Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Marie-Francine Moens, Xuanjing Huang, Lucia Specia, Scott Wen-tau Yih (Editors)

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Punta Cana, Dominican Republic
EMNLP | Findings
Association for Computational Linguistics
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Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021
Marie-Francine Moens | Xuanjing Huang | Lucia Specia | Scott Wen-tau Yih

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K-PLUG: Knowledge-injected Pre-trained Language Model for Natural Language Understanding and Generation in E-Commerce
Song Xu | Haoran Li | Peng Yuan | Yujia Wang | Youzheng Wu | Xiaodong He | Ying Liu | Bowen Zhou

Existing pre-trained language models (PLMs) have demonstrated the effectiveness of self-supervised learning for a broad range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, most of them are not explicitly aware of domain-specific knowledge, which is essential for downstream tasks in many domains, such as tasks in e-commerce scenarios. In this paper, we propose K-PLUG, a knowledge-injected pre-trained language model based on the encoder-decoder transformer that can be transferred to both natural language understanding and generation tasks. Specifically, we propose five knowledge-aware self-supervised pre-training objectives to formulate the learning of domain-specific knowledge, including e-commerce domain-specific knowledge-bases, aspects of product entities, categories of product entities, and unique selling propositions of product entities. We verify our method in a diverse range of e-commerce scenarios that require domain-specific knowledge, including product knowledge base completion, abstractive product summarization, and multi-turn dialogue. K-PLUG significantly outperforms baselines across the board, which demonstrates that the proposed method effectively learns a diverse set of domain-specific knowledge for both language understanding and generation tasks. Our code is available.

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Extracting Topics with Simultaneous Word Co-occurrence and Semantic Correlation Graphs: Neural Topic Modeling for Short Texts
Yiming Wang | Ximing Li | Xiaotang Zhou | Jihong Ouyang

Short text nowadays has become a more fashionable form of text data, e.g., Twitter posts, news titles, and product reviews. Extracting semantic topics from short texts plays a significant role in a wide spectrum of NLP applications, and neural topic modeling is now a major tool to achieve it. Motivated by learning more coherent and semantic topics, in this paper we develop a novel neural topic model named Dual Word Graph Topic Model (DWGTM), which extracts topics from simultaneous word co-occurrence and semantic correlation graphs. To be specific, we learn word features from the global word co-occurrence graph, so as to ingest rich word co-occurrence information; we then generate text features with word features, and feed them into an encoder network to get topic proportions per-text; finally, we reconstruct texts and word co-occurrence graph with topical distributions and word features, respectively. Besides, to capture semantics of words, we also apply word features to reconstruct a word semantic correlation graph computed by pre-trained word embeddings. Upon those ideas, we formulate DWGTM in an auto-encoding paradigm and efficiently train it with the spirit of neural variational inference. Empirical results validate that DWGTM can generate more semantically coherent topics than baseline topic models.

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Self-supervised Contrastive Cross-Modality Representation Learning for Spoken Question Answering
Chenyu You | Nuo Chen | Yuexian Zou

Spoken question answering (SQA) requires fine-grained understanding of both spoken documents and questions for the optimal answer prediction. In this paper, we propose novel training schemes for spoken question answering with a self-supervised training stage and a contrastive representation learning stage. In the self-supervised stage, we propose three auxiliary self-supervised tasks, including utterance restoration, utterance insertion, and question discrimination, and jointly train the model to capture consistency and coherence among speech documents without any additional data or annotations. We then propose to learn noise-invariant utterance representations in a contrastive objective by adopting multiple augmentation strategies, including span deletion and span substitution. Besides, we design a Temporal-Alignment attention to semantically align the speech-text clues in the learned common space and benefit the SQA tasks. By this means, the training schemes can more effectively guide the generation model to predict more proper answers. Experimental results show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results on three SQA benchmarks. Our code will be publicly available after publication.

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Language Clustering for Multilingual Named Entity Recognition
Kyle Shaffer

Recent work in multilingual natural language processing has shown progress in various tasks such as natural language inference and joint multilingual translation. Despite success in learning across many languages, challenges arise where multilingual training regimes often boost performance on some languages at the expense of others. For multilingual named entity recognition (NER) we propose a simple technique that groups similar languages together by using embeddings from a pre-trained masked language model, and automatically discovering language clusters in this embedding space. Specifically, we fine-tune an XLM-Roberta model on a language identification task, and use embeddings from this model for clustering. We conduct experiments on 15 diverse languages in the WikiAnn dataset and show our technique largely outperforms three baselines: (1) training a multilingual model jointly on all available languages, (2) training one monolingual model per language, and (3) grouping languages by linguistic family. We also conduct analyses showing meaningful multilingual transfer for low-resource languages (Swahili and Yoruba), despite being automatically grouped with other seemingly disparate languages.

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Neural News Recommendation with Collaborative News Encoding and Structural User Encoding
Zhiming Mao | Xingshan Zeng | Kam-Fai Wong

Automatic news recommendation has gained much attention from the academic community and industry. Recent studies reveal that the key to this task lies within the effective representation learning of both news and users. Existing works typically encode news title and content separately while neglecting their semantic interaction, which is inadequate for news text comprehension. Besides, previous models encode user browsing history without leveraging the structural correlation of user browsed news to reflect user interests explicitly. In this work, we propose a news recommendation framework consisting of collaborative news encoding (CNE) and structural user encoding (SUE) to enhance news and user representation learning. CNE equipped with bidirectional LSTMs encodes news title and content collaboratively with cross-selection and cross-attention modules to learn semantic-interactive news representations. SUE utilizes graph convolutional networks to extract cluster-structural features of user history, followed by intra-cluster and inter-cluster attention modules to learn hierarchical user interest representations. Experiment results on the MIND dataset validate the effectiveness of our model to improve the performance of news recommendation.

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Self-Teaching Machines to Read and Comprehend with Large-Scale Multi-Subject Question-Answering Data
Dian Yu | Kai Sun | Dong Yu | Claire Cardie

Despite considerable progress, most machine reading comprehension (MRC) tasks still lack sufficient training data to fully exploit powerful deep neural network models with millions of parameters, and it is laborious, expensive, and time-consuming to create large-scale, high-quality MRC data through crowdsourcing. This paper focuses on generating more training data for MRC tasks by leveraging existing question-answering (QA) data. We first collect a large-scale multi-subject multiple-choice QA dataset for Chinese, ExamQA. We next use incomplete, yet relevant snippets returned by a web search engine as the context for each QA instance to convert it into a weakly-labeled MRC instance. To better use the weakly-labeled data to improve a target MRC task, we evaluate and compare several methods and further propose a self-teaching paradigm. Experimental results show that, upon state-of-the-art MRC baselines, we can obtain +5.1% in accuracy on a multiple-choice Chinese MRC dataset, Cˆ3, and +3.8% in exact match on an extractive Chinese MRC dataset, CMRC 2018, demonstrating the usefulness of the generated QA-based weakly-labeled data for different types of MRC tasks as well as the effectiveness of self-teaching. ExamQA will be available at

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A Web Scale Entity Extraction System
Xuanting Cai | Quanbin Ma | Jianyu Liu | Pan Li | Qi Zeng | Zhengkan Yang | Pushkar Tripathi

Understanding the semantic meaning of content on the web through the lens of entities and concepts has many practical advantages. However, when building large-scale entity extraction systems, practitioners are facing unique challenges involving finding the best ways to leverage the scale and variety of data available on internet platforms. We present learnings from our efforts in building an entity extraction system for multiple document types at large scale using multi-modal Transformers. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of multi-lingual, multi-task and cross-document type learning. We also discuss the label collection schemes that help to minimize the amount of noise in the collected data.

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Joint Multimedia Event Extraction from Video and Article
Brian Chen | Xudong Lin | Christopher Thomas | Manling Li | Shoya Yoshida | Lovish Chum | Heng Ji | Shih-Fu Chang

Visual and textual modalities contribute complementary information about events described in multimedia documents. Videos contain rich dynamics and detailed unfoldings of events, while text describes more high-level and abstract concepts. However, existing event extraction methods either do not handle video or solely target video while ignoring other modalities. In contrast, we propose the first approach to jointly extract events from both video and text articles. We introduce the new task of Video MultiMedia Event Extraction and propose two novel components to build the first system towards this task. First, we propose the first self-supervised cross-modal event coreference model that can determine coreference between video events and text events without any manually annotated pairs. Second, we introduce the first cross-modal transformer architecture, which extracts structured event information from both videos and text documents. We also construct and will publicly release a new benchmark of video-article pairs, consisting of 860 video-article pairs with extensive annotations for evaluating methods on this task. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method on our new benchmark dataset. We achieve 6.0% and 5.8% absolute F-score gain on multimodal event coreference resolution and multimedia event extraction.

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Fine-grained Semantic Alignment Network for Weakly Supervised Temporal Language Grounding
Yuechen Wang | Wengang Zhou | Houqiang Li

Temporal language grounding (TLG) aims to localize a video segment in an untrimmed video based on a natural language description. To alleviate the expensive cost of manual annotations for temporal boundary labels,we are dedicated to the weakly supervised setting, where only video-level descriptions are provided for training. Most of the existing weakly supervised methods generate a candidate segment set and learn cross-modal alignment through a MIL-based framework. However, the temporal structure of the video as well as the complicated semantics in the sentence are lost during the learning. In this work, we propose a novel candidate-free framework: Fine-grained Semantic Alignment Network (FSAN), for weakly supervised TLG. Instead of view the sentence and candidate moments as a whole, FSAN learns token-by-clip cross-modal semantic alignment by an iterative cross-modal interaction module, generates a fine-grained cross-modal semantic alignment map, and performs grounding directly on top of the map. Extensive experiments are conducted on two widely-used benchmarks: ActivityNet-Captions, and DiDeMo, where our FSAN achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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Factual Consistency Evaluation for Text Summarization via Counterfactual Estimation
Yuexiang Xie | Fei Sun | Yang Deng | Yaliang Li | Bolin Ding

Despite significant progress has been achieved in text summarization, factual inconsistency in generated summaries still severely limits its practical applications. Among the key factors to ensure factual consistency, a reliable automatic evaluation metric is the first and the most crucial one. However, existing metrics either neglect the intrinsic cause of the factual inconsistency or rely on auxiliary tasks, leading to an unsatisfied correlation with human judgments or increasing the inconvenience of usage in practice. In light of these challenges, we propose a novel metric to evaluate the factual consistency in text summarization via counterfactual estimation, which formulates the causal relationship among the source document, the generated summary, and the language prior. We remove the effect of language prior, which can cause factual inconsistency, from the total causal effect on the generated summary, and provides a simple yet effective way to evaluate consistency without relying on other auxiliary tasks. We conduct a series of experiments on three public abstractive text summarization datasets, and demonstrate the advantages of the proposed metric in both improving the correlation with human judgments and the convenience of usage. The source code is available at

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Cross-Modal Retrieval Augmentation for Multi-Modal Classification
Shir Gur | Natalia Neverova | Chris Stauffer | Ser-Nam Lim | Douwe Kiela | Austin Reiter

Recent advances in using retrieval components over external knowledge sources have shown impressive results for a variety of downstream tasks in natural language processing. Here, we explore the use of unstructured external knowledge sources of images and their corresponding captions for improving visual question answering (VQA). First, we train a novel alignment model for embedding images and captions in the same space, which achieves substantial improvement in performance on image-caption retrieval w.r.t. similar methods. Second, we show that retrieval-augmented multi-modal transformers using the trained alignment model improve results on VQA over strong baselines. We further conduct extensive experiments to establish the promise of this approach, and examine novel applications for inference time such as hot-swapping indices.

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HiTRANS: A Hierarchical Transformer Network for Nested Named Entity Recognition
Zhiwei Yang | Jing Ma | Hechang Chen | Yunke Zhang | Yi Chang

Nested Named Entity Recognition (NNER) has been extensively studied, aiming to identify all nested entities from potential spans (i.e., one or more continuous tokens). However, recent studies for NNER either focus on tedious tagging schemas or utilize complex structures, which fail to learn effective span representations from the input sentence with highly nested entities. Intuitively, explicit span representations will contribute to NNER due to the rich context information they contain. In this study, we propose a Hierarchical Transformer (HiTRANS) network for the NNER task, which decomposes the input sentence into multi-grained spans and enhances the representation learning in a hierarchical manner. Specifically, we first utilize a two-phase module to generate span representations by aggregating context information based on a bottom-up and top-down transformer network. Then a label prediction layer is designed to recognize nested entities hierarchically, which naturally explores semantic dependencies among different spans. Experiments on GENIA, ACE-2004, ACE-2005 and NNE datasets demonstrate that our proposed method achieves much better performance than the state-of-the-art approaches.

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Improving Embedding-based Large-scale Retrieval via Label Enhancement
Peiyang Liu | Xi Wang | Sen Wang | Wei Ye | Xiangyu Xi | Shikun Zhang

Current embedding-based large-scale retrieval models are trained with 0-1 hard label that indicates whether a query is relevant to a document, ignoring rich information of the relevance degree. This paper proposes to improve embedding-based retrieval from the perspective of better characterizing the query-document relevance degree by introducing label enhancement (LE) for the first time. To generate label distribution in the retrieval scenario, we design a novel and effective supervised LE method that incorporates prior knowledge from dynamic term weighting methods into contextual embeddings. Our method significantly outperforms four competitive existing retrieval models and its counterparts equipped with two alternative LE techniques by training models with the generated label distribution as auxiliary supervision information. The superiority can be easily observed on English and Chinese large-scale retrieval tasks under both standard and cold-start settings.

