Zujie Wen


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SeaD: End-to-end Text-to-SQL Generation with Schema-aware Denoising
Kuan Xu | Yongbo Wang | Yongliang Wang | Zihao Wang | Zujie Wen | Yang Dong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

On the WikiSQL benchmark, most methods tackle the challenge of text-to-SQL with predefined sketch slots and build sophisticated sub-tasks to fill these slots. Though achieving promising results, these methods suffer from over-complex model structure. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective approach that enables auto-regressive sequence-to-sequence model to robust text-to-SQL generation. Instead of formulating the task of text-to-SQL as slot-filling, we propose to train sequence-to-sequence model with Schema-aware Denoising (SeaD), which consists of two denoising objectives that train model to either recover input or predict output from two novel erosion and shuffle noises. These model-agnostic denoising objectives act as the auxiliary tasks for structural data modeling during sequence-to-sequence generation. In addition, we propose a clause-sensitive execution guided (EG) decoding strategy to overcome the limitation of EG decoding for generative model. The experiments show that the proposed method improves the performance of sequence-to-sequence model in both schema linking and grammar correctness and establishes new state-of-the-art on WikiSQL benchmark. Our work indicates that the capacity of sequence-to-sequence model for text-to-SQL may have been under-estimated and could be enhanced by specialized denoising task.

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Improve Interpretability of Neural Networks via Sparse Contrastive Coding
Junhong Liu | Yijie Lin | Liang Jiang | Jia Liu | Zujie Wen | Xi Peng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Although explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) has achieved remarkable developments in recent years, there are few efforts have been devoted to the following problems, namely, i) how to develop an explainable method that could explain the black-box in a model-agnostic way? and ii) how to improve the performance and interpretability of the black-box using such explanations instead of pre-collected important attributions? To explore the potential solution, we propose a model-agnostic explanation method termed as Sparse Contrastive Coding (SCC) and verify its effectiveness in text classification and natural language inference. In brief, SCC explains the feature attributions which characterize the importance of words based on the hidden states of each layer of the model. With such word-level explainability, SCC adaptively divides the input sentences into foregrounds and backgrounds in terms of task relevance. Through maximizing the similarity between the foregrounds and input sentences while minimizing the similarity between the backgrounds and input sentences, SSC employs a supervised contrastive learning loss to boost the interpretability and performance of the model. Extensive experiments show the superiority of our method over five state-of-the-art methods in terms of interpretability and classification measurements. The code is available at https://pengxi.me.


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R2D2: Recursive Transformer based on Differentiable Tree for Interpretable Hierarchical Language Modeling
Xiang Hu | Haitao Mi | Zujie Wen | Yafang Wang | Yi Su | Jing Zheng | Gerard de Melo
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Human language understanding operates at multiple levels of granularity (e.g., words, phrases, and sentences) with increasing levels of abstraction that can be hierarchically combined. However, existing deep models with stacked layers do not explicitly model any sort of hierarchical process. In this paper, we propose a recursive Transformer model based on differentiable CKY style binary trees to emulate this composition process, and we extend the bidirectional language model pre-training objective to this architecture, attempting to predict each word given its left and right abstraction nodes. To scale up our approach, we also introduce an efficient pruning and growing algorithm to reduce the time complexity and enable encoding in linear time. Experimental results on language modeling and unsupervised parsing show the effectiveness of our approach.

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A Dialogue-based Information Extraction System for Medical Insurance Assessment
Shuang Peng | Mengdi Zhou | Minghui Yang | Haitao Mi | Shaosheng Cao | Zujie Wen | Teng Xu | Hongbin Wang | Lei Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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Query Distillation: BERT-based Distillation for Ensemble Ranking
Wangshu Zhang | Junhong Liu | Zujie Wen | Yafang Wang | Gerard de Melo
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Industry Track

Recent years have witnessed substantial progress in the development of neural ranking networks, but also an increasingly heavy computational burden due to growing numbers of parameters and the adoption of model ensembles. Knowledge Distillation (KD) is a common solution to balance the effectiveness and efficiency. However, it is not straightforward to apply KD to ranking problems. Ranking Distillation (RD) has been proposed to address this issue, but only shows effectiveness on recommendation tasks. We present a novel two-stage distillation method for ranking problems that allows a smaller student model to be trained while benefitting from the better performance of the teacher model, providing better control of the inference latency and computational burden. We design a novel BERT-based ranking model structure for list-wise ranking to serve as our student model. All ranking candidates are fed to the BERT model simultaneously, such that the self-attention mechanism can enable joint inference to rank the document list. Our experiments confirm the advantages of our method, not just with regard to the inference latency but also in terms of higher-quality rankings compared to the original teacher model.

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Interactive Question Clarification in Dialogue via Reinforcement Learning
Xiang Hu | Zujie Wen | Yafang Wang | Xiaolong Li | Gerard de Melo
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Industry Track

Coping with ambiguous questions has been a perennial problem in real-world dialogue systems. Although clarification by asking questions is a common form of human interaction, it is hard to define appropriate questions to elicit more specific intents from a user. In this work, we propose a reinforcement model to clarify ambiguous questions by suggesting refinements of the original query. We first formulate a collection partitioning problem to select a set of labels enabling us to distinguish potential unambiguous intents. We list the chosen labels as intent phrases to the user for further confirmation. The selected label along with the original user query then serves as a refined query, for which a suitable response can more easily be identified. The model is trained using reinforcement learning with a deep policy network. We evaluate our model based on real-world user clicks and demonstrate significant improvements across several different experiments.