Ziwei Ji


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A Multitask, Multilingual, Multimodal Evaluation of ChatGPT on Reasoning, Hallucination, and Interactivity
Yejin Bang | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Nayeon Lee | Wenliang Dai | Dan Su | Bryan Wilie | Holy Lovenia | Ziwei Ji | Tiezheng Yu | Willy Chung | Quyet V. Do | Yan Xu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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RHO: Reducing Hallucination in Open-domain Dialogues with Knowledge Grounding
Ziwei Ji | Zihan Liu | Nayeon Lee | Tiezheng Yu | Bryan Wilie | Min Zeng | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Dialogue systems can leverage large pre-trained language models and knowledge to generate fluent and informative responses. However, these models are still prone to produce hallucinated responses not supported by the input source, which greatly hinders their application. The heterogeneity between external knowledge and dialogue context challenges representation learning and source integration, which further contributes to unfaithfulness. To handle this challenge and generate more faithful responses, this paper presents RHO (ρ) utilizing the representations of linked entities and relation predicates from a knowledge graph (KG). We propose (1) local knowledge grounding to combine textual embeddings with the corresponding KG embeddings; and (2) global knowledge grounding to equip RHO with multi-hop reasoning abilities via the attention mechanism. In addition, we devise a response re-ranking technique based on walks over KG sub-graphs for better conversational reasoning. Experimental results on OpenDialKG (Moon et al., 2019) show that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods on both automatic and human evaluation by a large margin, especially in hallucination reduction (17.54% in FeQA (Durmus et al., 2020)).

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NusaCrowd: Open Source Initiative for Indonesian NLP Resources
Samuel Cahyawijaya | Holy Lovenia | Alham Fikri Aji | Genta Winata | Bryan Wilie | Fajri Koto | Rahmad Mahendra | Christian Wibisono | Ade Romadhony | Karissa Vincentio | Jennifer Santoso | David Moeljadi | Cahya Wirawan | Frederikus Hudi | Muhammad Satrio Wicaksono | Ivan Parmonangan | Ika Alfina | Ilham Firdausi Putra | Samsul Rahmadani | Yulianti Oenang | Ali Septiandri | James Jaya | Kaustubh Dhole | Arie Suryani | Rifki Afina Putri | Dan Su | Keith Stevens | Made Nindyatama Nityasya | Muhammad Adilazuarda | Ryan Hadiwijaya | Ryandito Diandaru | Tiezheng Yu | Vito Ghifari | Wenliang Dai | Yan Xu | Dyah Damapuspita | Haryo Wibowo | Cuk Tho | Ichwanul Karo Karo | Tirana Fatyanosa | Ziwei Ji | Graham Neubig | Timothy Baldwin | Sebastian Ruder | Pascale Fung | Herry Sujaini | Sakriani Sakti | Ayu Purwarianti
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We present NusaCrowd, a collaborative initiative to collect and unify existing resources for Indonesian languages, including opening access to previously non-public resources. Through this initiative, we have brought together 137 datasets and 118 standardized data loaders. The quality of the datasets has been assessed manually and automatically, and their value is demonstrated through multiple experiments.NusaCrowd’s data collection enables the creation of the first zero-shot benchmarks for natural language understanding and generation in Indonesian and the local languages of Indonesia. Furthermore, NusaCrowd brings the creation of the first multilingual automatic speech recognition benchmark in Indonesian and the local languages of Indonesia. Our work strives to advance natural language processing (NLP) research for languages that are under-represented despite being widely spoken.

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Towards Mitigating LLM Hallucination via Self Reflection
Ziwei Ji | Tiezheng Yu | Yan Xu | Nayeon Lee | Etsuko Ishii | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large language models (LLMs) have shown promise for generative and knowledge-intensive tasks including question-answering (QA) tasks. However, the practical deployment still faces challenges, notably the issue of “hallucination”, where models generate plausible-sounding but unfaithful or nonsensical information. This issue becomes particularly critical in the medical domain due to the uncommon professional concepts and potential social risks involved. This paper analyses the phenomenon of hallucination in medical generative QA systems using widely adopted LLMs and datasets. Our investigation centers on the identification and comprehension of common problematic answers, with a specific emphasis on hallucination. To tackle this challenge, we present an interactive self-reflection methodology that incorporates knowledge acquisition and answer generation. Through this feedback process, our approach steadily enhances the factuality, consistency, and entailment of the generated answers. Consequently, we harness the interactivity and multitasking ability of LLMs and produce progressively more precise and accurate answers. Experimental results on both automatic and human evaluation demonstrate the superiority of our approach in hallucination reduction compared to baselines.

