Most sentence embedding techniques heavily rely on expensive human-annotated sentence pairs as the supervised signals. Despite the use of large-scale unlabeled data, the performance of unsupervised methods typically lags far behind that of the supervised counterparts in most downstream tasks. In this work, we propose a semi-supervised sentence embedding framework, GenSE, that effectively leverages large-scale unlabeled data. Our method include three parts: 1) Generate: A generator/discriminator model is jointly trained to synthesize sentence pairs from open-domain unlabeled corpus; 2) Discriminate: Noisy sentence pairs are filtered out by the discriminator to acquire high-quality positive and negative sentence pairs; 3) Contrast: A prompt-based contrastive approach is presented for sentence representation learning with both annotated and synthesized data. Comprehensive experiments show that GenSE achieves an average correlation score of 85.19 on the STS datasets and consistent performance improvement on four domain adaptation tasks, significantly surpassing the state-of-the-art methods and convincingly corroborating its effectiveness and generalization ability.
BERT is inefficient for sentence-pair tasks such as clustering or semantic search as it needs to evaluate combinatorially many sentence pairs which is very time-consuming. Sentence BERT (SBERT) attempted to solve this challenge by learning semantically meaningful representations of single sentences, such that similarity comparison can be easily accessed. However, SBERT is trained on corpus with high-quality labeled sentence pairs, which limits its application to tasks where labeled data is extremely scarce. In this paper, we propose a lightweight extension on top of BERT and a novel self-supervised learning objective based on mutual information maximization strategies to derive meaningful sentence embeddings in an unsupervised manner. Unlike SBERT, our method is not restricted by the availability of labeled data, such that it can be applied on different domain-specific corpus. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms other unsupervised sentence embedding baselines on common semantic textual similarity (STS) tasks and downstream supervised tasks. It also outperforms SBERT in a setting where in-domain labeled data is not available, and achieves performance competitive with supervised methods on various tasks.
AMR-to-text generation is used to transduce Abstract Meaning Representation structures (AMR) into text. A key challenge in this task is to efficiently learn effective graph representations. Previously, Graph Convolution Networks (GCNs) were used to encode input AMRs, however, vanilla GCNs are not able to capture non-local information and additionally, they follow a local (first-order) information aggregation scheme. To account for these issues, larger and deeper GCN models are required to capture more complex interactions. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic fusion mechanism, proposing Lightweight Dynamic Graph Convolutional Networks (LDGCNs) that capture richer non-local interactions by synthesizing higher order information from the input graphs. We further develop two novel parameter saving strategies based on the group graph convolutions and weight tied convolutions to reduce memory usage and model complexity. With the help of these strategies, we are able to train a model with fewer parameters while maintaining the model capacity. Experiments demonstrate that LDGCNs outperform state-of-the-art models on two benchmark datasets for AMR-to-text generation with significantly fewer parameters.