Zijing Ou


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Refining BERT Embeddings for Document Hashing via Mutual Information Maximization
Zijing Ou | Qinliang Su | Jianxing Yu | Ruihui Zhao | Yefeng Zheng | Bang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Existing unsupervised document hashing methods are mostly established on generative models. Due to the difficulties of capturing long dependency structures, these methods rarely model the raw documents directly, but instead to model the features extracted from them (e.g. bag-of-words (BOG), TFIDF). In this paper, we propose to learn hash codes from BERT embeddings after observing their tremendous successes on downstream tasks. As a first try, we modify existing generative hashing models to accommodate the BERT embeddings. However, little improvement is observed over the codes learned from the old BOG or TFIDF features. We attribute this to the reconstruction requirement in the generative hashing, which will enforce irrelevant information that is abundant in the BERT embeddings also compressed into the codes. To remedy this issue, a new unsupervised hashing paradigm is further proposed based on the mutual information (MI) maximization principle. Specifically, the method first constructs appropriate global and local codes from the documents and then seeks to maximize their mutual information. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is able to generate hash codes that outperform existing ones learned from BOG features by a substantial margin.

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Integrating Semantics and Neighborhood Information with Graph-Driven Generative Models for Document Retrieval
Zijing Ou | Qinliang Su | Jianxing Yu | Bang Liu | Jingwen Wang | Ruihui Zhao | Changyou Chen | Yefeng Zheng
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

With the need of fast retrieval speed and small memory footprint, document hashing has been playing a crucial role in large-scale information retrieval. To generate high-quality hashing code, both semantics and neighborhood information are crucial. However, most existing methods leverage only one of them or simply combine them via some intuitive criteria, lacking a theoretical principle to guide the integration process. In this paper, we encode the neighborhood information with a graph-induced Gaussian distribution, and propose to integrate the two types of information with a graph-driven generative model. To deal with the complicated correlations among documents, we further propose a tree-structured approximation method for learning. Under the approximation, we prove that the training objective can be decomposed into terms involving only singleton or pairwise documents, enabling the model to be trained as efficiently as uncorrelated ones. Extensive experimental results on three benchmark datasets show that our method achieves superior performance over state-of-the-art methods, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed model for simultaneously preserving semantic and neighborhood information.

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Imperfect also Deserves Reward: Multi-Level and Sequential Reward Modeling for Better Dialog Management
Zhengxu Hou | Bang Liu | Ruihui Zhao | Zijing Ou | Yafei Liu | Xi Chen | Yefeng Zheng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

For task-oriented dialog systems, training a Reinforcement Learning (RL) based Dialog Management module suffers from low sample efficiency and slow convergence speed due to the sparse rewards in RL. To solve this problem, many strategies have been proposed to give proper rewards when training RL, but their rewards lack interpretability and cannot accurately estimate the distribution of state-action pairs in real dialogs. In this paper, we propose a multi-level reward modeling approach that factorizes a reward into a three-level hierarchy: domain, act, and slot. Based on inverse adversarial reinforcement learning, our designed reward model can provide more accurate and explainable reward signals for state-action pairs. Extensive evaluations show that our approach can be applied to a wide range of reinforcement learning-based dialog systems and significantly improves both the performance and the speed of convergence.


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Embedding Dynamic Attributed Networks by Modeling the Evolution Processes
Zenan Xu | Zijing Ou | Qinliang Su | Jianxing Yu | Xiaojun Quan | ZhenKun Lin
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Network embedding has recently emerged as a promising technique to embed nodes of a network into low-dimensional vectors. While fairly successful, most existing works focus on the embedding techniques for static networks. But in practice, there are many networks that are evolving over time and hence are dynamic, e.g., the social networks. To address this issue, a high-order spatio-temporal embedding model is developed to track the evolutions of dynamic networks. Specifically, an activeness-aware neighborhood embedding method is first proposed to extract the high-order neighborhood information at each given timestamp. Then, an embedding prediction framework is further developed to capture the temporal correlations, in which the attention mechanism is employed instead of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for its efficiency in computing and flexibility in modeling. Extensive experiments are conducted on four real-world datasets from three different areas. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms all the baselines by a substantial margin for the tasks of dynamic link prediction and node classification, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed methods on tracking the evolutions of dynamic networks.