We study the learning of a matching model for dialogue response selection. Motivated by the recent finding that models trained with random negative samples are not ideal in real-world scenarios, we propose a hierarchical curriculum learning framework that trains the matching model in an “easy-to-difficult” scheme. Our learning framework consists of two complementary curricula: (1) corpus-level curriculum (CC); and (2) instance-level curriculum (IC). In CC, the model gradually increases its ability in finding the matching clues between the dialogue context and a response candidate. As for IC, it progressively strengthens the model’s ability in identifying the mismatching information between the dialogue context and a response candidate. Empirical studies on three benchmark datasets with three state-of-the-art matching models demonstrate that the proposed learning framework significantly improves the model performance across various evaluation metrics.
Deep question generation (DQG) aims to generate complex questions through reasoning over multiple documents. The task is challenging and underexplored. Existing methods mainly focus on enhancing document representations, with little attention paid to the answer information, which may result in the generated question not matching the answer type and being answerirrelevant. In this paper, we propose an Answer-driven Deep Question Generation (ADDQG) model based on the encoder-decoder framework. The model makes better use of the target answer as a guidance to facilitate question generation. First, we propose an answer-aware initialization module with a gated connection layer which introduces both document and answer information to the decoder, thus helping to guide the choice of answer-focused question words. Then a semantic-rich fusion attention mechanism is designed to support the decoding process, which integrates the answer with the document representations to promote the proper handling of answer information during generation. Moreover, reinforcement learning is applied to integrate both syntactic and semantic metrics as the reward to enhance the training of the ADDQG. Extensive experiments on the HotpotQA dataset show that ADDQG outperforms state-of-the-art models in both automatic and human evaluations.
Response selection plays a vital role in building retrieval-based conversation systems. Despite that response selection is naturally a learning-to-rank problem, most prior works take a point-wise view and train binary classifiers for this task: each response candidate is labeled either relevant (one) or irrelevant (zero). On the one hand, this formalization can be sub-optimal due to its ignorance of the diversity of response quality. On the other hand, annotating grayscale data for learning-to-rank can be prohibitively expensive and challenging. In this work, we show that grayscale data can be automatically constructed without human effort. Our method employs off-the-shelf response retrieval models and response generation models as automatic grayscale data generators. With the constructed grayscale data, we propose multi-level ranking objectives for training, which can (1) teach a matching model to capture more fine-grained context-response relevance difference and (2) reduce the train-test discrepancy in terms of distractor strength. Our method is simple, effective, and universal. Experiments on three benchmark datasets and four state-of-the-art matching models show that the proposed approach brings significant and consistent performance improvements.
Event detection (ED) aims to locate trigger words in raw text and then classify them into correct event types. In this task, neural net- work based models became mainstream in re- cent years. However, two problems arise when it comes to languages without natural delim- iters, such as Chinese. First, word-based mod- els severely suffer from the problem of word- trigger mismatch, limiting the performance of the methods. In addition, even if trigger words could be accurately located, the ambi- guity of polysemy of triggers could still af- fect the trigger classification stage. To ad- dress the two issues simultaneously, we pro- pose the Trigger-aware Lattice Neural Net- work (TLNN). (1) The framework dynami- cally incorporates word and character informa- tion so that the trigger-word mismatch issue can be avoided. (2) Moreover, for polysemous characters and words, we model all senses of them with the help of an external linguistic knowledge base, so as to alleviate the prob- lem of ambiguous triggers. Experiments on two benchmark datasets show that our model could effectively tackle the two issues and outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods significantly, giving the best results. The source code of this paper can be obtained from https://github.com/thunlp/TLNN.