Zubair Shafiq


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Adversarial Authorship Attribution for Deobfuscation
Wanyue Zhai | Jonathan Rusert | Zubair Shafiq | Padmini Srinivasan
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent advances in natural language processing have enabled powerful privacy-invasive authorship attribution. To counter authorship attribution, researchers have proposed a variety of rule-based and learning-based text obfuscation approaches. However, existing authorship obfuscation approaches do not consider the adversarial threat model. Specifically, they are not evaluated against adversarially trained authorship attributors that are aware of potential obfuscation. To fill this gap, we investigate the problem of adversarial authorship attribution for deobfuscation. We show that adversarially trained authorship attributors are able to degrade the effectiveness of existing obfuscators from 20-30% to 5-10%. We also evaluate the effectiveness of adversarial training when the attributor makes incorrect assumptions about whether and which obfuscator was used. While there is a a clear degradation in attribution accuracy, it is noteworthy that this degradation is still at or above the attribution accuracy of the attributor that is not adversarially trained at all. Our results motivate the need to develop authorship obfuscation approaches that are resistant to deobfuscation.

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On the Robustness of Offensive Language Classifiers
Jonathan Rusert | Zubair Shafiq | Padmini Srinivasan
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Social media platforms are deploying machine learning based offensive language classification systems to combat hateful, racist, and other forms of offensive speech at scale. However, despite their real-world deployment, we do not yet comprehensively understand the extent to which offensive language classifiers are robust against adversarial attacks. Prior work in this space is limited to studying robustness of offensive language classifiers against primitive attacks such as misspellings and extraneous spaces. To address this gap, we systematically analyze the robustness of state-of-the-art offensive language classifiers against more crafty adversarial attacks that leverage greedy- and attention-based word selection and context-aware embeddings for word replacement. Our results on multiple datasets show that these crafty adversarial attacks can degrade the accuracy of offensive language classifiers by more than 50% while also being able to preserve the readability and meaning of the modified text.


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Fingerprinting Fine-tuned Language Models in the Wild
Nirav Diwan | Tanmoy Chakraborty | Zubair Shafiq
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Through the Looking Glass: Learning to Attribute Synthetic Text Generated by Language Models
Shaoor Munir | Brishna Batool | Zubair Shafiq | Padmini Srinivasan | Fareed Zaffar
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Given the potential misuse of recent advances in synthetic text generation by language models (LMs), it is important to have the capacity to attribute authorship of synthetic text. While stylometric organic (i.e., human written) authorship attribution has been quite successful, it is unclear whether similar approaches can be used to attribute a synthetic text to its source LM. We address this question with the key insight that synthetic texts carry subtle distinguishing marks inherited from their source LM and that these marks can be leveraged by machine learning (ML) algorithms for attribution. We propose and test several ML-based attribution methods. Our best attributor built using a fine-tuned version of XLNet (XLNet-FT) consistently achieves excellent accuracy scores (91% to near perfect 98%) in terms of attributing the parent pre-trained LM behind a synthetic text. Our experiments show promising results across a range of experiments where the synthetic text may be generated using pre-trained LMs, fine-tuned LMs, or by varying text generation parameters.


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A Girl Has A Name: Detecting Authorship Obfuscation
Asad Mahmood | Zubair Shafiq | Padmini Srinivasan
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Authorship attribution aims to identify the author of a text based on the stylometric analysis. Authorship obfuscation, on the other hand, aims to protect against authorship attribution by modifying a text’s style. In this paper, we evaluate the stealthiness of state-of-the-art authorship obfuscation methods under an adversarial threat model. An obfuscator is stealthy to the extent an adversary finds it challenging to detect whether or not a text modified by the obfuscator is obfuscated – a decision that is key to the adversary interested in authorship attribution. We show that the existing authorship obfuscation methods are not stealthy as their obfuscated texts can be identified with an average F1 score of 0.87. The reason for the lack of stealthiness is that these obfuscators degrade text smoothness, as ascertained by neural language models, in a detectable manner. Our results highlight the need to develop stealthy authorship obfuscation methods that can better protect the identity of an author seeking anonymity.