Zixia Jia


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Modeling Instance Interactions for Joint Information Extraction with Neural High-Order Conditional Random Field
Zixia Jia | Zhaohui Yan | Wenjuan Han | Zilong Zheng | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Prior works on joint Information Extraction (IE) typically model instance (e.g., event triggers, entities, roles, relations) interactions by representation enhancement, type dependencies scoring, or global decoding. We find that the previous models generally consider binary type dependency scoring of a pair of instances, and leverage local search such as beam search to approximate global solutions. To better integrate cross-instance interactions, in this work, we introduce a joint IE framework (CRFIE) that formulates joint IE as a high-order Conditional Random Field. Specifically, we design binary factors and ternary factors to directly model interactions between not only a pair of instances but also triplets. Then, these factors are utilized to jointly predict labels of all instances. To address the intractability problem of exact high-order inference, we incorporate a high-order neural decoder that is unfolded from a mean-field variational inference method, which achieves consistent learning and inference. The experimental results show that our approach achieves consistent improvements on three IE tasks compared with our baseline and prior work.

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Semi-automatic Data Enhancement for Document-Level Relation Extraction with Distant Supervision from Large Language Models
Junpeng Li | Zixia Jia | Zilong Zheng
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Document-level Relation Extraction (DocRE), which aims to extract relations from a long context, is a critical challenge in achieving fine-grained structural comprehension and generating interpretable document representations. Inspired by recent advances in in-context learning capabilities emergent from large language models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT, we aim to design an automated annotation method for DocRE with minimum human effort. Unfortunately, vanilla in-context learning is infeasible for DocRE due to the plenty of predefined fine-grained relation types and the uncontrolled generations of LLMs. To tackle this issue, we propose a method integrating an LLM and a natural language inference (NLI) module to generate relation triples, thereby augmenting document-level relation datasets. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by introducing an enhanced dataset known as DocGNRE, which excels in re-annotating numerous long-tail relation types. We are confident that our method holds the potential for broader applications in domain-specific relation type definitions and offers tangible benefits in advancing generalized language semantic comprehension.

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DAMO-NLP at SemEval-2023 Task 2: A Unified Retrieval-augmented System for Multilingual Named Entity Recognition
Zeqi Tan | Shen Huang | Zixia Jia | Jiong Cai | Yinghui Li | Weiming Lu | Yueting Zhuang | Kewei Tu | Pengjun Xie | Fei Huang | Yong Jiang
Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2023)

The MultiCoNER II shared task aims to tackle multilingual named entity recognition (NER) in fine-grained and noisy scenarios, and it inherits the semantic ambiguity and low-context setting of the MultiCoNER I task. To cope with these problems, the previous top systems in the MultiCoNER I either incorporate the knowledge bases or gazetteers. However, they still suffer from insufficient knowledge, limited context length, single retrieval strategy. In this paper, our team DAMO-NLP proposes a unified retrieval-augmented system (U-RaNER) for fine-grained multilingual NER. We perform error analysis on the previous top systems and reveal that their performance bottleneck lies in insufficient knowledge. Also, we discover that the limited context length causes the retrieval knowledge to be invisible to the model. To enhance the retrieval context, we incorporate the entity-centric Wikidata knowledge base, while utilizing the infusion approach to broaden the contextual scope of the model. Also, we explore various search strategies and refine the quality of retrieval knowledge. Our system wins 9 out of 13 tracks in the MultiCoNER II shared task. Additionally, we compared our system with ChatGPT, one of the large language models which have unlocked strong capabilities on many tasks. The results show that there is still much room for improvement for ChatGPT on the extraction task.


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An Empirical Study of Pipeline vs. Joint approaches to Entity and Relation Extraction
Zhaohui Yan | Zixia Jia | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

The Entity and Relation Extraction (ERE) task includes two basic sub-tasks: Named Entity Recognition and Relation Extraction. In the last several years, much work focused on joint approaches for the common perception that the pipeline approach suffers from the error propagation problem. Recent work reconsiders the pipeline scheme and shows that it can produce comparable results. To systematically study the pros and cons of these two schemes. We design and test eight pipeline and joint approaches to the ERE task. We find that with the same span representation methods, the best joint approach still outperforms the best pipeline model, but improperly designed joint approaches may have poor performance. We hope our work could shed some light on the pipeline-vs-joint debate of the ERE task and inspire further research.

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SHARP: Search-Based Adversarial Attack for Structured Prediction
Liwen Zhang | Zixia Jia | Wenjuan Han | Zilong Zheng | Kewei Tu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Adversarial attack of structured prediction models faces various challenges such as the difficulty of perturbing discrete words, the sentence quality issue, and the sensitivity of outputs to small perturbations. In this work, we introduce SHARP, a new attack method that formulates the black-box adversarial attack as a search-based optimization problem with a specially designed objective function considering sentence fluency, meaning preservation and attacking effectiveness. Additionally, three different searching strategies are analyzed and compared, i.e., Beam Search, Metropolis-Hastings Sampling, and Hybrid Search. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our attacking strategies on two challenging structured prediction tasks: Pos-tagging and dependency parsing. Through automatic and human evaluations, we show that our method performs a more potent attack compared with pioneer arts. Moreover, the generated adversarial examples can be used to successfully boost the robustness and performance of the victim model via adversarial training.