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Improving Privacy Guarantee and Efficiency of Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model Training Under Differential Privacy
Tao Huang | Hong Chen

Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), a widely used topic model, is often employed as a fundamental tool for text analysis in various applications. However, the training process of the LDA model typically requires massive text corpus data. On one hand, such massive data may expose private information in the training data, thereby incurring significant privacy concerns. On the other hand, the efficiency of the LDA model training may be impacted, since LDA training often needs to handle these massive text corpus data. To address the privacy issues in LDA model training, some recent works have combined LDA training algorithms that are based on collapsed Gibbs sampling (CGS) with differential privacy. Nevertheless, these works usually have a high accumulative privacy budget due to vast iterations in CGS. Moreover, these works always have low efficiency due to handling massive text corpus data. To improve the privacy guarantee and efficiency, we combine a subsampling method with CGS and propose a novel LDA training algorithm with differential privacy, SUB-LDA. We find that subsampling in CGS naturally improves efficiency while amplifying privacy. We propose a novel metric, the efficiency–privacy function, to evaluate improvements of the privacy guarantee and efficiency. Based on a conventional subsampling method, we propose an adaptive subsampling method to improve the model’s utility produced by SUB-LDA when the subsampling ratio is small. We provide a comprehensive analysis of SUB-LDA, and the experiment results validate its efficiency and privacy guarantee improvements.

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Generating Mammography Reports from Multi-view Mammograms with BERT
Alexander Yalunin | Elena Sokolova | Ilya Burenko | Alexander Ponomarchuk | Olga Puchkova | Dmitriy Umerenkov

Writing mammography reports can be error-prone and time-consuming for radiologists. In this paper we propose a method to generate mammography reports given four images, corresponding to the four views used in screening mammography. To the best of our knowledge our work represents the first attempt to generate the mammography report using deep-learning. We propose an encoder-decoder model that includes an EfficientNet-based encoder and a Transformer-based decoder. We demonstrate that the Transformer-based attention mechanism can combine visual and semantic information to localize salient regions on the input mammograms and generate a visually interpretable report. The conducted experiments, including an evaluation by a certified radiologist, show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Euphemistic Phrase Detection by Masked Language Model
Wanzheng Zhu | Suma Bhat

It is a well-known approach for fringe groups and organizations to use euphemisms—ordinary-sounding and innocent-looking words with a secret meaning—to conceal what they are discussing. For instance, drug dealers often use “pot” for marijuana and “avocado” for heroin. From a social media content moderation perspective, though recent advances in NLP have enabled the automatic detection of such single-word euphemisms, no existing work is capable of automatically detecting multi-word euphemisms, such as “blue dream” (marijuana) and “black tar” (heroin). Our paper tackles the problem of euphemistic phrase detection without human effort for the first time, as far as we are aware. We first perform phrase mining on a raw text corpus (e.g., social media posts) to extract quality phrases. Then, we utilize word embedding similarities to select a set of euphemistic phrase candidates. Finally, we rank those candidates by a masked language model—SpanBERT. Compared to strong baselines, we report 20-50% higher detection accuracies using our algorithm for detecting euphemistic phrases.

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Decomposing Complex Questions Makes Multi-Hop QA Easier and More Interpretable
Ruiliu Fu | Han Wang | Xuejun Zhang | Jun Zhou | Yonghong Yan

Multi-hop QA requires the machine to answer complex questions through finding multiple clues and reasoning, and provide explanatory evidence to demonstrate the machine’s reasoning process. We propose Relation Extractor-Reader and Comparator (RERC), a three-stage framework based on complex question decomposition. The Relation Extractor decomposes the complex question, and then the Reader answers the sub-questions in turn, and finally the Comparator performs numerical comparison and summarizes all to get the final answer, where the entire process itself constitutes a complete reasoning evidence path. In the 2WikiMultiHopQA dataset, our RERC model has achieved the state-of-the-art performance, with a winning joint F1 score of 53.58 on the leaderboard. All indicators of our RERC are close to human performance, with only 1.95 behind the human level in F1 score of support fact. At the same time, the evidence path provided by our RERC framework has excellent readability and faithfulness.

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Segmenting Natural Language Sentences via Lexical Unit Analysis
Yangming Li | Lemao Liu | Shuming Shi

The span-based model enjoys great popularity in recent works of sequence segmentation. However, each of these methods suffers from its own defects, such as invalid predictions. In this work, we introduce a unified span-based model, lexical unit analysis (LUA), that addresses all these matters. Segmenting a lexical unit sequence involves two steps. Firstly, we embed every span by using the representations from a pretraining language model. Secondly, we define a score for every segmentation candidate and apply dynamic programming (DP) to extract the candidate with the maximum score. We have conducted extensive experiments on 3 tasks, (e.g., syntactic chunking), across 7 datasets. LUA has established new state-of-the-art performances on 6 of them. We have achieved even better results through incorporating label correlations.

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Dense Hierarchical Retrieval for Open-domain Question Answering
Ye Liu | Kazuma Hashimoto | Yingbo Zhou | Semih Yavuz | Caiming Xiong | Philip Yu

Dense neural text retrieval has achieved promising results on open-domain Question Answering (QA), where latent representations of questions and passages are exploited for maximum inner product search in the retrieval process. However, current dense retrievers require splitting documents into short passages that usually contain local, partial and sometimes biased context, and highly depend on the splitting process. As a consequence, it may yield inaccurate and misleading hidden representations, thus deteriorating the final retrieval result. In this work, we propose Dense Hierarchical Retrieval (DHR), a hierarchical framework which can generate accurate dense representations of passages by utilizing both macroscopic semantics in the document and microscopic semantics specific to each passage. Specifically, a document-level retriever first identifies relevant documents, among which relevant passages are then retrieved by a passage-level retriever. The ranking of the retrieved passages will be further calibrated by examining the document-level relevance. In addition, hierarchical title structure and two negative sampling strategies (i.e., In-Doc and In-Sec negatives) are investigated. We apply DHR to large-scale open-domain QA datasets. DHR significantly outperforms the original dense passage retriever, and helps an end-to-end QA system outperform the strong baselines on multiple open-domain QA benchmarks.

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Visually Grounded Concept Composition
Bowen Zhang | Hexiang Hu | Linlu Qiu | Peter Shaw | Fei Sha

We investigate ways to compose complex concepts in texts from primitive ones while grounding them in images. We propose Concept and Relation Graph (CRG), which builds on top of constituency analysis and consists of recursively combined concepts with predicate functions. Meanwhile, we propose a concept composition neural network called Composer to leverage the CRG for visually grounded concept learning. Specifically, we learn the grounding of both primitive and all composed concepts by aligning them to images and show that learning to compose leads to more robust grounding results, measured in text-to-image matching accuracy. Notably, our model can model grounded concepts forming at both the finer-grained sentence level and the coarser-grained intermediate level (or word-level). Composer leads to pronounced improvement in matching accuracy when the evaluation data has significant compound divergence from the training data.

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Compositional Networks Enable Systematic Generalization for Grounded Language Understanding
Yen-Ling Kuo | Boris Katz | Andrei Barbu

Humans are remarkably flexible when understanding new sentences that include combinations of concepts they have never encountered before. Recent work has shown that while deep networks can mimic some human language abilities when presented with novel sentences, systematic variation uncovers the limitations in the language-understanding abilities of networks. We demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome by addressing the generalization challenges in the gSCAN dataset, which explicitly measures how well an agent is able to interpret novel linguistic commands grounded in vision, e.g., novel pairings of adjectives and nouns. The key principle we employ is compositionality: that the compositional structure of networks should reflect the compositional structure of the problem domain they address, while allowing other parameters to be learned end-to-end. We build a general-purpose mechanism that enables agents to generalize their language understanding to compositional domains. Crucially, our network has the same state-of-the-art performance as prior work while generalizing its knowledge when prior work does not. Our network also provides a level of interpretability that enables users to inspect what each part of networks learns. Robust grounded language understanding without dramatic failures and without corner cases is critical to building safe and fair robots; we demonstrate the significant role that compositionality can play in achieving that goal.

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An Unsupervised Method for Building Sentence Simplification Corpora in Multiple Languages
Xinyu Lu | Jipeng Qiang | Yun Li | Yunhao Yuan | Yi Zhu

The availability of parallel sentence simplification (SS) is scarce for neural SS modelings. We propose an unsupervised method to build SS corpora from large-scale bilingual translation corpora, alleviating the need for SS supervised corpora. Our method is motivated by the following two findings: neural machine translation model usually tends to generate more high-frequency tokens and the difference of text complexity levels exists between the source and target language of a translation corpus. By taking the pair of the source sentences of translation corpus and the translations of their references in a bridge language, we can construct large-scale pseudo parallel SS data. Then, we keep these sentence pairs with a higher complexity difference as SS sentence pairs. The building SS corpora with an unsupervised approach can satisfy the expectations that the aligned sentences preserve the same meanings and have difference in text complexity levels. Experimental results show that SS methods trained by our corpora achieve the state-of-the-art results and significantly outperform the results on English benchmark WikiLarge.

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WhiteningBERT: An Easy Unsupervised Sentence Embedding Approach
Junjie Huang | Duyu Tang | Wanjun Zhong | Shuai Lu | Linjun Shou | Ming Gong | Daxin Jiang | Nan Duan

Producing the embedding of a sentence in anunsupervised way is valuable to natural language matching and retrieval problems in practice. In this work, we conduct a thorough examination of pretrained model based unsupervised sentence embeddings. We study on fourpretrained models and conduct massive experiments on seven datasets regarding sentence semantics. We have three main findings. First, averaging all tokens is better than only using [CLS] vector. Second, combining both topand bottom layers is better than only using toplayers. Lastly, an easy whitening-based vector normalization strategy with less than 10 linesof code consistently boosts the performance. The whole project including codes and data is publicly available at

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TWEETSUMM - A Dialog Summarization Dataset for Customer Service
Guy Feigenblat | Chulaka Gunasekara | Benjamin Sznajder | Sachindra Joshi | David Konopnicki | Ranit Aharonov

In a typical customer service chat scenario, customers contact a support center to ask for help or raise complaints, and human agents try to solve the issues. In most cases, at the end of the conversation, agents are asked to write a short summary emphasizing the problem and the proposed solution, usually for the benefit of other agents that may have to deal with the same customer or issue. The goal of the present article is advancing the automation of this task. We introduce the first large scale, high quality, customer care dialog summarization dataset with close to 6500 human annotated summaries. The data is based on real-world customer support dialogs and includes both extractive and abstractive summaries. We also introduce a new unsupervised, extractive summarization method specific to dialogs.

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Discourse-Based Sentence Splitting
Liam Cripwell | Joël Legrand | Claire Gardent

Sentence splitting involves the segmentation of a sentence into two or more shorter sentences. It is a key component of sentence simplification, has been shown to help human comprehension and is a useful preprocessing step for NLP tasks such as summarisation and relation extraction. While several methods and datasets have been proposed for developing sentence splitting models, little attention has been paid to how sentence splitting interacts with discourse structure. In this work, we focus on cases where the input text contains a discourse connective, which we refer to as discourse-based sentence splitting. We create synthetic and organic datasets for discourse-based splitting and explore different ways of combining these datasets using different model architectures. We show that pipeline models which use discourse structure to mediate sentence splitting outperform end-to-end models in learning the various ways of expressing a discourse relation but generate text that is less grammatical; that large scale synthetic data provides a better basis for learning than smaller scale organic data; and that training on discourse-focused, rather than on general sentence splitting data provides a better basis for discourse splitting.

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Multi-Task Dense Retrieval via Model Uncertainty Fusion for Open-Domain Question Answering
Minghan Li | Ming Li | Kun Xiong | Jimmy Lin

Multi-task dense retrieval models can be used to retrieve documents from a common corpus (e.g., Wikipedia) for different open-domain question-answering (QA) tasks. However, (CITATION) shows that jointly learning different QA tasks with one dense model is not always beneficial due to corpus inconsistency. For example, SQuAD only focuses on a small set of Wikipedia articles while datasets like NQ and Trivia cover more entries, and joint training on their union can cause performance degradation. To solve this problem, we propose to train individual dense passage retrievers (DPR) for different tasks and aggregate their predictions during test time, where we use uncertainty estimation as weights to indicate how probable a specific query belongs to each expert’s expertise. Our method reaches state-of-the-art performance on 5 benchmark QA datasets, with up to 10% improvement in top-100 accuracy compared to a joint-training multi-task DPR on SQuAD. We also show that our method handles corpus inconsistency better than the joint-training DPR on a mixed subset of different QA datasets. Code and data are available at

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Mining the Cause of Political Decision-Making from Social Media: A Case Study of COVID-19 Policies across the US States
Zhijing Jin | Zeyu Peng | Tejas Vaidhya | Bernhard Schoelkopf | Rada Mihalcea

Mining the causes of political decision-making is an active research area in the field of political science. In the past, most studies have focused on long-term policies that are collected over several decades of time, and have primarily relied on surveys as the main source of predictors. However, the recent COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a new political phenomenon, where political decision-making consists of frequent short-term decisions, all on the same controlled topic—the pandemic. In this paper, we focus on the question of how public opinion influences policy decisions, while controlling for confounders such as COVID-19 case increases or unemployment rates. Using a dataset consisting of Twitter data from the 50 US states, we classify the sentiments toward governors of each state, and conduct controlled studies and comparisons. Based on the compiled samples of sentiments, policies, and confounders, we conduct causal inference to discover trends in political decision-making across different states.

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Self-Attention Graph Residual Convolutional Networks for Event Detection with dependency relations
Anan Liu | Ning Xu | Haozhe Liu

Event detection (ED) task aims to classify events by identifying key event trigger words embedded in a piece of text. Previous research have proved the validity of fusing syntactic dependency relations into Graph Convolutional Networks(GCN). While existing GCN-based methods explore latent node-to-node dependency relations according to a stationary adjacency tensor, an attention-based dynamic tensor, which can pay much attention to the key node like event trigger or its neighboring nodes, has not been developed. Simultaneously, suffering from the phenomenon of graph information vanishing caused by the symmetric adjacency tensor, existing GCN models can not achieve higher overall performance. In this paper, we propose a novel model Self-Attention Graph Residual Convolution Networks (SA-GRCN) to mine node-to-node latent dependency relations via self-attention mechanism and introduce Graph Residual Network (GResNet) to solve graph information vanishing problem. Specifically, a self-attention module is constructed to generate an attention tensor, representing the dependency attention scores of all words in the sentence. Furthermore, a graph residual term is added to the baseline SA-GCN to construct a GResNet. Considering the syntactically connection of the network input, we initialize the raw adjacency tensor without processed by the self-attention module as the residual term. We conduct experiments on the ACE2005 dataset and the results show significant improvement over competitive baseline methods.

