Zhuang Li


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Improving Cross-Domain Low-Resource Text Generation through LLM Post-Editing: A Programmer-Interpreter Approach
Zhuang Li | Levon Haroutunian | Raj Tumuluri | Philip Cohen | Reza Haf
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2024

Post-editing has proven effective in improving the quality of text generated by large language models (LLMs) such as GPT-3.5 or GPT-4, particularly when direct updating of their parameters to enhance text quality is infeasible or expensive. However, relying solely on smaller language models for post-editing can limit the LLMs’ ability to generalize across domains. Moreover, the editing strategies in these methods are not optimally designed for text generation tasks. To address these limitations, we propose a neural programmer-interpreter approach that preserves the domain generalization ability of LLMs while editing their output. The editing actions in this framework are specifically devised for text generation. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the programmer-interpreter significantly enhances GPT-3.5’s performance in logical form-to-text conversion and low-resource machine translation, surpassing other state-of-the-art (SOTA) LLM post-editing methods in cross-domain settings.

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Let’s Negotiate! A Survey of Negotiation Dialogue Systems
Haolan Zhan | Yufei Wang | Zhuang Li | Tao Feng | Yuncheng Hua | Suraj Sharma | Lizhen Qu | Zhaleh Semnani Azad | Ingrid Zukerman | Reza Haf
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2024

Negotiation is a crucial ability in human communication. Recently, there has been a resurgent research interest in negotiation dialogue systems, whose goal is to create intelligent agents that can assist people in resolving conflicts or reaching agreements. Although there have been many explorations into negotiation dialogue systems, a systematic review of this task has not been performed to date. We aim to fill this gap by investigating recent studies in the field of negotiation dialogue systems, and covering benchmarks, evaluations and methodologies within the literature. We also discuss potential future directions, including multi-modal, multi-party and cross-cultural negotiation scenarios. Our goal is to provide the community with a systematic overview of negotiation dialogue systems and to inspire future research.


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Reranking for Natural Language Generation from Logical Forms: A Study based on Large Language Models
Levon Haroutunian | Zhuang Li | Lucian Galescu | Philip Cohen | Raj Tumuluri | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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On Robustness of Prompt-based Semantic Parsing with Large Pre-trained Language Model: An Empirical Study on Codex
Terry Yue Zhuo | Zhuang Li | Yujin Huang | Fatemeh Shiri | Weiqing Wang | Gholamreza Haffari | Yuan-Fang Li
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Semantic parsing is a technique aimed at constructing a structured representation of the meaning of a natural-language question. Recent advances in language models trained on code have shown superior performance in generating these representations compared to language models trained solely on natural language text. The existing fine-tuned neural semantic parsers are vulnerable to adversarial attacks on natural-language inputs. While it has been established that the robustness of smaller semantic parsers can be enhanced through adversarial training, this approach is not feasible for large language models in real-world scenarios, as it requires both substantial computational resources and expensive human annotation on in-domain semantic parsing data. This paper presents the first empirical study on the adversarial robustness of a prompt-based semantic parser based on CODEX, a stateof-the-art (SOTA) language model trained on code. Our results demonstrate that the large language model of code is vulnerable to carefully crafted adversarial examples. To overcome this challenge, we propose methods for enhancing robustness without requiring substantial amounts of labelled data or intensive computational resources.

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Active Learning for Multilingual Semantic Parser
Zhuang Li | Gholamreza Haffari
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Current multilingual semantic parsing (MSP) datasets are almost all collected by translating the utterances in the existing datasets from the resource-rich language to the target language. However, manual translation is costly. To reduce the translation effort, this paper proposes the first active learning procedure for MSP (AL-MSP). AL-MSP selects only a subset from the existing datasets to be translated. We also propose a novel selection method that prioritizes the examples diversifying the logical form structures with more lexical choices, and a novel hyperparameter tuning method that needs no extra annotation cost. Our experiments show that AL-MSP significantly reduces translation costs with ideal selection methods. Our selection method with proper hyperparameters yields better parsing performance than the other baselines on two multilingual datasets.

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FACTUAL: A Benchmark for Faithful and Consistent Textual Scene Graph Parsing
Zhuang Li | Yuyang Chai | Terry Yue Zhuo | Lizhen Qu | Gholamreza Haffari | Fei Li | Donghong Ji | Quan Hung Tran
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Textual scene graph parsing has become increasingly important in various vision-language applications, including image caption evaluation and image retrieval. However, existing scene graph parsers that convert image captions into scene graphs often suffer from two types of errors. First, the generated scene graphs fail to capture the true semantics of the captions or the corresponding images, resulting in a lack of faithfulness. Second, the generated scene graphs have high inconsistency, with the same semantics represented by different annotations. To address these challenges, we propose a novel dataset, which involves re-annotating the captions in Visual Genome (VG) using a new intermediate representation called FACTUAL-MR. FACTUAL-MR can be directly converted into faithful and consistent scene graph annotations. Our experimental results clearly demonstrate that the parser trained on our dataset outperforms existing approaches in terms of faithfulness and consistency. This improvement leads to a significant performance boost in both image caption evaluation and zero-shot image retrieval tasks. Furthermore, we introduce a novel metric for measuring scene graph similarity, which, when combined with the improved scene graph parser, achieves state-of-the-art (SOTA) results on multiple benchmark datasets for the aforementioned tasks.

