Zi Chai


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Learning to Ask More: Semi-Autoregressive Sequential Question Generation under Dual-Graph Interaction
Zi Chai | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Traditional Question Generation (TQG) aims to generate a question given an input passage and an answer. When there is a sequence of answers, we can perform Sequential Question Generation (SQG) to produce a series of interconnected questions. Since the frequently occurred information omission and coreference between questions, SQG is rather challenging. Prior works regarded SQG as a dialog generation task and recurrently produced each question. However, they suffered from problems caused by error cascades and could only capture limited context dependencies. To this end, we generate questions in a semi-autoregressive way. Our model divides questions into different groups and generates each group of them in parallel. During this process, it builds two graphs focusing on information from passages, answers respectively and performs dual-graph interaction to get information for generation. Besides, we design an answer-aware attention mechanism and the coarse-to-fine generation scenario. Experiments on our new dataset containing 81.9K questions show that our model substantially outperforms prior works.


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Asking the Crowd: Question Analysis, Evaluation and Generation for Open Discussion on Online Forums
Zi Chai | Xinyu Xing | Xiaojun Wan | Bo Huang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Teaching machines to ask questions is an important yet challenging task. Most prior work focused on generating questions with fixed answers. As contents are highly limited by given answers, these questions are often not worth discussing. In this paper, we take the first step on teaching machines to ask open-answered questions from real-world news for open discussion (openQG). To generate high-qualified questions, effective ways for question evaluation are required. We take the perspective that the more answers a question receives, the better it is for open discussion, and analyze how language use affects the number of answers. Compared with other factors, e.g. topic and post time, linguistic factors keep our evaluation from being domain-specific. We carefully perform variable control on 11.5M questions from online forums to get a dataset, OQRanD, and further perform question analysis. Based on these conclusions, several models are built for question evaluation. For openQG task, we construct OQGenD, the first dataset as far as we know, and propose a model based on conditional generative adversarial networks and our question evaluation model. Experiments show that our model can generate questions with higher quality compared with commonly-used text generation methods.