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Mixup Decoding for Diverse Machine Translation
Jicheng Li | Pengzhi Gao | Xuanfu Wu | Yang Feng | Zhongjun He | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang

Diverse machine translation aims at generating various target language translations for a given source language sentence. To leverage the linear relationship in the sentence latent space introduced by the mixup training, we propose a novel method, MixDiversity, to generate different translations for the input sentence by linearly interpolating it with different sentence pairs sampled from the training corpus during decoding. To further improve the faithfulness and diversity of the translations, we propose two simple but effective approaches to select diverse sentence pairs in the training corpus and adjust the interpolation weight for each pair correspondingly. Moreover, by controlling the interpolation weight, our method can achieve the trade-off between faithfulness and diversity without any additional training, which is required in most of the previous methods. Experiments on WMT’16 en-ro, WMT’14 en-de, and WMT’17 zh-en are conducted to show that our method substantially outperforms all previous diverse machine translation methods.

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An Alignment-Agnostic Model for Chinese Text Error Correction
Liying Zheng | Yue Deng | Weishun Song | Liang Xu | Jing Xiao

This paper investigates how to correct Chinese text errors with types of mistaken, missing and redundant characters, which are common for Chinese native speakers. Most existing models based on detect-correct framework can correct mistaken characters, but cannot handle missing or redundant characters due to inconsistency between model inputs and outputs. Although Seq2Seq-based or sequence tagging methods provide solutions to the three error types and achieved relatively good results in English context, they do not perform well in Chinese context according to our experiments. In our work, we propose a novel alignment-agnostic detect-correct framework that can handle both text aligned and non-aligned situations and can serve as a cold start model when no annotation data are provided. Experimental results on three datasets demonstrate that our method is effective and achieves a better performance than most recent published models.

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Reasoning Visual Dialog with Sparse Graph Learning and Knowledge Transfer
Gi-Cheon Kang | Junseok Park | Hwaran Lee | Byoung-Tak Zhang | Jin-Hwa Kim

Visual dialog is a task of answering a sequence of questions grounded in an image using the previous dialog history as context. In this paper, we study how to address two fundamental challenges for this task: (1) reasoning over underlying semantic structures among dialog rounds and (2) identifying several appropriate answers to the given question. To address these challenges, we propose a Sparse Graph Learning (SGL) method to formulate visual dialog as a graph structure learning task. SGL infers inherently sparse dialog structures by incorporating binary and score edges and leveraging a new structural loss function. Next, we introduce a Knowledge Transfer (KT) method that extracts the answer predictions from the teacher model and uses them as pseudo labels. We propose KT to remedy the shortcomings of single ground-truth labels, which severely limit the ability of a model to obtain multiple reasonable answers. As a result, our proposed model significantly improves reasoning capability compared to baseline methods and outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on the VisDial v1.0 dataset. The source code is available at

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Exploring Sentence Community for Document-Level Event Extraction
Yusheng Huang | Weijia Jia

Document-level event extraction is critical to various natural language processing tasks for providing structured information. Existing approaches by sequential modeling neglect the complex logic structures for long texts. In this paper, we leverage the entity interactions and sentence interactions within long documents and transform each document into an undirected unweighted graph by exploiting the relationship between sentences. We introduce the Sentence Community to represent each event as a subgraph. Furthermore, our framework SCDEE maintains the ability to extract multiple events by sentence community detection using graph attention networks and alleviate the role overlapping issue by predicting arguments in terms of roles. Experiments demonstrate that our framework achieves competitive results over state-of-the-art methods on the large-scale document-level event extraction dataset.

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A Model of Cross-Lingual Knowledge-Grounded Response Generation for Open-Domain Dialogue Systems
San Kim | Jin Yea Jang | Minyoung Jung | Saim Shin

Research on open-domain dialogue systems that allow free topics is challenging in the field of natural language processing (NLP). The performance of the dialogue system has been improved recently by the method utilizing dialogue-related knowledge; however, non-English dialogue systems suffer from reproducing the performance of English dialogue systems because securing knowledge in the same language with the dialogue system is relatively difficult. Through experiments with a Korean dialogue system, this paper proves that the performance of a non-English dialogue system can be improved by utilizing English knowledge, highlighting the system uses cross-lingual knowledge. For the experiments, we 1) constructed a Korean version of the Wizard of Wikipedia dataset, 2) built Korean-English T5 (KE-T5), a language model pre-trained with Korean and English corpus, and 3) developed a knowledge-grounded Korean dialogue model based on KE-T5. We observed the performance improvement in the open-domain Korean dialogue model even only English knowledge was given. The experimental results showed that the knowledge inherent in cross-lingual language models can be helpful for generating responses in open dialogue systems.

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WHOSe Heritage: Classification of UNESCO World Heritage Statements of "Outstanding Universal Value” with Soft Labels
Nan Bai | Renqian Luo | Pirouz Nourian | Ana Pereira Roders

The UNESCO World Heritage List (WHL) includes the exceptionally valuable cultural and natural heritage to be preserved for mankind. Evaluating and justifying the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) is essential for each site inscribed in the WHL, and yet a complex task, even for experts, since the selection criteria of OUV are not mutually exclusive. Furthermore, manual annotation of heritage values and attributes from multi-source textual data, which is currently dominant in heritage studies, is knowledge-demanding and time-consuming, impeding systematic analysis of such authoritative documents in terms of their implications on heritage management. This study applies state-of-the-art NLP models to build a classifier on a new dataset containing Statements of OUV, seeking an explainable and scalable automation tool to facilitate the nomination, evaluation, research, and monitoring processes of World Heritage sites. Label smoothing is innovatively adapted to improve the model performance by adding prior inter-class relationship knowledge to generate soft labels. The study shows that the best models fine-tuned from BERT and ULMFiT can reach 94.3% top-3 accuracy. A human study with expert evaluation on the model prediction shows that the models are sufficiently generalizable. The study is promising to be further developed and applied in heritage research and practice.

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P-INT: A Path-based Interaction Model for Few-shot Knowledge Graph Completion
Jingwen Xu | Jing Zhang | Xirui Ke | Yuxiao Dong | Hong Chen | Cuiping Li | Yongbin Liu

Few-shot knowledge graph completion is to infer the unknown facts (i.e., query head-tail entity pairs) of a given relation with only a few observed reference entity pairs. Its general process is to first encode the implicit relation of an entity pair and then match the relation of a query entity pair with the relations of the reference entity pairs. Most existing methods have thus far encoded an entity pair and matched entity pairs by using the direct neighbors of concerned entities. In this paper, we propose the P-INT model for effective few-shot knowledge graph completion. First, P-INT infers and leverages the paths that can expressively encode the relation of two entities. Second, to capture the fine grained matches, P-INT calculates the interactions of paths instead of mix- ing them for each entity pair. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that P-INT out- performs the state-of-the-art baselines by 11.2– 14.2% in terms of Hits@1. Our codes and datasets are online now.

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Cartography Active Learning
Mike Zhang | Barbara Plank

We propose Cartography Active Learning (CAL), a novel Active Learning (AL) algorithm that exploits the behavior of the model on individual instances during training as a proxy to find the most informative instances for labeling. CAL is inspired by data maps, which were recently proposed to derive insights into dataset quality (Swayamdipta et al., 2020). We compare our method on popular text classification tasks to commonly used AL strategies, which instead rely on post-training behavior. We demonstrate that CAL is competitive to other common AL methods, showing that training dynamics derived from small seed data can be successfully used for AL. We provide insights into our new AL method by analyzing batch-level statistics utilizing the data maps. Our results further show that CAL results in a more data-efficient learning strategy, achieving comparable or better results with considerably less training data.

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Beyond Reptile: Meta-Learned Dot-Product Maximization between Gradients for Improved Single-Task Regularization
Akhil Kedia | Sai Chetan Chinthakindi | Wonho Ryu

Meta-learning algorithms such as MAML, Reptile, and FOMAML have led to improved performance of several neural models. The primary difference between standard gradient descent and these meta-learning approaches is that they contain as a small component the gradient for maximizing dot-product between gradients of batches, leading to improved generalization. Previous work has shown that aligned gradients are related to generalization, and have also used the Reptile algorithm in a single-task setting to improve generalization. Inspired by these approaches for a single task setting, this paper proposes to use the finite differences first-order algorithm to calculate this gradient from dot-product of gradients, allowing explicit control on the weightage of this component relative to standard gradients. We use this gradient as a regularization technique, leading to more aligned gradients between different batches. By using the finite differences approximation, our approach does not suffer from O(nˆ2) memory usage of naively calculating the Hessian and can be easily applied to large models with large batch sizes. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Gigaword dataset, and shows performance improvements on several datasets such as SQuAD-v2.0, Quasar-T, NewsQA and all the SuperGLUE datasets, with a range of models such as BERT, RoBERTa and ELECTRA. Our method also outperforms previous approaches of Reptile and FOMAML when used as a regularization technique, in both single and multi-task settings. Our method is model agnostic, and introduces no extra trainable weights.

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GooAQ: Open Question Answering with Diverse Answer Types
Daniel Khashabi | Amos Ng | Tushar Khot | Ashish Sabharwal | Hannaneh Hajishirzi | Chris Callison-Burch

While day-to-day questions come with a variety of answer types, the current question-answering (QA) literature has failed to adequately address the answer diversity of questions. To this end, we present GooAQ, a large-scale dataset with a variety of answer types. This dataset contains over 5 million questions and 3 million answers collected from Google. GooAQ questions are collected semi-automatically from the Google search engine using its autocomplete feature. This results in naturalistic questions of practical interest that are nonetheless short and expressed using simple language. GooAQ answers are mined from Google’s responses to our collected questions, specifically from the answer boxes in the search results. This yields a rich space of answer types, containing both textual answers (short and long) as well as more structured ones such as collections. We benchmark T5 models on GooAQ and observe that: (a) in line with recent work, LM’s strong performance on GooAQ’s short-answer questions heavily benefit from annotated data; however, (b) their quality in generating coherent and accurate responses for questions requiring long responses (such as ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions) is less reliant on observing annotated data and mainly supported by their pre-training. We release GooAQ to facilitate further research on improving QA with diverse response types.

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Attention Weights in Transformer NMT Fail Aligning Words Between Sequences but Largely Explain Model Predictions
Javier Ferrando | Marta R. Costa-jussà

This work proposes an extensive analysis of the Transformer architecture in the Neural Machine Translation (NMT) setting. Focusing on the encoder-decoder attention mechanism, we prove that attention weights systematically make alignment errors by relying mainly on uninformative tokens from the source sequence. However, we observe that NMT models assign attention to these tokens to regulate the contribution in the prediction of the two contexts, the source and the prefix of the target sequence. We provide evidence about the influence of wrong alignments on the model behavior, demonstrating that the encoder-decoder attention mechanism is well suited as an interpretability method for NMT. Finally, based on our analysis, we propose methods that largely reduce the word alignment error rate compared to standard induced alignments from attention weights.

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BFClass: A Backdoor-free Text Classification Framework
Zichao Li | Dheeraj Mekala | Chengyu Dong | Jingbo Shang

Backdoor attack introduces artificial vulnerabilities into the model by poisoning a subset of the training data via injecting triggers and modifying labels. Various trigger design strategies have been explored to attack text classifiers, however, defending such attacks remains an open problem. In this work, we propose BFClass, a novel efficient backdoor-free training framework for text classification. The backbone of BFClass is a pre-trained discriminator that predicts whether each token in the corrupted input was replaced by a masked language model. To identify triggers, we utilize this discriminator to locate the most suspicious token from each training sample and then distill a concise set by considering their association strengths with particular labels. To recognize the poisoned subset, we examine the training samples with these identified triggers as the most suspicious token, and check if removing the trigger will change the poisoned model’s prediction. Extensive experiments demonstrate that BFClass can identify all the triggers, remove 95% poisoned training samples with very limited false alarms, and achieve almost the same performance as the models trained on the benign training data.

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Multilingual Chart-based Constituency Parse Extraction from Pre-trained Language Models
Taeuk Kim | Bowen Li | Sang-goo Lee

As it has been unveiled that pre-trained language models (PLMs) are to some extent capable of recognizing syntactic concepts in natural language, much effort has been made to develop a method for extracting complete (binary) parses from PLMs without training separate parsers. We improve upon this paradigm by proposing a novel chart-based method and an effective top-K ensemble technique. Moreover, we demonstrate that we can broaden the scope of application of the approach into multilingual settings. Specifically, we show that by applying our method on multilingual PLMs, it becomes possible to induce non-trivial parses for sentences from nine languages in an integrated and language-agnostic manner, attaining performance superior or comparable to that of unsupervised PCFGs. We also verify that our approach is robust to cross-lingual transfer. Finally, we provide analyses on the inner workings of our method. For instance, we discover universal attention heads which are consistently sensitive to syntactic information irrespective of the input language.

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Hyperbolic Geometry is Not Necessary: Lightweight Euclidean-Based Models for Low-Dimensional Knowledge Graph Embeddings
Kai Wang | Yu Liu | Dan Lin | Michael Sheng

Recent knowledge graph embedding (KGE) models based on hyperbolic geometry have shown great potential in a low-dimensional embedding space. However, the necessity of hyperbolic space in KGE is still questionable, because the calculation based on hyperbolic geometry is much more complicated than Euclidean operations. In this paper, based on the state-of-the-art hyperbolic-based model RotH, we develop two lightweight Euclidean-based models, called RotL and Rot2L. The RotL model simplifies the hyperbolic operations while keeping the flexible normalization effect. Utilizing a novel two-layer stacked transformation and based on RotL, the Rot2L model obtains an improved representation capability, yet costs fewer parameters and calculations than RotH. The experiments on link prediction show that Rot2L achieves the state-of-the-art performance on two widely-used datasets in low-dimensional knowledge graph embeddings. Furthermore, RotL achieves similar performance as RotH but only requires half of the training time.