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TMID: A Comprehensive Real-world Dataset for Trademark Infringement Detection in E-Commerce
Tongxin Hu | Zhuang Li | Xin Jin | Lizhen Qu | Xin Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

Annually, e-commerce platforms incur substantial financial losses due to trademark infringements, making it crucial to identify and mitigate potential legal risks tied to merchant information registered to the platforms. However, the absence of high-quality datasets hampers research in this area. To address this gap, our study introduces TMID, a novel dataset to detect trademark infringement in merchant registrations. This is a real-world dataset sourced directly from Alipay, one of the world’s largest e-commerce and digital payment platforms. As infringement detection is a legal reasoning task requiring an understanding of the contexts and legal rules, we offer a thorough collection of legal rules and merchant and trademark-related contextual information with annotations from legal experts. We ensure the data quality by performing an extensive statistical analysis. Furthermore, we conduct an empirical study on this dataset to highlight its value and the key challenges. Through this study, we aim to contribute valuable resources to advance research into legal compliance related to trademark infringement within the e-commerce sphere.

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The Best of Both Worlds: Combining Human and Machine Translations for Multilingual Semantic Parsing with Active Learning
Zhuang Li | Lizhen Qu | Philip Cohen | Raj Tumuluri | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Multilingual semantic parsing aims to leverage the knowledge from the high-resource languages to improve low-resource semantic parsing, yet commonly suffers from the data imbalance problem. Prior works propose to utilize the translations by either humans or machines to alleviate such issues. However, human translations are expensive, while machine translations are cheap but prone to error and bias. In this work, we propose an active learning approach that exploits the strengths of both human and machine translations by iteratively adding small batches of human translations into the machine-translated training set. Besides, we propose novel aggregated acquisition criteria that help our active learning method select utterances to be manually translated. Our experiments demonstrate that an ideal utterance selection can significantly reduce the error and bias in the translated data, resulting in higher parser accuracies than the parsers merely trained on the machine-translated data.


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Variational Autoencoder with Disentanglement Priors for Low-Resource Task-Specific Natural Language Generation
Zhuang Li | Lizhen Qu | Qiongkai Xu | Tongtong Wu | Tianyang Zhan | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we propose a variational autoencoder with disentanglement priors, VAE-Dprior, for task-specific natural language generation with none or a handful of task-specific labeled examples. In order to tackle compositional generalization across tasks, our model performs disentangled representation learning by introducing a conditional prior for the latent content space and another conditional prior for the latent label space. Both types of priors satisfy a novel property called 𝜖-disentangled. We show both empirically and theoretically that the novel priors can disentangle representations even without specific regularizations as in the prior work. The content prior enables directly sampling diverse content representations from the content space learned from the seen tasks, and fuse them with the representations of novel tasks for generating semantically diverse texts in the low-resource settings. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our model over competitive baselines in terms of i) data augmentation in continuous zero/few-shot learning, and ii) text style transfer in the few-shot setting.


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Total Recall: a Customized Continual Learning Method for Neural Semantic Parsers
Zhuang Li | Lizhen Qu | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper investigates continual learning for semantic parsing. In this setting, a neural semantic parser learns tasks sequentially without accessing full training data from previous tasks. Direct application of the SOTA continual learning algorithms to this problem fails to achieve comparable performance with re-training models with all seen tasks because they have not considered the special properties of structured outputs yielded by semantic parsers. Therefore, we propose TotalRecall, a continual learning method designed for neural semantic parsers from two aspects: i) a sampling method for memory replay that diversifies logical form templates and balances distributions of parse actions in a memory; ii) a two-stage training method that significantly improves generalization capability of the parsers across tasks. We conduct extensive experiments to study the research problems involved in continual semantic parsing and demonstrate that a neural semantic parser trained with TotalRecall achieves superior performance than the one trained directly with the SOTA continual learning algorithms and achieve a 3-6 times speedup compared to re-training from scratch.

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Few-Shot Semantic Parsing for New Predicates
Zhuang Li | Lizhen Qu | Shuo Huang | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

In this work, we investigate the problems of semantic parsing in a few-shot learning setting. In this setting, we are provided with k utterance-logical form pairs per new predicate. The state-of-the-art neural semantic parsers achieve less than 25% accuracy on benchmark datasets when k = 1. To tackle this problem, we proposed to i) apply a designated meta-learning method to train the model; ii) regularize attention scores with alignment statistics; iii) apply a smoothing technique in pretraining. As a result, our method consistently outperforms all the baselines in both one and two-shot settings.

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On Robustness of Neural Semantic Parsers
Shuo Huang | Zhuang Li | Lizhen Qu | Lei Pan
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Semantic parsing maps natural language (NL) utterances into logical forms (LFs), which underpins many advanced NLP problems. Semantic parsers gain performance boosts with deep neural networks, but inherit vulnerabilities against adversarial examples. In this paper, we provide the first empirical study on the robustness of semantic parsers in the presence of adversarial attacks. Formally, adversaries of semantic parsing are considered to be the perturbed utterance-LF pairs, whose utterances have exactly the same meanings as the original ones. A scalable methodology is proposed to construct robustness test sets based on existing benchmark corpora. Our results answered five research questions in measuring the sate-of-the-art parsers’ performance on robustness test sets, and evaluating the effect of data augmentation.


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Context Dependent Semantic Parsing: A Survey
Zhuang Li | Lizhen Qu | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Semantic parsing is the task of translating natural language utterances into machine-readable meaning representations. Currently, most semantic parsing methods are not able to utilize the contextual information (e.g. dialogue and comments history), which has a great potential to boost the semantic parsing systems. To address this issue, context dependent semantic parsing has recently drawn a lot of attention. In this survey, we investigate progress on the methods for the context dependent semantic parsing, together with the current datasets and tasks. We then point out open problems and challenges for future research in this area.


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Unsupervised Pre-training With Seq2Seq Reconstruction Loss for Deep Relation Extraction Models
Zhuang Li | Lizhen Qu | Qiongkai Xu | Mark Johnson
Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop 2016