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ITA: Image-Text Alignments for Multi-Modal Named Entity Recognition
Xinyu Wang | Min Gui | Yong Jiang | Zixia Jia | Nguyen Bach | Tao Wang | Zhongqiang Huang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Recently, Multi-modal Named Entity Recognition (MNER) has attracted a lot of attention. Most of the work utilizes image information through region-level visual representations obtained from a pretrained object detector and relies on an attention mechanism to model the interactions between image and text representations. However, it is difficult to model such interactions as image and text representations are trained separately on the data of their respective modality and are not aligned in the same space. As text representations take the most important role in MNER, in this paper, we propose Image-text Alignments (ITA) to align image features into the textual space, so that the attention mechanism in transformer-based pretrained textual embeddings can be better utilized. ITA first aligns the image into regional object tags, image-level captions and optical characters as visual contexts, concatenates them with the input texts as a new cross-modal input, and then feeds it into a pretrained textual embedding model. This makes it easier for the attention module of a pretrained textual embedding model to model the interaction between the two modalities since they are both represented in the textual space. ITA further aligns the output distributions predicted from the cross-modal input and textual input views so that the MNER model can be more practical in dealing with text-only inputs and robust to noises from images. In our experiments, we show that ITA models can achieve state-of-the-art accuracy on multi-modal Named Entity Recognition datasets, even without image information.


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Structural Knowledge Distillation: Tractably Distilling Information for Structured Predictor
Xinyu Wang | Yong Jiang | Zhaohui Yan | Zixia Jia | Nguyen Bach | Tao Wang | Zhongqiang Huang | Fei Huang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Knowledge distillation is a critical technique to transfer knowledge between models, typically from a large model (the teacher) to a more fine-grained one (the student). The objective function of knowledge distillation is typically the cross-entropy between the teacher and the student’s output distributions. However, for structured prediction problems, the output space is exponential in size; therefore, the cross-entropy objective becomes intractable to compute and optimize directly. In this paper, we derive a factorized form of the knowledge distillation objective for structured prediction, which is tractable for many typical choices of the teacher and student models. In particular, we show the tractability and empirical effectiveness of structural knowledge distillation between sequence labeling and dependency parsing models under four different scenarios: 1) the teacher and student share the same factorization form of the output structure scoring function; 2) the student factorization produces more fine-grained substructures than the teacher factorization; 3) the teacher factorization produces more fine-grained substructures than the student factorization; 4) the factorization forms from the teacher and the student are incompatible.

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Enhanced Universal Dependency Parsing with Automated Concatenation of Embeddings
Xinyu Wang | Zixia Jia | Yong Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Parsing Technologies and the IWPT 2021 Shared Task on Parsing into Enhanced Universal Dependencies (IWPT 2021)

This paper describe the system used in our submission to the IWPT 2021 Shared Task. Our system is a graph-based parser with the technique of Automated Concatenation of Embeddings (ACE). Because recent work found that better word representations can be obtained by concatenating different types of embeddings, we use ACE to automatically find the better concatenation of embeddings for the task of enhanced universal dependencies. According to official results averaged on 17 languages, our system rank 2nd over 9 teams.


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Semi-Supervised Semantic Dependency Parsing Using CRF Autoencoders
Zixia Jia | Youmi Ma | Jiong Cai | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Semantic dependency parsing, which aims to find rich bi-lexical relationships, allows words to have multiple dependency heads, resulting in graph-structured representations. We propose an approach to semi-supervised learning of semantic dependency parsers based on the CRF autoencoder framework. Our encoder is a discriminative neural semantic dependency parser that predicts the latent parse graph of the input sentence. Our decoder is a generative neural model that reconstructs the input sentence conditioned on the latent parse graph. Our model is arc-factored and therefore parsing and learning are both tractable. Experiments show our model achieves significant and consistent improvement over the supervised baseline.


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ShanghaiTech at MRP 2019: Sequence-to-Graph Transduction with Second-Order Edge Inference for Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing
Xinyu Wang | Yixian Liu | Zixia Jia | Chengyue Jiang | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing at the 2019 Conference on Natural Language Learning

This paper presents the system used in our submission to the CoNLL 2019 shared task: Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing. Our system is a graph-based parser which combines an extended pointer-generator network that generates nodes and a second-order mean field variational inference module that predicts edges. Our system achieved 1st and 2nd place for the DM and PSD frameworks respectively on the in-framework ranks and achieved 3rd place for the DM framework on the cross-framework ranks.