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CascadeBERT: Accelerating Inference of Pre-trained Language Models via Calibrated Complete Models Cascade
Lei Li | Yankai Lin | Deli Chen | Shuhuai Ren | Peng Li | Jie Zhou | Xu Sun

Dynamic early exiting aims to accelerate the inference of pre-trained language models (PLMs) by emitting predictions in internal layers without passing through the entire model. In this paper, we empirically analyze the working mechanism of dynamic early exiting and find that it faces a performance bottleneck under high speed-up ratios. On one hand, the PLMs’ representations in shallow layers lack high-level semantic information and thus are not sufficient for accurate predictions. On the other hand, the exiting decisions made by internal classifiers are unreliable, leading to wrongly emitted early predictions. We instead propose a new framework for accelerating the inference of PLMs, CascadeBERT, which dynamically selects proper-sized and complete models in a cascading manner, providing comprehensive representations for predictions. We further devise a difficulty-aware objective, encouraging the model to output the class probability that reflects the real difficulty of each instance for a more reliable cascading mechanism. Experimental results show that CascadeBERT can achieve an overall 15% improvement under 4x speed-up compared with existing dynamic early exiting methods on six classification tasks, yielding more calibrated and accurate predictions.

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Semi-supervised Relation Extraction via Incremental Meta Self-Training
Xuming Hu | Chenwei Zhang | Fukun Ma | Chenyao Liu | Lijie Wen | Philip S. Yu

To alleviate human efforts from obtaining large-scale annotations, Semi-Supervised Relation Extraction methods aim to leverage unlabeled data in addition to learning from limited samples. Existing self-training methods suffer from the gradual drift problem, where noisy pseudo labels on unlabeled data are incorporated during training. To alleviate the noise in pseudo labels, we propose a method called MetaSRE, where a Relation Label Generation Network generates accurate quality assessment on pseudo labels by (meta) learning from the successful and failed attempts on Relation Classification Network as an additional meta-objective. To reduce the influence of noisy pseudo labels, MetaSRE adopts a pseudo label selection and exploitation scheme which assesses pseudo label quality on unlabeled samples and only exploits high-quality pseudo labels in a self-training fashion to incrementally augment labeled samples for both robustness and accuracy. Experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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Keyphrase Generation with Fine-Grained Evaluation-Guided Reinforcement Learning
Yichao Luo | Yige Xu | Jiacheng Ye | Xipeng Qiu | Qi Zhang

Aiming to generate a set of keyphrases, Keyphrase Generation (KG) is a classical task for capturing the central idea from a given document. Based on Seq2Seq models, the previous reinforcement learning framework on KG tasks utilizes the evaluation metrics to further improve the well-trained neural models. However, these KG evaluation metrics such as F1@5 and F1@M are only aware of the exact correctness of predictions on phrase-level and ignore the semantic similarities between similar predictions and targets, which inhibits the model from learning deep linguistic patterns. In response to this problem, we propose a new fine-grained evaluation metric to improve the RL framework, which considers different granularities: token-level F1 score, edit distance, duplication, and prediction quantities. On the whole, the new framework includes two reward functions: the fine-grained evaluation score and the vanilla F1 score. This framework helps the model identifying some partial match phrases which can be further optimized as the exact match ones. Experiments on KG benchmarks show that our proposed training framework outperforms the previous RL training frameworks among all evaluation scores. In addition, our method can effectively ease the synonym problem and generate a higher quality prediction. The source code is available at

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Improving Knowledge Graph Embedding Using Affine Transformations of Entities Corresponding to Each Relation
Jinfa Yang | Yongjie Shi | Xin Tong | Robin Wang | Taiyan Chen | Xianghua Ying

To find a suitable embedding for a knowledge graph remains a big challenge nowadays. By using previous knowledge graph embedding methods, every entity in a knowledge graph is usually represented as a k-dimensional vector. As we know, an affine transformation can be expressed in the form of a matrix multiplication followed by a translation vector. In this paper, we firstly utilize a set of affine transformations related to each relation to operate on entity vectors, and then these transformed vectors are used for performing embedding with previous methods. The main advantage of using affine transformations is their good geometry properties with interpretability. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed intuitive design with affine transformations provides a statistically significant increase in performance with adding a few extra processing steps or adding a limited number of additional variables. Taking TransE as an example, we employ the scale transformation (the special case of an affine transformation), and only introduce k additional variables for each relation. Surprisingly, it even outperforms RotatE to some extent on various data sets. We also introduce affine transformations into RotatE, Distmult and ComplEx, respectively, and each one outperforms its original method.

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Using Question Answering Rewards to Improve Abstractive Summarization
Chulaka Gunasekara | Guy Feigenblat | Benjamin Sznajder | Ranit Aharonov | Sachindra Joshi

Neural abstractive summarization models have drastically improved in the recent years. However, the summaries generated by these models generally suffer from issues such as: not capturing the critical facts in source documents, and containing facts that are inconsistent with the source documents. In this work, we present a general framework to train abstractive summarization models to alleviate such issues. We first train a sequence-to-sequence model to summarize documents, and then further train this model in a Reinforcement Learning setting with question-answering based rewards. We evaluate the summaries generated by the this framework using multiple automatic measures and human judgements. The experimental results show that the question-answering rewards can be used as a general framework to improve neural abstractive summarization. Particularly, the results from human evaluations show that the summaries generated by our approach is preferred over 30% of the time over the summaries generated by general abstractive summarization models.

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Effect Generation Based on Causal Reasoning
Feiteng Mu | Wenjie Li | Zhipeng Xie

Causal reasoning aims to predict the future scenarios that may be caused by the observed actions. However, existing causal reasoning methods deal with causalities on the word level. In this paper, we propose a novel event-level causal reasoning method and demonstrate its use in the task of effect generation. In particular, we structuralize the observed cause-effect event pairs into an event causality network, which describes causality dependencies. Given an input cause sentence, a causal subgraph is retrieved from the event causality network and is encoded with the graph attention mechanism, in order to support better reasoning of the potential effects. The most probable effect event is then selected from the causal subgraph and is used as guidance to generate an effect sentence. Experiments show that our method generates more reasonable effect sentences than various well-designed competitors.

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Distilling Word Meaning in Context from Pre-trained Language Models
Yuki Arase | Tomoyuki Kajiwara

In this study, we propose a self-supervised learning method that distils representations of word meaning in context from a pre-trained masked language model. Word representations are the basis for context-aware lexical semantics and unsupervised semantic textual similarity (STS) estimation. A previous study transforms contextualised representations employing static word embeddings to weaken excessive effects of contextual information. In contrast, the proposed method derives representations of word meaning in context while preserving useful context information intact. Specifically, our method learns to combine outputs of different hidden layers using self-attention through self-supervised learning with an automatically generated training corpus. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we performed comparative experiments using a range of benchmark tasks. The results confirm that our representations exhibited a competitive performance compared to that of the state-of-the-art method transforming contextualised representations for the context-aware lexical semantic tasks and outperformed it for STS estimation.

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Unseen Entity Handling in Complex Question Answering over Knowledge Base via Language Generation
Xin Huang | Jung-Jae Kim | Bowei Zou

Complex question answering over knowledge base remains as a challenging task because it involves reasoning over multiple pieces of information, including intermediate entities/relations and other constraints. Previous methods simplify the SPARQL query of a question into such forms as a list or a graph, missing such constraints as “filter” and “order_by”, and present models specialized for generating those simplified forms from a given question. We instead introduce a novel approach that directly generates an executable SPARQL query without simplification, addressing the issue of generating unseen entities. We adapt large scale pre-trained encoder-decoder models and show that our method significantly outperforms the previous methods and also that our method has higher interpretability and computational efficiency than the previous methods.

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Bidirectional Hierarchical Attention Networks based on Document-level Context for Emotion Cause Extraction
Guimin Hu | Guangming Lu | Yi Zhao

Emotion cause extraction (ECE) aims to extract the causes behind the certain emotion in text. Some works related to the ECE task have been published and attracted lots of attention in recent years. However, these methods neglect two major issues: 1) pay few attentions to the effect of document-level context information on ECE, and 2) lack of sufficient exploration for how to effectively use the annotated emotion clause. For the first issue, we propose a bidirectional hierarchical attention network (BHA) corresponding to the specified candidate cause clause to capture the document-level context in a structured and dynamic manner. For the second issue, we design an emotional filtering module (EF) for each layer of the graph attention network, which calculates a gate score based on the emotion clause to filter the irrelevant information. Combining the BHA and EF, the EF-BHA can dynamically aggregate the contextual information from two directions and filters irrelevant information. The experimental results demonstrate that EF-BHA achieves the competitive performances on two public datasets in different languages (Chinese and English). Moreover, we quantify the effect of context on emotion cause extraction and provide the visualization of the interactions between candidate cause clauses and contexts.

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Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction in Federated Settings
Dianbo Sui | Yubo Chen | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao

In relation extraction, distant supervision is widely used to automatically label a large-scale training dataset by aligning a knowledge base with unstructured text. Most existing studies in this field have assumed there is a great deal of centralized unstructured text. However, in practice, texts are usually distributed on different platforms and cannot be centralized due to privacy restrictions. Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate distant supervision in the federated learning paradigm, which decouples the training of the model from the need for direct access to raw texts. However, overcoming label noise of distant supervision becomes more difficult in federated settings, because texts containing the same entity pair scatter around different platforms. In this paper, we propose a federated denoising framework to suppress label noise in federated settings. The key of this framework is a multiple instance learning based denoising method that is able to select reliable sentences via cross-platform collaboration. Various experiments on New York Times dataset and miRNA gene regulation relation dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Casting the Same Sentiment Classification Problem
Erik Körner | Ahmad Dawar Hakimi | Gerhard Heyer | Martin Potthast

We introduce and study a problem variant of sentiment analysis, namely the “same sentiment classification problem”, where, given a pair of texts, the task is to determine if they have the same sentiment, disregarding the actual sentiment polarity. Among other things, our goal is to enable a more topic-agnostic sentiment classification. We study the problem using the Yelp business review dataset, demonstrating how sentiment data needs to be prepared for this task, and then carry out sequence pair classification using the BERT language model. In a series of experiments, we achieve an accuracy above 83% for category subsets across topics, and 89% on average.

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Detecting Compositionally Out-of-Distribution Examples in Semantic Parsing
Denis Lukovnikov | Sina Daubener | Asja Fischer

While neural networks are ubiquitous in state-of-the-art semantic parsers, it has been shown that most standard models suffer from dramatic performance losses when faced with compositionally out-of-distribution (OOD) data. Recently several methods have been proposed to improve compositional generalization in semantic parsing. In this work we instead focus on the problem of detecting compositionally OOD examples with neural semantic parsers, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been investigated before. We investigate several strong yet simple methods for OOD detection based on predictive uncertainty. The experimental results demonstrate that these techniques perform well on the standard SCAN and CFQ datasets. Moreover, we show that OOD detection can be further improved by using a heterogeneous ensemble.

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Saliency-based Multi-View Mixed Language Training for Zero-shot Cross-lingual Classification
Siyu Lai | Hui Huang | Dong Jing | Yufeng Chen | Jinan Xu | Jian Liu

Recent multilingual pre-trained models, like XLM-RoBERTa (XLM-R), have been demonstrated effective in many cross-lingual tasks. However, there are still gaps between the contextualized representations of similar words in different languages. To solve this problem, we propose a novel framework named Multi-View Mixed Language Training (MVMLT), which leverages code-switched data with multi-view learning to fine-tune XLM-R. MVMLT uses gradient-based saliency to extract keywords which are the most relevant to downstream tasks and replaces them with the corresponding words in the target language dynamically. Furthermore, MVMLT utilizes multi-view learning to encourage contextualized embeddings to align into a more refined language-invariant space. Extensive experiments with four languages show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results on zero-shot cross-lingual sentiment classification and dialogue state tracking tasks, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed model.

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Fighting the COVID-19 Infodemic: Modeling the Perspective of Journalists, Fact-Checkers, Social Media Platforms, Policy Makers, and the Society
Firoj Alam | Shaden Shaar | Fahim Dalvi | Hassan Sajjad | Alex Nikolov | Hamdy Mubarak | Giovanni Da San Martino | Ahmed Abdelali | Nadir Durrani | Kareem Darwish | Abdulaziz Al-Homaid | Wajdi Zaghouani | Tommaso Caselli | Gijs Danoe | Friso Stolk | Britt Bruntink | Preslav Nakov

With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the political and the medical aspects of disinformation merged as the problem got elevated to a whole new level to become the first global infodemic. Fighting this infodemic has been declared one of the most important focus areas of the World Health Organization, with dangers ranging from promoting fake cures, rumors, and conspiracy theories to spreading xenophobia and panic. Addressing the issue requires solving a number of challenging problems such as identifying messages containing claims, determining their check-worthiness and factuality, and their potential to do harm as well as the nature of that harm, to mention just a few. To address this gap, we release a large dataset of 16K manually annotated tweets for fine-grained disinformation analysis that (i) focuses on COVID-19, (ii) combines the perspectives and the interests of journalists, fact-checkers, social media platforms, policy makers, and society, and (iii) covers Arabic, Bulgarian, Dutch, and English. Finally, we show strong evaluation results using pretrained Transformers, thus confirming the practical utility of the dataset in monolingual vs. multilingual, and single task vs. multitask settings.