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Improving Query-Focused Meeting Summarization with Query-Relevant Knowledge
Tiezheng Yu | Ziwei Ji | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: IJCNLP-AACL 2023 (Findings)

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Contrastive Learning for Inference in Dialogue
Etsuko Ishii | Yan Xu | Bryan Wilie | Ziwei Ji | Holy Lovenia | Willy Chung | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Inference, especially those derived from inductive processes, is a crucial component in our conversation to complement the information implicitly or explicitly conveyed by a speaker. While recent large language models show remarkable advances in inference tasks, their performance in inductive reasoning, where not all information is present in the context, is far behind deductive reasoning. In this paper, we analyze the behavior of the models based on the task difficulty defined by the semantic information gap – which distinguishes inductive and deductive reasoning. Our analysis reveals that the information gap between dialogue contexts and desired inferences renders the inductive inference process more challenging. To mitigate this information gap, we investigate a contrastive learning approach by feeding negative samples. Our experiments suggest negative samples help models understand what is wrong and improve their inference generations.

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Plausible May Not Be Faithful: Probing Object Hallucination in Vision-Language Pre-training
Wenliang Dai | Zihan Liu | Ziwei Ji | Dan Su | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Large-scale vision-language pre-trained (VLP) models are prone to hallucinate non-existent visual objects when generating text based on visual information. In this paper, we systematically study the object hallucination problem from three aspects. First, we examine recent state-of-the-art VLP models, showing that they still hallucinate frequently and models achieving better scores on standard metrics (e.g., CIDEr) could be more unfaithful. Second, we investigate how different types of image encoding in VLP influence hallucination, including region-based, grid-based, and patch-based. Surprisingly, we find that patch-based features perform the best and smaller patch resolution yields a non-trivial reduction in object hallucination. Third, we decouple various VLP objectives and demonstrate that token-level image-text alignment and controlled generation are crucial to reducing hallucination. Based on that, we propose a simple yet effective VLP loss named ObjMLM to further mitigate object hallucination. Results show that it reduces object hallucination by up to 17.4% when tested on two benchmarks (COCO Caption for in-domain and NoCaps for out-of-domain evaluation).


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VScript: Controllable Script Generation with Visual Presentation
Ziwei Ji | Yan Xu | I-Tsun Cheng | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Rita Frieske | Etsuko Ishii | Min Zeng | Andrea Madotto | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

In order to offer a customized script tool and inspire professional scriptwriters, we present VScript. It is a controllable pipeline that generates complete scripts, including dialogues and scene descriptions, as well as presents visually using video retrieval. With an interactive interface, our system allows users to select genres and input starting words that control the theme and development of the generated script. We adopt a hierarchical structure, which first generates the plot, then the script and its visual presentation. A novel approach is also introduced to plot-guided dialogue generation by treating it as an inverse dialogue summarization. The experiment results show that our approach outperforms the baselines on both automatic and human evaluations, especially in genre control.


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Multi-hop Question Generation with Graph Convolutional Network
Dan Su | Yan Xu | Wenliang Dai | Ziwei Ji | Tiezheng Yu | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Multi-hop Question Generation (QG) aims to generate answer-related questions by aggregating and reasoning over multiple scattered evidence from different paragraphs. It is a more challenging yet under-explored task compared to conventional single-hop QG, where the questions are generated from the sentence containing the answer or nearby sentences in the same paragraph without complex reasoning. To address the additional challenges in multi-hop QG, we propose Multi-Hop Encoding Fusion Network for Question Generation (MulQG), which does context encoding in multiple hops with Graph Convolutional Network and encoding fusion via an Encoder Reasoning Gate. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to tackle the challenge of multi-hop reasoning over paragraphs without any sentence-level information. Empirical results on HotpotQA dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, in comparison with baselines on automatic evaluation metrics. Moreover, from the human evaluation, our proposed model is able to generate fluent questions with high completeness and outperforms the strongest baseline by 20.8% in the multi-hop evaluation. on. The code is publicly availableat https://github.com/HLTCHKU