete latent opinion tree model as an alternative structure to explicit dependency trees. To ease the learning of complicated structured latent variables, we build a connection between aspect-to-context attention scores and syntactic distances, inducing trees from the attention scores. Results on six English benchmarks and one Chinese dataset show that our model can achieve competitive performance and interpretability.
Aspect category sentiment analysis has attracted increasing research attention. The dominant methods make use of pre-trained language models by learning effective aspect category-specific representations, and adding specific output layers to its pre-trained representation. We consider a more direct way of making use of pre-trained language models, by casting the ACSA tasks into natural language generation tasks, using natural language sentences to represent the output. Our method allows more direct use of pre-trained knowledge in seq2seq language models by directly following the task setting during pre-training. Experiments on several benchmarks show that our method gives the best reported results, having large advantages in few-shot and zero-shot settings.
Document-level MT models are still far from satisfactory. Existing work extend translation unit from single sentence to multiple sentences. However, study shows that when we further enlarge the translation unit to a whole document, supervised training of Transformer can fail. In this paper, we find such failure is not caused by overfitting, but by sticking around local minima during training. Our analysis shows that the increased complexity of target-to-source attention is a reason for the failure. As a solution, we propose G-Transformer, introducing locality assumption as an inductive bias into Transformer, reducing the hypothesis space of the attention from target to source. Experiments show that G-Transformer converges faster and more stably than Transformer, achieving new state-of-the-art BLEU scores for both nonpretraining and pre-training settings on three benchmark datasets.
AMR-to-text generation is used to transduce Abstract Meaning Representation structures (AMR) into text. A key challenge in this task is to efficiently learn effective graph representations. Previously, Graph Convolution Networks (GCNs) were used to encode input AMRs, however, vanilla GCNs are not able to capture non-local information and additionally, they follow a local (first-order) information aggregation scheme. To account for these issues, larger and deeper GCN models are required to capture more complex interactions. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic fusion mechanism, proposing Lightweight Dynamic Graph Convolutional Networks (LDGCNs) that capture richer non-local interactions by synthesizing higher order information from the input graphs. We further develop two novel parameter saving strategies based on the group graph convolutions and weight tied convolutions to reduce memory usage and model complexity. With the help of these strategies, we are able to train a model with fewer parameters while maintaining the model capacity. Experiments demonstrate that LDGCNs outperform state-of-the-art models on two benchmark datasets for AMR-to-text generation with significantly fewer parameters.
Aspect-level sentiment analysis aims to recognize the sentiment polarity of an aspect or a target in a comment. Recently, graph convolutional networks based on linguistic dependency trees have been studied for this task. However, the dependency parsing accuracy of commercial product comments or tweets might be unsatisfactory. To tackle this problem, we associate linguistic dependency trees with automatically induced aspectspecific graphs. We propose gating mechanisms to dynamically combine information from word dependency graphs and latent graphs which are learned by self-attention networks. Our model can complement supervised syntactic features with latent semantic dependencies. Experimental results on five benchmarks show the effectiveness of our proposed latent models, giving significantly better results than models without using latent graphs.
We focus on graph-to-sequence learning, which can be framed as transducing graph structures to sequences for text generation. To capture structural information associated with graphs, we investigate the problem of encoding graphs using graph convolutional networks (GCNs). Unlike various existing approaches where shallow architectures were used for capturing local structural information only, we introduce a dense connection strategy, proposing a novel Densely Connected Graph Convolutional Network (DCGCN). Such a deep architecture is able to integrate both local and non-local features to learn a better structural representation of a graph. Our model outperforms the state-of-the-art neural models significantly on AMR-to-text generation and syntax-based neural machine translation.
Non-local features have been exploited by syntactic parsers for capturing dependencies between sub output structures. Such features have been a key to the success of state-of-the-art statistical parsers. With the rise of deep learning, however, it has been shown that local output decisions can give highly competitive accuracies, thanks to the power of dense neural input representations that embody global syntactic information. We investigate two conceptually simple local neural models for constituent parsing, which make local decisions to constituent spans and CFG rules, respectively. Consistent with previous findings along the line, our best model gives highly competitive results, achieving the labeled bracketing F1 scores of 92.4% on PTB and 87.3% on CTB 5.1.
Sequential LSTMs have been extended to model tree structures, giving competitive results for a number of tasks. Existing methods model constituent trees by bottom-up combinations of constituent nodes, making direct use of input word information only for leaf nodes. This is different from sequential LSTMs, which contain references to input words for each node. In this paper, we propose a method for automatic head-lexicalization for tree-structure LSTMs, propagating head words from leaf nodes to every constituent node. In addition, enabled by head lexicalization, we build a tree LSTM in the top-down direction, which corresponds to bidirectional sequential LSTMs in structure. Experiments show that both extensions give better representations of tree structures. Our final model gives the best results on the Stanford Sentiment Treebank and highly competitive results on the TREC question type classification task.
We present a light-weight machine learning tool for NLP research. The package supports operations on both discrete and dense vectors, facilitating implementation of linear models as well as neural models. It provides several basic layers which mainly aims for single-layer linear and non-linear transformations. By using these layers, we can conveniently implement linear models and simple neural models. Besides, this package also integrates several complex layers by composing those basic layers, such as RNN, Attention Pooling, LSTM and gated RNN. Those complex layers can be used to implement deep neural models directly.
Measuring the information content of news text is useful for decision makers in their investments since news information can influence the intrinsic values of companies. We propose a model to automatically measure the information content given news text, trained using news and corresponding cumulative abnormal returns of listed companies. Existing methods in finance literature exploit sentiment signal features, which are limited by not considering factors such as events. We address this issue by leveraging deep neural models to extract rich semantic features from news text. In particular, a novel tree-structured LSTM is used to find target-specific representations of news text given syntax structures. Empirical results show that the neural models can outperform sentiment-based models, demonstrating the effectiveness of recent NLP technology advances for computational finance.