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FANATIC: FAst Noise-Aware TopIc Clustering
Ari Silburt | Anja Subasic | Evan Thompson | Carmeline Dsilva | Tarec Fares

Extracting salient topics from a collection of documents can be a challenging task when a) the amount of data is large, b) the number of topics is not known a priori, and/or c) “topic noise” is present. We define “topic noise” as the collection of documents that are irrelevant to any coherent topic and should be filtered out. By design, most clustering algorithms (e.g. k-means, hierarchical clustering) assign all input documents to one of the available clusters, guaranteeing any topic noise to propagate into the result. To address these challenges, we present a novel algorithm, FANATIC, that efficiently distinguishes documents from genuine topics and those that are topic noise. We also introduce a new Reddit dataset to showcase FANATIC as it contains short, noisy data that is difficult to cluster using most clustering algorithms. We find that FANATIC clusters 500k Reddit titles (of which 20% are topic noise) in 2 minutes and achieves an AMI score of 0.59, in contrast with hdbscan (McInnes et al., 2017), a popular algorithm suited for this type of task, which requires over 7 hours and achieves an AMI of 0.03. Finally, we test FANATIC against a Twitter dataset and find again that it outperforms the other algorithms with an AMI score of 0.60. We make our code and data publicly available.

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Stream-level Latency Evaluation for Simultaneous Machine Translation
Javier Iranzo-Sánchez | Jorge Civera Saiz | Alfons Juan

Simultaneous machine translation has recently gained traction thanks to significant quality improvements and the advent of streaming applications. Simultaneous translation systems need to find a trade-off between translation quality and response time, and with this purpose multiple latency measures have been proposed. However, latency evaluations for simultaneous translation are estimated at the sentence level, not taking into account the sequential nature of a streaming scenario. Indeed, these sentence-level latency measures are not well suited for continuous stream translation, resulting in figures that are not coherent with the simultaneous translation policy of the system being assessed. This work proposes a stream level adaptation of the current latency measures based on a re-segmentation approach applied to the output translation, that is successfully evaluated on streaming conditions for a reference IWSLT task.

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TSDAE: Using Transformer-based Sequential Denoising Auto-Encoderfor Unsupervised Sentence Embedding Learning
Kexin Wang | Nils Reimers | Iryna Gurevych

Learning sentence embeddings often requires a large amount of labeled data. However, for most tasks and domains, labeled data is seldom available and creating it is expensive. In this work, we present a new state-of-the-art unsupervised method based on pre-trained Transformers and Sequential Denoising Auto-Encoder (TSDAE) which outperforms previous approaches by up to 6.4 points. It can achieve up to 93.1% of the performance of in-domain supervised approaches. Further, we show that TSDAE is a strong domain adaptation and pre-training method for sentence embeddings, significantly outperforming other approaches like Masked Language Model. A crucial shortcoming of previous studies is the narrow evaluation: Most work mainly evaluates on the single task of Semantic Textual Similarity (STS), which does not require any domain knowledge. It is unclear if these proposed methods generalize to other domains and tasks. We fill this gap and evaluate TSDAE and other recent approaches on four different datasets from heterogeneous domains.

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How Suitable Are Subword Segmentation Strategies for Translating Non-Concatenative Morphology?
Chantal Amrhein | Rico Sennrich

Data-driven subword segmentation has become the default strategy for open-vocabulary machine translation and other NLP tasks, but may not be sufficiently generic for optimal learning of non-concatenative morphology. We design a test suite to evaluate segmentation strategies on different types of morphological phenomena in a controlled, semi-synthetic setting. In our experiments, we compare how well machine translation models trained on subword- and character-level can translate these morphological phenomena. We find that learning to analyse and generate morphologically complex surface representations is still challenging, especially for non-concatenative morphological phenomena like reduplication or vowel harmony and for rare word stems. Based on our results, we recommend that novel text representation strategies be tested on a range of typologically diverse languages to minimise the risk of adopting a strategy that inadvertently disadvantages certain languages.

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Rethinking Why Intermediate-Task Fine-Tuning Works
Ting-Yun Chang | Chi-Jen Lu

Supplementary Training on Intermediate Labeled-data Tasks (STILT) is a widely applied technique, which first fine-tunes the pretrained language models on an intermediate task before on the target task of interest. While STILT is able to further improve the performance of pretrained language models, it is still unclear why and when it works. Previous research shows that those intermediate tasks involving complex inference, such as commonsense reasoning, work especially well for RoBERTa-large. In this paper, we discover that the improvement from an intermediate task could be orthogonal to it containing reasoning or other complex skills — a simple real-fake discrimination task synthesized by GPT2 can benefit diverse target tasks. We conduct extensive experiments to study the impact of different factors on STILT. These findings suggest rethinking the role of intermediate fine-tuning in the STILT pipeline.

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Learn Continually, Generalize Rapidly: Lifelong Knowledge Accumulation for Few-shot Learning
Xisen Jin | Bill Yuchen Lin | Mohammad Rostami | Xiang Ren

The ability to continuously expand knowledge over time and utilize it to rapidly generalize to new tasks is a key feature of human linguistic intelligence. Existing models that pursue rapid generalization to new tasks (e.g., few-shot learning methods), however, are mostly trained in a single shot on fixed datasets, unable to dynamically expand their knowledge; while continual learning algorithms are not specifically designed for rapid generalization. We present a new learning setup, Continual Learning of Few-Shot Learners (CLIF), to address challenges of both learning settings in a unified setup. CLIF assumes a model learns from a sequence of diverse NLP tasks arriving sequentially, accumulating knowledge for improved generalization to new tasks, while also retaining performance on the tasks learned earlier. We examine how the generalization ability is affected in the continual learning setup, evaluate a number of continual learning algorithms, and propose a novel regularized adapter generation approach. We find that catastrophic forgetting affects generalization ability to a lesser degree than performance on seen tasks; while continual learning algorithms can still bring considerable benefit to the generalization ability.

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Efficient Test Time Adapter Ensembling for Low-resource Language Varieties
Xinyi Wang | Yulia Tsvetkov | Sebastian Ruder | Graham Neubig

Adapters are light-weight modules that allow parameter-efficient fine-tuning of pretrained models. Specialized language and task adapters have recently been proposed to facilitate cross-lingual transfer of multilingual pretrained models (Pfeiffer et al., 2020b). However, this approach requires training a separate language adapter for every language one wishes to support, which can be impractical for languages with limited data. An intuitive solution is to use a related language adapter for the new language variety, but we observe that this solution can lead to sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we aim to improve the robustness of language adapters to uncovered languages without training new adapters. We find that ensembling multiple existing language adapters makes the fine-tuned model significantly more robust to other language varieties not included in these adapters. Building upon this observation, we propose Entropy Minimized Ensemble of Adapters (EMEA), a method that optimizes the ensemble weights of the pretrained language adapters for each test sentence by minimizing the entropy of its predictions. Experiments on three diverse groups of language varieties show that our method leads to significant improvements on both named entity recognition and part-of-speech tagging across all languages.

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An Analysis of Euclidean vs. Graph-Based Framing for Bilingual Lexicon Induction from Word Embedding Spaces
Kelly Marchisio | Youngser Park | Ali Saad-Eldin | Anton Alyakin | Kevin Duh | Carey Priebe | Philipp Koehn

Much recent work in bilingual lexicon induction (BLI) views word embeddings as vectors in Euclidean space. As such, BLI is typically solved by finding a linear transformation that maps embeddings to a common space. Alternatively, word embeddings may be understood as nodes in a weighted graph. This framing allows us to examine a node’s graph neighborhood without assuming a linear transform, and exploits new techniques from the graph matching optimization literature. These contrasting approaches have not been compared in BLI so far. In this work, we study the behavior of Euclidean versus graph-based approaches to BLI under differing data conditions and show that they complement each other when combined. We release our code at

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How to Select One Among All ? An Empirical Study Towards the Robustness of Knowledge Distillation in Natural Language Understanding
Tianda Li | Ahmad Rashid | Aref Jafari | Pranav Sharma | Ali Ghodsi | Mehdi Rezagholizadeh

Knowledge Distillation (KD) is a model compression algorithm that helps transfer the knowledge in a large neural network into a smaller one. Even though KD has shown promise on a wide range of Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, little is understood about how one KD algorithm compares to another and whether these approaches can be complimentary to each other. In this work, we evaluate various KD algorithms on in-domain, out-of-domain and adversarial testing. We propose a framework to assess adversarial robustness of multiple KD algorithms. Moreover, we introduce a new KD algorithm, Combined-KD, which takes advantage of two promising approaches (better training scheme and more efficient data augmentation). Our extensive experimental results show that Combined-KD achieves state-of-the-art results on the GLUE benchmark, out-of-domain generalization, and adversarial robustness compared to competitive methods.

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Recommend for a Reason: Unlocking the Power of Unsupervised Aspect-Sentiment Co-Extraction
Zeyu Li | Wei Cheng | Reema Kshetramade | John Houser | Haifeng Chen | Wei Wang

Compliments and concerns in reviews are valuable for understanding users’ shopping interests and their opinions with respect to specific aspects of certain items. Existing review-based recommenders favor large and complex language encoders that can only learn latent and uninterpretable text representations. They lack explicit user-attention and item-property modeling, which however could provide valuable information beyond the ability to recommend items. Therefore, we propose a tightly coupled two-stage approach, including an Aspect-Sentiment Pair Extractor (ASPE) and an Attention-Property-aware Rating Estimator (APRE). Unsupervised ASPE mines Aspect-Sentiment pairs (AS-pairs) and APRE predicts ratings using AS-pairs as concrete aspect-level evidences. Extensive experiments on seven real-world Amazon Review Datasets demonstrate that ASPE can effectively extract AS-pairs which enable APRE to deliver superior accuracy over the leading baselines.

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Learning Hard Retrieval Decoder Attention for Transformers
Hongfei Xu | Qiuhui Liu | Josef van Genabith | Deyi Xiong

The Transformer translation model is based on the multi-head attention mechanism, which can be parallelized easily. The multi-head attention network performs the scaled dot-product attention function in parallel, empowering the model by jointly attending to information from different representation subspaces at different positions. In this paper, we present an approach to learning a hard retrieval attention where an attention head only attends to one token in the sentence rather than all tokens. The matrix multiplication between attention probabilities and the value sequence in the standard scaled dot-product attention can thus be replaced by a simple and efficient retrieval operation. We show that our hard retrieval attention mechanism is 1.43 times faster in decoding, while preserving translation quality on a wide range of machine translation tasks when used in the decoder self- and cross-attention networks.

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Recall and Learn: A Memory-augmented Solver for Math Word Problems
Shifeng Huang | Jiawei Wang | Jiao Xu | Da Cao | Ming Yang

In this article, we tackle the math word problem, namely, automatically answering a mathematical problem according to its textual description. Although recent methods have demonstrated their promising results, most of these methods are based on template-based generation scheme which results in limited generalization capability. To this end, we propose a novel human-like analogical learning method in a recall and learn manner. Our proposed framework is composed of modules of memory, representation, analogy, and reasoning, which are designed to make a new exercise by referring to the exercises learned in the past. Specifically, given a math word problem, the model first retrieves similar questions by a memory module and then encodes the unsolved problem and each retrieved question using a representation module. Moreover, to solve the problem in a way of analogy, an analogy module and a reasoning module with a copy mechanism are proposed to model the interrelationship between the problem and each retrieved question. Extensive experiments on two well-known datasets show the superiority of our proposed algorithm as compared to other state-of-the-art competitors from both overall performance comparison and micro-scope studies.

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An Uncertainty-Aware Encoder for Aspect Detection
Thi-Nhung Nguyen | Kiem-Hieu Nguyen | Young-In Song | Tuan-Dung Cao

Aspect detection is a fundamental task in opinion mining. Previous works use seed words either as priors of topic models, as anchors to guide the learning of aspects, or as features of aspect classifiers. This paper presents a novel weakly-supervised method to exploit seed words for aspect detection based on an encoder architecture. The encoder maps segments and aspects into a low-dimensional embedding space. The goal is approximating similarity between segments and aspects in the embedding space and their ground-truth similarity generated from seed words. An objective function is proposed to capture the uncertainty of ground-truth similarity. Our method outperforms previous works on several benchmarks in various domains.

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Improving Empathetic Response Generation by Recognizing Emotion Cause in Conversations
Jun Gao | Yuhan Liu | Haolin Deng | Wei Wang | Yu Cao | Jiachen Du | Ruifeng Xu

Current approaches to empathetic response generation focus on learning a model to predict an emotion label and generate a response based on this label and have achieved promising results. However, the emotion cause, an essential factor for empathetic responding, is ignored. The emotion cause is a stimulus for human emotions. Recognizing the emotion cause is helpful to better understand human emotions so as to generate more empathetic responses. To this end, we propose a novel framework that improves empathetic response generation by recognizing emotion cause in conversations. Specifically, an emotion reasoner is designed to predict a context emotion label and a sequence of emotion cause-oriented labels, which indicate whether the word is related to the emotion cause. Then we devise both hard and soft gated attention mechanisms to incorporate the emotion cause into response generation. Experiments show that incorporating emotion cause information improves the performance of the model on both emotion recognition and response generation.

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Probing Across Time: What Does RoBERTa Know and When?
Zeyu Liu | Yizhong Wang | Jungo Kasai | Hannaneh Hajishirzi | Noah A. Smith

Models of language trained on very large corpora have been demonstrated useful for natural language processing. As fixed artifacts, they have become the object of intense study, with many researchers “probing” the extent to which they acquire and readily demonstrate linguistic abstractions, factual and commonsense knowledge, and reasoning abilities. Recent work applied several probes to intermediate training stages to observe the developmental process of a large-scale model (Chiang et al., 2020). Following this effort, we systematically answer a question: for various types of knowledge a language model learns, when during (pre)training are they acquired? Using RoBERTa as a case study, we find: linguistic knowledge is acquired fast, stably, and robustly across domains. Facts and commonsense are slower and more domain-sensitive. Reasoning abilities are, in general, not stably acquired. As new datasets, pretraining protocols, and probes emerge, we believe that probing-across-time analyses can help researchers understand the complex, intermingled learning that these models undergo and guide us toward more efficient approaches that accomplish necessary learning faster.

