Zijian Zhang


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Improving Visual-Semantic Embedding with Adaptive Pooling and Optimization Objective
Zijian Zhang | Chang Shu | Ya Xiao | Yuan Shen | Di Zhu | Youxin Chen | Jing Xiao | Jey Han Lau | Qian Zhang | Zheng Lu
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Visual-Semantic Embedding (VSE) aims to learn an embedding space where related visual and semantic instances are close to each other. Recent VSE models tend to design complex structures to pool visual and semantic features into fixed-length vectors and use hard triplet loss for optimization. However, we find that: (1) combining simple pooling methods is no worse than these sophisticated methods; and (2) only considering the most difficult-to-distinguish negative sample leads to slow convergence and poor Recall@K improvement. To this end, we propose an adaptive pooling strategy that allows the model to learn how to aggregate features through a combination of simple pooling methods. We also introduce a strategy to dynamically select a group of negative samples to make the optimization converge faster and perform better. Experimental results on Flickr30K and MS-COCO demonstrate that a standard VSE using our pooling and optimization strategies outperforms current state-of-the-art systems (at least 1.0% on the metrics of recall) in image-to-text and text-to-image retrieval. Source code of our experiments is available at https://github.com/96-Zachary/vse_2ad .