Zhiyang Xu


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Ameli: Enhancing Multimodal Entity Linking with Fine-Grained Attributes
Barry Yao | Sijia Wang | Yu Chen | Qifan Wang | Minqian Liu | Zhiyang Xu | Licheng Yu | Lifu Huang
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose attribute-aware multimodal entity linking, where the input consists of a mention described with a text paragraph and images, and the goal is to predict the corresponding target entity from a multimodal knowledge base (KB) where each entity is also accompanied by a text description, visual images, and a collection of attributes that present the meta-information of the entity in a structured format. To facilitate this research endeavor, we construct Ameli, encompassing a new multimodal entity linking benchmark dataset that contains 16,735 mentions described in text and associated with 30,472 images, and a multimodal knowledge base that covers 34,690 entities along with 177,873 entity images and 798,216 attributes. To establish baseline performance on Ameli, we experiment with several state-of-the-art architectures for multimodal entity linking and further propose a new approach that incorporates attributes of entities into disambiguation. Experimental results and extensive qualitative analysis demonstrate that extracting and understanding the attributes of mentions from their text descriptions and visual images play a vital role in multimodal entity linking. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to integrate attributes in the multimodal entity linking task. The programs, model checkpoints, and the dataset are publicly available at https://github.com/VT-NLP/Ameli.


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The Art of SOCRATIC QUESTIONING: Recursive Thinking with Large Language Models
Jingyuan Qi | Zhiyang Xu | Ying Shen | Minqian Liu | Di Jin | Qifan Wang | Lifu Huang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompting enables large language models to solve complex reasoning problems by generating intermediate steps. However, confined by its inherent single-pass and sequential generation process, CoT heavily relies on the initial decisions, causing errors in early steps to accumulate and impact the final answers. In contrast, humans adopt recursive thinking when tackling complex reasoning problems, i.e. iteratively breaking the original problem into approachable sub-problems and aggregating their answers to resolve the original one. Inspired by the human cognitive process, we propose SOCRATIC QUESTIONING, a divide-and-conquer style algorithm that mimics the recursive thinking process. Specifically, SOCRATIC QUESTIONING leverages large language models to raise and answer sub-questions until collecting enough information to tackle the original question. Unlike CoT, SOCRATIC QUESTIONING explicitly navigates the thinking space, stimulates effective recursive thinking, and is more robust towards errors in the thinking process. Extensive experiments on several complex reasoning tasks, including MMLU, MATH, LogiQA, and visual question-answering demonstrate significant performance improvements over the state-of-the-art prompting methods, such as CoT, and Tree-of-Thought. The qualitative analysis clearly shows that the intermediate reasoning steps elicited by SOCRATIC QUESTIONING are similar to humans’ recursively thinking process of complex reasoning problems.

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MultiInstruct: Improving Multi-Modal Zero-Shot Learning via Instruction Tuning
Zhiyang Xu | Ying Shen | Lifu Huang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Instruction tuning, a new learning paradigm that fine-tunes pre-trained language models on tasks specified through instructions, has shown promising zero-shot performance on various natural language processing tasks. However, it has yet to be explored for vision and multimodal tasks. In this work, we introduce MultiInstruct, the first multimodal instruction tuning benchmark dataset that consists of 62 diverse multimodal tasks in a unified seq-to-seq format covering 10 broad categories. The tasks are derived from 21 existing open-source datasets and each task is equipped with 5 expert-written instructions. We take OFA as the base pre-trained model for multimodal instruction tuning, and to further improve its zero-shot performance, we explore multiple transfer learning strategies to leverage the large-scale Natural Instructions dataset. Experimental results demonstrate strong zero-shot performance on various unseen multimodal tasks and the benefit of transfer learning from a text-only instruction dataset. We also design a new evaluation metric – Sensitivity, to evaluate how sensitive the model is to the variety of instructions. Our results indicate that fine-tuning the model on a diverse set of tasks and instructions leads to a reduced sensitivity to variations in instructions for each task.

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Learning from a Friend: Improving Event Extraction via Self-Training with Feedback from Abstract Meaning Representation
Zhiyang Xu | Jay Yoon Lee | Lifu Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Data scarcity has been the main factor that hinders the progress of event extraction. To overcome this issue, we propose a Self-Training with Feedback (STF) framework that leverages the large-scale unlabeled data and acquires feedback for each new event prediction from the unlabeled data by comparing it to the Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) graph of the same sentence. Specifically, STF consists of (1) a base event extraction model trained on existing event annotations and then applied to large-scale unlabeled corpora to predict new event mentions as pseudo training samples, and (2) a novel scoring model that takes in each new predicted event trigger, an argument, its argument role, as well as their paths in the AMR graph to estimate a compatibility score indicating the correctness of the pseudo label. The compatibility scores further act as feedback to encourage or discourage the model learning on the pseudo labels during self-training. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets, including ACE05-E, ACE05-E+, and ERE, demonstrate the effectiveness of the STF framework on event extraction, especially event argument extraction, with significant performance gain over the base event extraction models and strong baselines. Our experimental analysis further shows that STF is a generic framework as it can be applied to improve most, if not all, event extraction models by leveraging large-scale unlabeled data, even when high-quality AMR graph annotations are not available.


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Improved Latent Tree Induction with Distant Supervision via Span Constraints
Zhiyang Xu | Andrew Drozdov | Jay Yoon Lee | Tim O’Gorman | Subendhu Rongali | Dylan Finkbeiner | Shilpa Suresh | Mohit Iyyer | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

For over thirty years, researchers have developed and analyzed methods for latent tree induction as an approach for unsupervised syntactic parsing. Nonetheless, modern systems still do not perform well enough compared to their supervised counterparts to have any practical use as structural annotation of text. In this work, we present a technique that uses distant supervision in the form of span constraints (i.e. phrase bracketing) to improve performance in unsupervised constituency parsing. Using a relatively small number of span constraints we can substantially improve the output from DIORA, an already competitive unsupervised parsing system. Compared with full parse tree annotation, span constraints can be acquired with minimal effort, such as with a lexicon derived from Wikipedia, to find exact text matches. Our experiments show span constraints based on entities improves constituency parsing on English WSJ Penn Treebank by more than 5 F1. Furthermore, our method extends to any domain where span constraints are easily attainable, and as a case study we demonstrate its effectiveness by parsing biomedical text from the CRAFT dataset.