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Knowledge-Guided Paraphrase Identification
Haoyu Wang | Fenglong Ma | Yaqing Wang | Jing Gao

Paraphrase identification (PI), a fundamental task in natural language processing, is to identify whether two sentences express the same or similar meaning, which is a binary classification problem. Recently, BERT-like pre-trained language models have been a popular choice for the frameworks of various PI models, but almost all existing methods consider general domain text. When these approaches are applied to a specific domain, existing models cannot make accurate predictions due to the lack of professional knowledge. In light of this challenge, we propose a novel framework, namely , which can leverage the external unstructured Wikipedia knowledge to accurately identify paraphrases. We propose to mine outline knowledge of concepts related to given sentences from Wikipedia via BM25 model. After retrieving related outline knowledge, makes predictions based on both the semantic information of two sentences and the outline knowledge. Besides, we propose a gating mechanism to aggregate the semantic information-based prediction and the knowledge-based prediction. Extensive experiments are conducted on two public datasets: PARADE (a computer science domain dataset) and clinicalSTS2019 (a biomedical domain dataset). The results show that the proposed outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

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R2-D2: A Modular Baseline for Open-Domain Question Answering
Martin Fajcik | Martin Docekal | Karel Ondrej | Pavel Smrz

This work presents a novel four-stage open-domain QA pipeline R2-D2 (Rank twice, reaD twice). The pipeline is composed of a retriever, passage reranker, extractive reader, generative reader and a mechanism that aggregates the final prediction from all system’s components. We demonstrate its strength across three open-domain QA datasets: NaturalQuestions, TriviaQA and EfficientQA, surpassing state-of-the-art on the first two. Our analysis demonstrates that: (i) combining extractive and generative reader yields absolute improvements up to 5 exact match and it is at least twice as effective as the posterior averaging ensemble of the same models with different parameters, (ii) the extractive reader with fewer parameters can match the performance of the generative reader on extractive QA datasets.

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What Does Your Smile Mean? Jointly Detecting Multi-Modal Sarcasm and Sentiment Using Quantum Probability
Yaochen Liu | Yazhou Zhang | Qiuchi Li | Benyou Wang | Dawei Song

Sarcasm and sentiment embody intrinsic uncertainty of human cognition, making joint detection of multi-modal sarcasm and sentiment a challenging task. In view of the advantages of quantum probability (QP) in modeling such uncertainty, this paper explores the potential of QP as a mathematical framework and proposes a QP driven multi-task (QPM) learning framework. The QPM framework involves a complex-valued multi-modal representation encoder, a quantum-like fusion subnetwork and a quantum measurement mechanism. Each multi-modal (e.g., textual, visual) utterance is first encoded as a quantum superposition of a set of basis terms using a complex-valued representation. Then, the quantum-like fusion subnetwork leverages quantum state composition and quantum interference to model the contextual interaction between adjacent utterances and the correlations across modalities respectively. Finally, quantum incompatible measurements are performed on the multi-modal representation of each utterance to yield the probabilistic outcomes of sarcasm and sentiment recognition. The experimental results show that our model achieves a state-of-the-art performance.

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Discovering Representation Sprachbund For Multilingual Pre-Training
Yimin Fan | Yaobo Liang | Alexandre Muzio | Hany Hassan | Houqiang Li | Ming Zhou | Nan Duan

Multilingual pre-trained models have demonstrated their effectiveness in many multilingual NLP tasks and enabled zero-shot or few-shot transfer from high-resource languages to low-resource ones. However, due to significant typological differences and contradictions between some languages, such models usually perform poorly on many languages and cross-lingual settings, which shows the difficulty of learning a single model to handle massive diverse languages well at the same time. To alleviate this issue, we present a new multilingual pre-training pipeline. We propose to generate language representation from multilingual pre-trained model and conduct linguistic analysis to show that language representation similarity reflects linguistic similarity from multiple perspectives, including language family, geographical sprachbund, lexicostatistics, and syntax. Then we cluster all the target languages into multiple groups and name each group as a representation sprachbund. Thus, languages in the same representation sprachbund are supposed to boost each other in both pre-training and fine-tuning as they share rich linguistic similarity. We pre-train one multilingual model for each representation sprachbund. Experiments are conducted on cross-lingual benchmarks and significant improvements are achieved compared to strong baselines.

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Plan-then-Generate: Controlled Data-to-Text Generation via Planning
Yixuan Su | David Vandyke | Sihui Wang | Yimai Fang | Nigel Collier

Recent developments in neural networks have led to the advance in data-to-text generation. However, the lack of ability of neural models to control the structure of generated output can be limiting in certain real-world applications. In this study, we propose a novel Plan-then-Generate (PlanGen) framework to improve the controllability of neural data-to-text models. Extensive experiments and analyses are conducted on two benchmark datasets, ToTTo and WebNLG. The results show that our model is able to control both the intra-sentence and inter-sentence structure of the generated output. Furthermore, empirical comparisons against previous state-of-the-art methods show that our model improves the generation quality as well as the output diversity as judged by human and automatic evaluations.

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Few-Shot Table-to-Text Generation with Prototype Memory
Yixuan Su | Zaiqiao Meng | Simon Baker | Nigel Collier

Neural table-to-text generation models have achieved remarkable progress on an array of tasks. However, due to the data-hungry nature of neural models, their performances strongly rely on large-scale training examples, limiting their applicability in real-world applications. To address this, we propose a new framework: Prototype-to-Generate (P2G), for table-to-text generation under the few-shot scenario. The proposed framework utilizes the retrieved prototypes, which are jointly selected by an IR system and a novel prototype selector to help the model bridging the structural gap between tables and texts. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets with three state-of-the-art models demonstrate that the proposed framework significantly improves the model performance across various evaluation metrics.

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Leveraging Word-Formation Knowledge for Chinese Word Sense Disambiguation
Hua Zheng | Lei Li | Damai Dai | Deli Chen | Tianyu Liu | Xu Sun | Yang Liu

In parataxis languages like Chinese, word meanings are constructed using specific word-formations, which can help to disambiguate word senses. However, such knowledge is rarely explored in previous word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods. In this paper, we propose to leverage word-formation knowledge to enhance Chinese WSD. We first construct a large-scale Chinese lexical sample WSD dataset with word-formations. Then, we propose a model FormBERT to explicitly incorporate word-formations into sense disambiguation. To further enhance generalizability, we design a word-formation predictor module in case word-formation annotations are unavailable. Experimental results show that our method brings substantial performance improvement over strong baselines.

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Exploiting Curriculum Learning in Unsupervised Neural Machine Translation
Jinliang Lu | Jiajun Zhang

Back-translation (BT) has become one of the de facto components in unsupervised neural machine translation (UNMT), and it explicitly makes UNMT have translation ability. However, all the pseudo bi-texts generated by BT are treated equally as clean data during optimization without considering the quality diversity, leading to slow convergence and limited translation performance. To address this problem, we propose a curriculum learning method to gradually utilize pseudo bi-texts based on their quality from multiple granularities. Specifically, we first apply crosslingual word embedding to calculate the potential translation difficulty (quality) for the monolingual sentences. Then, the sentences are fed into UNMT from easy to hard batch by batch. Furthermore, considering the quality of sentences/tokens in a particular batch are also diverse, we further adopt the model itself to calculate the fine-grained quality scores, which are served as learning factors to balance the contributions of different parts when computing loss and encourage the UNMT model to focus on pseudo data with higher quality. Experimental results on WMT 14 En-Fr, WMT 14 En-De, WMT 16 En-Ro, and LDC En-Zh translation tasks demonstrate that the proposed method achieves consistent improvements with faster convergence speed.

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Robust Fragment-Based Framework for Cross-lingual Sentence Retrieval
Nattapol Trijakwanich | Peerat Limkonchotiwat | Raheem Sarwar | Wannaphong Phatthiyaphaibun | Ekapol Chuangsuwanich | Sarana Nutanong

Cross-lingual Sentence Retrieval (CLSR) aims at retrieving parallel sentence pairs that are translations of each other from a multilingual set of comparable documents. The retrieved parallel sentence pairs can be used in other downstream NLP tasks such as machine translation and cross-lingual word sense disambiguation. We propose a CLSR framework called Robust Fragment-level Representation (RFR) CLSR framework to address Out-of-Domain (OOD) CLSR problems. In particular, we improve the sentence retrieval robustness by representing each sentence as a collection of fragments. In this way, we change the retrieval granularity from the sentence to the fragment level. We performed CLSR experiments based on three OOD datasets, four language pairs, and three base well-known sentence encoders: m-USE, LASER, and LaBSE. Experimental results show that RFR significantly improves the base encoders’ performance for more than 85% of the cases.

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Towards Improving Adversarial Training of NLP Models
Jin Yong Yoo | Yanjun Qi

Adversarial training, a method for learning robust deep neural networks, constructs adversarial examples during training. However, recent methods for generating NLP adversarial examples involve combinatorial search and expensive sentence encoders for constraining the generated instances. As a result, it remains challenging to use vanilla adversarial training to improve NLP models’ performance, and the benefits are mainly uninvestigated. This paper proposes a simple and improved vanilla adversarial training process for NLP models, which we name Attacking to Training (A2T). The core part of A2T is a new and cheaper word substitution attack optimized for vanilla adversarial training. We use A2T to train BERT and RoBERTa models on IMDB, Rotten Tomatoes, Yelp, and SNLI datasets. Our results empirically show that it is possible to train robust NLP models using a much cheaper adversary. We demonstrate that vanilla adversarial training with A2T can improve an NLP model’s robustness to the attack it was originally trained with and also defend the model against other types of word substitution attacks. Furthermore, we show that A2T can improve NLP models’ standard accuracy, cross-domain generalization, and interpretability.

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To Protect and To Serve? Analyzing Entity-Centric Framing of Police Violence
Caleb Ziems | Diyi Yang

Framing has significant but subtle effects on public opinion and policy. We propose an NLP framework to measure entity-centric frames. We use it to understand media coverage on police violence in the United States in a new Police Violence Frames Corpus of 82k news articles spanning 7k police killings. Our work uncovers more than a dozen framing devices and reveals significant differences in the way liberal and conservative news sources frame both the issue of police violence and the entities involved. Conservative sources emphasize when the victim is armed or attacking an officer and are more likely to mention the victim’s criminal record. Liberal sources focus more on the underlying systemic injustice, highlighting the victim’s race and that they were unarmed. We discover temporary spikes in these injustice frames near high-profile shooting events, and finally, we show protest volume correlates with and precedes media framing decisions.

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Calibrate your listeners! Robust communication-based training for pragmatic speakers
Rose Wang | Julia White | Jesse Mu | Noah Goodman

To be good conversational partners, natural language processing (NLP) systems should be trained to produce contextually useful utterances. Prior work has investigated training NLP systems with communication-based objectives, where a neural listener stands in as a communication partner. However, these systems commonly suffer from semantic drift where the learned language diverges radically from natural language. We propose a method that uses a population of neural listeners to regularize speaker training. We first show that language drift originates from the poor uncertainty calibration of a neural listener, which makes high-certainty predictions on novel sentences. We explore ensemble- and dropout-based populations of listeners and find that the former results in better uncertainty quantification. We evaluate both population-based objectives on reference games, and show that the ensemble method with better calibration enables the speaker to generate pragmatic utterances while scaling to a large vocabulary and generalizing to new games and listeners.

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When Retriever-Reader Meets Scenario-Based Multiple-Choice Questions
ZiXian Huang | Ao Wu | Yulin Shen | Gong Cheng | Yuzhong Qu

Scenario-based question answering (SQA) requires retrieving and reading paragraphs from a large corpus to answer a question which is contextualized by a long scenario description. Since a scenario contains both keyphrases for retrieval and much noise, retrieval for SQA is extremely difficult. Moreover, it can hardly be supervised due to the lack of relevance labels of paragraphs for SQA. To meet the challenge, in this paper we propose a joint retriever-reader model called JEEVES where the retriever is implicitly supervised only using QA labels via a novel word weighting mechanism. JEEVES significantly outperforms a variety of strong baselines on multiple-choice questions in three SQA datasets.

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Structured abbreviation expansion in context
Kyle Gorman | Christo Kirov | Brian Roark | Richard Sproat

Ad hoc abbreviations are commonly found in informal communication channels that favor shorter messages. We consider the task of reversing these abbreviations in context to recover normalized, expanded versions of abbreviated messages. The problem is related to, but distinct from, spelling correction, as ad hoc abbreviations are intentional and can involve more substantial differences from the original words. Ad hoc abbreviations are also productively generated on-the-fly, so they cannot be resolved solely by dictionary lookup. We generate a large, open-source data set of ad hoc abbreviations. This data is used to study abbreviation strategies and to develop two strong baselines for abbreviation expansion.

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Task-adaptive Pre-training and Self-training are Complementary for Natural Language Understanding
Shiyang Li | Semih Yavuz | Wenhu Chen | Xifeng Yan

Task-adaptive pre-training (TAPT) and Self-training (ST) have emerged as the major semi-supervised approaches to improve natural language understanding (NLU) tasks with massive amount of unlabeled data. However, it’s unclear whether they learn similar representations or they can be effectively combined. In this paper, we show that TAPT and ST can be complementary with simple TFS protocol by following TAPT -> Finetuning -> Self-training (TFS) process. Experimental results show that TFS protocol can effectively utilize unlabeled data to achieve strong combined gains consistently across six datasets covering sentiment classification, paraphrase identification, natural language inference, named entity recognition and dialogue slot classification. We investigate various semi-supervised settings and consistently show that gains from TAPT and ST can be strongly additive by following TFS procedure. We hope that TFS could serve as an important semi-supervised baseline for future NLP studies.

