Ziyi Shou


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Evaluate AMR Graph Similarity via Self-supervised Learning
Ziyi Shou | Fangzhen Lin
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In work on AMR (Abstract Meaning Representation), similarity metrics are crucial as they are used to evaluate AMR systems such as AMR parsers. Current AMR metrics are all based on nodes or triples matching without considering the entire structures of AMR graphs. To address this problem, and inspired by learned similarity evaluation on plain text, we propose AMRSim, an automatic AMR graph similarity evaluation metric. To overcome the high cost of collecting human-annotated data, AMRSim automatically generates silver AMR graphs and utilizes self-supervised learning methods. We evaluated AMRSim on various datasets and found that AMRSim significantly improves the correlations with human semantic scores and remains robust under diverse challenges. We also discuss how AMRSim can be extended to multilingual cases.


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AMR-DA: Data Augmentation by Abstract Meaning Representation
Ziyi Shou | Yuxin Jiang | Fangzhen Lin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) is a semantic representation for NLP/NLU. In this paper, we propose to use it for data augmentation in NLP. Our proposed data augmentation technique, called AMR-DA, converts a sample sentence to an AMR graph, modifies the graph according to various data augmentation policies, and then generates augmentations from graphs. Our method combines both sentence-level techniques like back translation and token-level techniques like EDA (Easy Data Augmentation). To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we apply it to the tasks of semantic textual similarity (STS) and text classification. For STS, our experiments show that AMR-DA boosts the performance of the state-of-the-art models on several STS benchmarks. For text classification, AMR-DA outperforms EDA and AEDA and leads to more robust improvements.


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XRJL-HKUST at SemEval-2021 Task 4: WordNet-Enhanced Dual Multi-head Co-Attention for Reading Comprehension of Abstract Meaning
Yuxin Jiang | Ziyi Shou | Qijun Wang | Hao Wu | Fangzhen Lin
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

This paper presents our submitted system to SemEval 2021 Task 4: Reading Comprehension of Abstract Meaning. Our system uses a large pre-trained language model as the encoder and an additional dual multi-head co-attention layer to strengthen the relationship between passages and question-answer pairs, following the current state-of-the-art model DUMA. The main difference is that we stack the passage-question and question-passage attention modules instead of calculating parallelly to simulate re-considering process. We also add a layer normalization module to improve the performance of our model. Furthermore, to incorporate our known knowledge about abstract concepts, we retrieve the definitions of candidate answers from WordNet and feed them to the model as extra inputs. Our system, called WordNet-enhanced DUal Multi-head Co-Attention (WN-DUMA), achieves 86.67% and 89.99% accuracy on the official blind test set of subtask 1 and subtask 2 respectively.

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Incorporating EDS Graph for AMR Parsing
Ziyi Shou | Fangzhen Lin
Proceedings of *SEM 2021: The Tenth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

AMR (Abstract Meaning Representation) and EDS (Elementary Dependency Structures) are two popular meaning representations in NLP/NLU. AMR is more abstract and conceptual, while EDS is more low level, closer to the lexical structures of the given sentences. It is thus not surprising that EDS parsing is easier than AMR parsing. In this work, we consider using information from EDS parsing to help improve the performance of AMR parsing. We adopt a transition-based parser and propose to add EDS graphs as additional semantic features using a graph encoder composed of LSTM layer and GCN layer. Our experimental results show that the additional information from EDS parsing indeed gives a boost to the performance of the base AMR parser used in our experiments.