Zhu Liu


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Ambiguity Meets Uncertainty: Investigating Uncertainty Estimation for Word Sense Disambiguation
Zhu Liu | Ying Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Word sense disambiguation (WSD), which aims to determine an appropriate sense for a target word given its context, is crucial for natural language understanding. Existing supervised methods treat WSD as a classification task and have achieved remarkable performance. However, they ignore uncertainty estimation (UE) in the real-world setting, where the data is always noisy and out of distribution. This paper extensively studies UE on the benchmark designed for WSD. Specifically, we first compare four uncertainty scores for a state-of-the-art WSD model and verify that the conventional predictive probabilities obtained at the end of the model are inadequate to quantify uncertainty. Then, we examine the capability of capturing data and model uncertainties by the model with the selected UE score on well-designed test scenarios and discover that the model reflects data uncertainty satisfactorily but underestimates model uncertainty. Furthermore, we explore numerous lexical properties that intrinsically affect data uncertainty and provide a detailed analysis of four critical aspects: the syntactic category, morphology, sense granularity, and semantic relations.


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The Multimodal Presentation Dashboard
Michael Johnston | Patrick Ehlen | David Gibbon | Zhu Liu
Proceedings of the Workshop on Bridging the Gap: Academic and Industrial Research in Dialog Technologies


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A System for Searching and Browsing Spoken Communications
Lee Begeja | Bernard Renger | Murat Saraclar | David Gibbon | Zhu Liu | Behzad Shahraray
Proceedings of the Workshop on Interdisciplinary Approaches to Speech Indexing and Retrieval at HLT-NAACL 2004

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Interactive Machine Learning Techniques for Improving SLU Models
Lee Begeja | Bernard Renger | David Gibbon | Zhu Liu | Behzad Shahraray
Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2004 Workshop on Spoken Language Understanding for Conversational Systems and Higher Level Linguistic Information for Speech Processing