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CNNBiF: CNN-based Bigram Features for Named Entity Recognition
Chul Sung | Vaibhava Goel | Etienne Marcheret | Steven Rennie | David Nahamoo

Transformer models fine-tuned with a sequence labeling objective have become the dominant choice for named entity recognition tasks. However, a self-attention mechanism with unconstrained length can fail to fully capture local dependencies, particularly when training data is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel joint training objective which better captures the semantics of words corresponding to the same entity. By augmenting the training objective with a group-consistency loss component we enhance our ability to capture local dependencies while still enjoying the advantages of the unconstrained self-attention mechanism. On the CoNLL2003 dataset, our method achieves a test F1 of 93.98 with a single transformer model. More importantly our fine-tuned CoNLL2003 model displays significant gains in generalization to out of domain datasets: on the OntoNotes subset we achieve an F1 of 72.67 which is 0.49 points absolute better than the baseline, and on the WNUT16 set an F1 of 68.22 which is a gain of 0.48 points. Furthermore, on the WNUT17 dataset we achieve an F1 of 55.85, yielding a 2.92 point absolute improvement.

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Compositional Generalization via Semantic Tagging
Hao Zheng | Mirella Lapata

Although neural sequence-to-sequence models have been successfully applied to semantic parsing, they fail at compositional generalization, i.e., they are unable to systematically generalize to unseen compositions of seen components. Motivated by traditional semantic parsing where compositionality is explicitly accounted for by symbolic grammars, we propose a new decoding framework that preserves the expressivity and generality of sequence-to-sequence models while featuring lexicon-style alignments and disentangled information processing. Specifically, we decompose decoding into two phases where an input utterance is first tagged with semantic symbols representing the meaning of individual words, and then a sequence-to-sequence model is used to predict the final meaning representation conditioning on the utterance and the predicted tag sequence. Experimental results on three semantic parsing datasets show that the proposed approach consistently improves compositional generalization across model architectures, domains, and semantic formalisms.

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Towards Document-Level Paraphrase Generation with Sentence Rewriting and Reordering
Zhe Lin | Yitao Cai | Xiaojun Wan

Paraphrase generation is an important task in natural language processing. Previous works focus on sentence-level paraphrase generation, while ignoring document-level paraphrase generation, which is a more challenging and valuable task. In this paper, we explore the task of document-level paraphrase generation for the first time and focus on the inter-sentence diversity by considering sentence rewriting and reordering. We propose CoRPG (Coherence Relationship guided Paraphrase Generation), which leverages graph GRU to encode the coherence relationship graph and get the coherence-aware representation for each sentence, which can be used for re-arranging the multiple (possibly modified) input sentences. We create a pseudo document-level paraphrase dataset for training CoRPG. Automatic evaluation results show CoRPG outperforms several strong baseline models on the BERTScore and diversity scores. Human evaluation also shows our model can generate document paraphrase with more diversity and semantic preservation.

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Exploring Decomposition for Table-based Fact Verification
Xiaoyu Yang | Xiaodan Zhu

Fact verification based on structured data is challenging as it requires models to understand both natural language and symbolic operations performed over tables. Although pre-trained language models have demonstrated a strong capability in verifying simple statements, they struggle with complex statements that involve multiple operations. In this paper, we improve fact verification by decomposing complex statements into simpler subproblems. Leveraging the programs synthesized by a weakly supervised semantic parser, we propose a program-guided approach to constructing a pseudo dataset for decomposition model training. The subproblems, together with their predicted answers, serve as the intermediate evidence to enhance our fact verification model. Experiments show that our proposed approach achieves the new state-of-the-art performance, an 82.7% accuracy, on the TabFact benchmark.

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Diversity and Consistency: Exploring Visual Question-Answer Pair Generation
Sen Yang | Qingyu Zhou | Dawei Feng | Yang Liu | Chao Li | Yunbo Cao | Dongsheng Li

Although showing promising values to downstream applications, generating question and answer together is under-explored. In this paper, we introduce a novel task that targets question-answer pair generation from visual images. It requires not only generating diverse question-answer pairs but also keeping the consistency of them. We study different generation paradigms for this task and propose three models: the pipeline model, the joint model, and the sequential model. We integrate variational inference into these models to achieve diversity and consistency. We also propose region representation scaling and attention alignment to improve the consistency further. We finally devise an evaluator as a quantitative metric for consistency. We validate our approach on two benchmarks, VQA2.0 and Visual-7w, by automatically and manually evaluating diversity and consistency. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our models: they can generate diverse or consistent pairs. Moreover, this task can be used to improve visual question generation and visual question answering.

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Entity-level Cross-modal Learning Improves Multi-modal Machine Translation
Xin Huang | Jiajun Zhang | Chengqing Zong

Multi-modal machine translation (MMT) aims at improving translation performance by incorporating visual information. Most of the studies leverage the visual information through integrating the global image features as auxiliary input or decoding by attending to relevant local regions of the image. However, this kind of usage of visual information makes it difficult to figure out how the visual modality helps and why it works. Inspired by the findings of (CITATION) that entities are most informative in the image, we propose an explicit entity-level cross-modal learning approach that aims to augment the entity representation. Specifically, the approach is framed as a reconstruction task that reconstructs the original textural input from multi-modal input in which entities are replaced with visual features. Then, a multi-task framework is employed to combine the translation task and the reconstruction task to make full use of cross-modal entity representation learning. The extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach can achieve comparable or even better performance than state-of-the-art models. Furthermore, our in-depth analysis shows how visual information improves translation.

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Learning to Ground Visual Objects for Visual Dialog
Feilong Chen | Xiuyi Chen | Can Xu | Daxin Jiang

Visual dialog is challenging since it needs to answer a series of coherent questions based on understanding the visual environment. How to ground related visual objects is one of the key problems. Previous studies utilize the question and history to attend to the image and achieve satisfactory performance, while these methods are not sufficient to locate related visual objects without any guidance. The inappropriate grounding of visual objects prohibits the performance of visual dialog models. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to Learn to Ground visual objects for visual dialog, which employs a novel visual objects grounding mechanism where both prior and posterior distributions over visual objects are used to facilitate visual objects grounding. Specifically, a posterior distribution over visual objects is inferred from both context (history and questions) and answers, and it ensures the appropriate grounding of visual objects during the training process. Meanwhile, a prior distribution, which is inferred from context only, is used to approximate the posterior distribution so that appropriate visual objects can be grounding even without answers during the inference process. Experimental results on the VisDial v0.9 and v1.0 datasets demonstrate that our approach improves the previous strong models in both generative and discriminative settings by a significant margin.

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KERS: A Knowledge-Enhanced Framework for Recommendation Dialog Systems with Multiple Subgoals
Jun Zhang | Yan Yang | Chencai Chen | Liang He | Zhou Yu

Recommendation dialogs require the system to build a social bond with users to gain trust and develop affinity in order to increase the chance of a successful recommendation. It is beneficial to divide up, such conversations with multiple subgoals (such as social chat, question answering, recommendation, etc.), so that the system can retrieve appropriate knowledge with better accuracy under different subgoals. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for common knowledge-based multi-subgoal dialog: knowledge-enhanced multi-subgoal driven recommender system (KERS). We first predict a sequence of subgoals and use them to guide the dialog model to select knowledge from a sub-set of existing knowledge graph. We then propose three new mechanisms to filter noisy knowledge and to enhance the inclusion of cleaned knowledge in the dialog response generation process. Experiments show that our method obtains state-of-the-art results on DuRecDial dataset in both automatic and human evaluation.

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Less Is More: Domain Adaptation with Lottery Ticket for Reading Comprehension
Haichao Zhu | Zekun Wang | Heng Zhang | Ming Liu | Sendong Zhao | Bing Qin

In this paper, we propose a simple few-shot domain adaptation paradigm for reading comprehension. We first identify the lottery subnetwork structure within the Transformer-based source domain model via gradual magnitude pruning. Then, we only fine-tune the lottery subnetwork, a small fraction of the whole parameters, on the annotated target domain data for adaptation. To obtain more adaptable subnetworks, we introduce self-attention attribution to weigh parameters, beyond simply pruning the smallest magnitude parameters, which can be seen as combining structured pruning and unstructured magnitude pruning softly. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the full model fine-tuning adaptation on four out of five domains when only a small amount of annotated data available for adaptation. Moreover, introducing self-attention attribution reserves more parameters for important attention heads in the lottery subnetwork and improves the target domain model performance. Our further analyses reveal that, besides exploiting fewer parameters, the choice of subnetworks is critical to the effectiveness.

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Effectiveness of Pre-training for Few-shot Intent Classification
Haode Zhang | Yuwei Zhang | Li-Ming Zhan | Jiaxin Chen | Guangyuan Shi | Xiao-Ming Wu | Albert Y.S. Lam

This paper investigates the effectiveness of pre-training for few-shot intent classification. While existing paradigms commonly further pre-train language models such as BERT on a vast amount of unlabeled corpus, we find it highly effective and efficient to simply fine-tune BERT with a small set of labeled utterances from public datasets. Specifically, fine-tuning BERT with roughly 1,000 labeled data yields a pre-trained model – IntentBERT, which can easily surpass the performance of existing pre-trained models for few-shot intent classification on novel domains with very different semantics. The high effectiveness of IntentBERT confirms the feasibility and practicality of few-shot intent detection, and its high generalization ability across different domains suggests that intent classification tasks may share a similar underlying structure, which can be efficiently learned from a small set of labeled data. The source code can be found at

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Improving Abstractive Dialogue Summarization with Hierarchical Pretraining and Topic Segment
MengNan Qi | Hao Liu | YuZhuo Fu | Ting Liu

With the increasing abundance of meeting transcripts, meeting summary has attracted more and more attention from researchers. The unsupervised pre-training method based on transformer structure combined with fine-tuning of downstream tasks has achieved great success in the field of text summarization. However, the semantic structure and style of meeting transcripts are quite different from that of articles. In this work, we propose a hierarchical transformer encoder-decoder network with multi-task pre-training. Specifically, we mask key sentences at the word-level encoder and generate them at the decoder. Besides, we randomly mask some of the role alignments in the input text and force the model to recover the original role tags to complete the alignments. In addition, we introduce a topic segmentation mechanism to further improve the quality of the generated summaries. The experimental results show that our model is superior to the previous methods in meeting summary datasets AMI and ICSI.

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Learning to Answer Psychological Questionnaire for Personality Detection
Feifan Yang | Tao Yang | Xiaojun Quan | Qinliang Su

Existing text-based personality detection research mostly relies on data-driven approaches to implicitly capture personality cues in online posts, lacking the guidance of psychological knowledge. Psychological questionnaire, which contains a series of dedicated questions highly related to personality traits, plays a critical role in self-report personality assessment. We argue that the posts created by a user contain critical contents that could help answer the questions in a questionnaire, resulting in an assessment of his personality by linking the texts and the questionnaire. To this end, we propose a new model named Psychological Questionnaire enhanced Network (PQ-Net) to guide personality detection by tracking critical information in texts with a questionnaire. Specifically, PQ-Net contains two streams: a context stream to encode each piece of text into a contextual text representation, and a questionnaire stream to capture relevant information in the contextual text representation to generate potential answer representations for a questionnaire. The potential answer representations are used to enhance the contextual text representation and to benefit personality prediction. Experimental results on two datasets demonstrate the superiority of PQ-Net in capturing useful cues from the posts for personality detection.

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Exploiting Reasoning Chains for Multi-hop Science Question Answering
Weiwen Xu | Yang Deng | Huihui Zhang | Deng Cai | Wai Lam

We propose a novel Chain Guided Retriever-reader (CGR) framework to model the reasoning chain for multi-hop Science Question Answering. Our framework is capable of performing explainable reasoning without the need of any corpus-specific annotations, such as the ground-truth reasoning chain, or human-annotated entity mentions. Specifically, we first generate reasoning chains from a semantic graph constructed by Abstract Meaning Representation of retrieved evidence facts. A Chain-aware loss, concerning both local and global chain information, is also designed to enable the generated chains to serve as distant supervision signals for training the retriever, where reinforcement learning is also adopted to maximize the utility of the reasoning chains. Our framework allows the retriever to capture step-by-step clues of the entire reasoning process, which is not only shown to be effective on two challenging multi-hop Science QA tasks, namely OpenBookQA and ARC-Challenge, but also favors explainability.

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Winnowing Knowledge for Multi-choice Question Answering
Yeqiu Li | Bowei Zou | Zhifeng Li | Ai Ti Aw | Yu Hong | Qiaoming Zhu

We tackle multi-choice question answering. Acquiring related commonsense knowledge to the question and options facilitates the recognition of the correct answer. However, the current reasoning models suffer from the noises in the retrieved knowledge. In this paper, we propose a novel encoding method which is able to conduct interception and soft filtering. This contributes to the harvesting and absorption of representative information with less interference from noises. We experiment on CommonsenseQA. Experimental results illustrate that our method yields substantial and consistent improvements compared to the strong Bert, RoBERTa and Albert-based baselines.

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Neural Media Bias Detection Using Distant Supervision With BABE - Bias Annotations By Experts
Timo Spinde | Manuel Plank | Jan-David Krieger | Terry Ruas | Bela Gipp | Akiko Aizawa

Media coverage has a substantial effect on the public perception of events. Nevertheless, media outlets are often biased. One way to bias news articles is by altering the word choice. The automatic identification of bias by word choice is challenging, primarily due to the lack of a gold standard data set and high context dependencies. This paper presents BABE, a robust and diverse data set created by trained experts, for media bias research. We also analyze why expert labeling is essential within this domain. Our data set offers better annotation quality and higher inter-annotator agreement than existing work. It consists of 3,700 sentences balanced among topics and outlets, containing media bias labels on the word and sentence level. Based on our data, we also introduce a way to detect bias-inducing sentences in news articles automatically. Our best performing BERT-based model is pre-trained on a larger corpus consisting of distant labels. Fine-tuning and evaluating the model on our proposed supervised data set, we achieve a macro F1-score of 0.804, outperforming existing methods.

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Learning and Evaluating a Differentially Private Pre-trained Language Model
Shlomo Hoory | Amir Feder | Avichai Tendler | Sofia Erell | Alon Peled-Cohen | Itay Laish | Hootan Nakhost | Uri Stemmer | Ayelet Benjamini | Avinatan Hassidim | Yossi Matias

Contextual language models have led to significantly better results, especially when pre-trained on the same data as the downstream task. While this additional pre-training usually improves performance, it can lead to information leakage and therefore risks the privacy of individuals mentioned in the training data. One method to guarantee the privacy of such individuals is to train a differentially-private language model, but this usually comes at the expense of model performance. Also, in the absence of a differentially private vocabulary training, it is not possible to modify the vocabulary to fit the new data, which might further degrade results. In this work we bridge these gaps, and provide guidance to future researchers and practitioners on how to improve privacy while maintaining good model performance. We introduce a novel differentially private word-piece algorithm, which allows training a tailored domain-specific vocabulary while maintaining privacy. We then experiment with entity extraction tasks from clinical notes, and demonstrate how to train a differentially private pre-trained language model (i.e., BERT) with a privacy guarantee of 𝜖=1.1 and with only a small degradation in performance. Finally, as it is hard to tell given a privacy parameter 𝜖 what was the effect on the trained representation, we present experiments showing that the trained model does not memorize private information.

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Simulated Chats for Building Dialog Systems: Learning to Generate Conversations from Instructions
Biswesh Mohapatra | Gaurav Pandey | Danish Contractor | Sachindra Joshi

Popular dialog datasets such as MultiWOZ are created by providing crowd workers an instruction, expressed in natural language, that describes the task to be accomplished. Crowd workers play the role of a user and an agent to generate dialogs to accomplish tasks involving booking restaurant tables, calling a taxi etc. In this paper, we present a data creation strategy that uses the pre-trained language model, GPT2, to simulate the interaction between crowd workers by creating a user bot and an agent bot. We train the simulators using a smaller percentage of actual crowd-generated conversations and their corresponding instructions. We demonstrate that by using the simulated data, we achieve significant improvements in low-resource settings on two publicly available datasets - MultiWOZ dataset and the Persona chat dataset.

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Past, Present, and Future: Conversational Emotion Recognition through Structural Modeling of Psychological Knowledge
Jiangnan Li | Zheng Lin | Peng Fu | Weiping Wang

Conversational Emotion Recognition (CER) is a task to predict the emotion of an utterance in the context of a conversation. Although modeling the conversational context and interactions between speakers has been studied broadly, it is important to consider the speaker’s psychological state, which controls the action and intention of the speaker. The state-of-the-art method introduces CommonSense Knowledge (CSK) to model psychological states in a sequential way (forwards and backwards). However, it ignores the structural psychological interactions between utterances. In this paper, we propose a pSychological-Knowledge-Aware Interaction Graph (SKAIG). In the locally connected graph, the targeted utterance will be enhanced with the information of action inferred from the past context and intention implied by the future context. The utterance is self-connected to consider the present effect from itself. Furthermore, we utilize CSK to enrich edges with knowledge representations and process the SKAIG with a graph transformer. Our method achieves state-of-the-art and competitive performance on four popular CER datasets.

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An unsupervised framework for tracing textual sources of moral change
Aida Ramezani | Zining Zhu | Frank Rudzicz | Yang Xu

Morality plays an important role in social well-being, but people’s moral perception is not stable and changes over time. Recent advances in natural language processing have shown that text is an effective medium for informing moral change, but no attempt has been made to quantify the origins of these changes. We present a novel unsupervised framework for tracing textual sources of moral change toward entities through time. We characterize moral change with probabilistic topical distributions and infer the source text that exerts prominent influence on the moral time course. We evaluate our framework on a diverse set of data ranging from social media to news articles. We show that our framework not only captures fine-grained human moral judgments, but also identifies coherent source topics of moral change triggered by historical events. We apply our methodology to analyze the news in the COVID-19 pandemic and demonstrate its utility in identifying sources of moral change in high-impact and real-time social events.

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Topic-Aware Contrastive Learning for Abstractive Dialogue Summarization
Junpeng Liu | Yanyan Zou | Hainan Zhang | Hongshen Chen | Zhuoye Ding | Caixia Yuan | Xiaojie Wang

Unlike well-structured text, such as news reports and encyclopedia articles, dialogue content often comes from two or more interlocutors, exchanging information with each other. In such a scenario, the topic of a conversation can vary upon progression and the key information for a certain topic is often scattered across multiple utterances of different speakers, which poses challenges to abstractly summarize dialogues. To capture the various topic information of a conversation and outline salient facts for the captured topics, this work proposes two topic-aware contrastive learning objectives, namely coherence detection and sub-summary generation objectives, which are expected to implicitly model the topic change and handle information scattering challenges for the dialogue summarization task. The proposed contrastive objectives are framed as auxiliary tasks for the primary dialogue summarization task, united via an alternative parameter updating strategy. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed simple method significantly outperforms strong baselines and achieves new state-of-the-art performance. The code and trained models are publicly available via .

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TWT: Table with Written Text for Controlled Data-to-Text Generation
Tongliang Li | Lei Fang | Jian-Guang Lou | Zhoujun Li

Large pre-trained neural models have recently shown remarkable progress in text generation. In this paper, we propose to generate text conditioned on the structured data (table) and a prefix (the written text) by leveraging the pre-trained models. We present a new data-to-text dataset, Table with Written Text (TWT), by repurposing two existing datasets: ToTTo and TabFact. TWT contains both factual and logical statements that are faithful to the structured data, aiming to serve as a useful benchmark for controlled text generation. Compared with existing data-to-text task settings, TWT is more intuitive, the prefix (usually provided by the user) controls the topic of the generated text. Existing methods usually output hallucinated text that is not faithful on TWT. Therefore, we design a novel approach with table-aware attention visibility and copy mechanism over the table. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods under both automatic and human evaluation metrics.

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ArabicTransformer: Efficient Large Arabic Language Model with Funnel Transformer and ELECTRA Objective
Sultan Alrowili | Vijay Shanker

Pre-training Transformer-based models such as BERT and ELECTRA on a collection of Arabic corpora, demonstrated by both AraBERT and AraELECTRA, shows an impressive result on downstream tasks. However, pre-training Transformer-based language models is computationally expensive, especially for large-scale models. Recently, Funnel Transformer has addressed the sequential redundancy inside Transformer architecture by compressing the sequence of hidden states, leading to a significant reduction in the pre-training cost. This paper empirically studies the performance and efficiency of building an Arabic language model with Funnel Transformer and ELECTRA objective. We find that our model achieves state-of-the-art results on several Arabic downstream tasks despite using less computational resources compared to other BERT-based models.

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Which is Making the Contribution: Modulating Unimodal and Cross-modal Dynamics for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis
Ying Zeng | Sijie Mai | Haifeng Hu

Multimodal sentiment analysis (MSA) draws increasing attention with the availability of multimodal data. The boost in performance of MSA models is mainly hindered by two problems. On the one hand, recent MSA works mostly focus on learning cross-modal dynamics, but neglect to explore an optimal solution for unimodal networks, which determines the lower limit of MSA models. On the other hand, noisy information hidden in each modality interferes the learning of correct cross-modal dynamics. To address the above-mentioned problems, we propose a novel MSA framework Modulation Model for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis (M3SA) to identify the contribution of modalities and reduce the impact of noisy information, so as to better learn unimodal and cross-modal dynamics. Specifically, modulation loss is designed to modulate the loss contribution based on the confidence of individual modalities in each utterance, so as to explore an optimal update solution for each unimodal network. Besides, contrary to most existing works which fail to explicitly filter out noisy information, we devise a modality filter module to identify and filter out modality noise for the learning of correct cross-modal embedding. Extensive experiments on publicly datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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CVAE-based Re-anchoring for Implicit Discourse Relation Classification
Zujun Dou | Yu Hong | Yu Sun | Guodong Zhou

Training implicit discourse relation classifiers suffers from data sparsity. Variational AutoEncoder (VAE) appears to be the proper solution. It is because ideally VAE is capable of generating inexhaustible varying samples, and this facilitates selective data augmentation. However, our experiments show that coupling VAE with the RoBERTa-based classifier results in severe performance degradation. We ascribe the unusual phenomenon to erroneous sampling that would happen when VAE pursued variations. To overcome the problem, we develop a re-anchoring strategy, where Conditional VAE (CVAE) is used for estimating the risk of erroneous sampling, and meanwhile migrating the anchor to reduce the risk. The test results on PDTB v2.0 illustrate that, compared to the RoBERTa-based baseline, re-anchoring yields substantial improvements. Besides, we observe that re-anchoring can cooperate with other auxiliary strategies (transfer learning and interactive attention mechanism) to further improve the baseline, obtaining the F-scores of about 55%, 63%, 80% and 44% for the four main relation types (Comparison, Contingency, Expansion, Temporality) in the binary classification (Yes/No) scenario.

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Combining Curriculum Learning and Knowledge Distillation for Dialogue Generation
Qingqing Zhu | Xiuying Chen | Pengfei Wu | JunFei Liu | Dongyan Zhao

Curriculum learning, a machine training strategy that feeds training instances to the model from easy to hard, has been proven to facilitate the dialogue generation task. Meanwhile, knowledge distillation, a knowledge transformation methodology among teachers and students networks can yield significant performance boost for student models. Hence, in this paper, we introduce a combination of curriculum learning and knowledge distillation for efficient dialogue generation models, where curriculum learning can help knowledge distillation from data and model aspects. To start with, from the data aspect, we cluster the training cases according to their complexity, which is calculated by various types of features such as sentence length and coherence between dialog pairs. Furthermore, we employ an adversarial training strategy to identify the complexity of cases from model level. The intuition is that, if a discriminator can tell the generated response is from the teacher or the student, then the case is difficult that the student model has not adapted to yet. Finally, we use self-paced learning, which is an extension to curriculum learning to assign weights for distillation. In conclusion, we arrange a hierarchical curriculum based on the above two aspects for the student model under the guidance from the teacher model. Experimental results demonstrate that our methods achieve improvements compared with competitive baselines.

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Improving End-to-End Task-Oriented Dialog System with A Simple Auxiliary Task
Yohan Lee

The paradigm of leveraging large pre-trained language models has made significant progress on benchmarks on task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems. In this paper, we combine this paradigm with multi-task learning framework for end-to-end TOD modeling by adopting span prediction as an auxiliary task. In end-to-end setting, our model achieves new state-of-the-art results with combined scores of 108.3 and 107.5 on MultiWOZ 2.0 and MultiWOZ 2.1, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that multi-task learning improves not only the performance of model but its generalization capability through domain adaptation experiments in the few-shot setting. The code is available at

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EDTC: A Corpus for Discourse-Level Topic Chain Parsing
Longyin Zhang | Xin Tan | Fang Kong | Guodong Zhou

Discourse analysis has long been known to be fundamental in natural language processing. In this research, we present our insight on discourse-level topic chain (DTC) parsing which aims at discovering new topics and investigating how these topics evolve over time within an article. To address the lack of data, we contribute a new discourse corpus with DTC-style dependency graphs annotated upon news articles. In particular, we ensure the high reliability of the corpus by utilizing a two-step annotation strategy to build the data and filtering out the annotations with low confidence scores. Based on the annotated corpus, we introduce a simple yet robust system for automatic discourse-level topic chain parsing.

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Multilingual Neural Machine Translation: Can Linguistic Hierarchies Help?
Fahimeh Saleh | Wray Buntine | Gholamreza Haffari | Lan Du

Multilingual Neural Machine Translation (MNMT) trains a single NMT model that supports translation between multiple languages, rather than training separate models for different languages. Learning a single model can enhance the low-resource translation by leveraging data from multiple languages. However, the performance of an MNMT model is highly dependent on the type of languages used in training, as transferring knowledge from a diverse set of languages degrades the translation performance due to negative transfer. In this paper, we propose a Hierarchical Knowledge Distillation (HKD) approach for MNMT which capitalises on language groups generated according to typological features and phylogeny of languages to overcome the issue of negative transfer. HKD generates a set of multilingual teacher-assistant models via a selective knowledge distillation mechanism based on the language groups, and then distills the ultimate multilingual model from those assistants in an adaptive way. Experimental results derived from the TED dataset with 53 languages demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in avoiding the negative transfer effect in MNMT, leading to an improved translation performance (about 1 BLEU score in average) compared to strong baselines.

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Self Question-answering: Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis by Role Flipped Machine Reading Comprehension
Guoxin Yu | Jiwei Li | Ling Luo | Yuxian Meng | Xiang Ao | Qing He

The pivot for the unified Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) is to couple aspect terms with their corresponding opinion terms, which might further derive easier sentiment predictions. In this paper, we investigate the unified ABSA task from the perspective of Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) by observing that the aspect and the opinion terms can serve as the query and answer in MRC interchangeably. We propose a new paradigm named Role Flipped Machine Reading Comprehension (RF-MRC) to resolve. At its heart, the predicted results of either the Aspect Term Extraction (ATE) or the Opinion Terms Extraction (OTE) are regarded as the queries, respectively, and the matched opinion or aspect terms are considered as answers. The queries and answers can be flipped for multi-hop detection. Finally, every matched aspect-opinion pair is predicted by the sentiment classifier. RF-MRC can solve the ABSA task without any additional data annotation or transformation. Experiments on three widely used benchmarks and a challenging dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed framework.

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Generalization in Text-based Games via Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning
Yunqiu Xu | Meng Fang | Ling Chen | Yali Du | Chengqi Zhang

Deep reinforcement learning provides a promising approach for text-based games in studying natural language communication between humans and artificial agents. However, the generalization still remains a big challenge as the agents depend critically on the complexity and variety of training tasks. In this paper, we address this problem by introducing a hierarchical framework built upon the knowledge graph-based RL agent. In the high level, a meta-policy is executed to decompose the whole game into a set of subtasks specified by textual goals, and select one of them based on the KG. Then a sub-policy in the low level is executed to conduct goal-conditioned reinforcement learning. We carry out experiments on games with various difficulty levels and show that the proposed method enjoys favorable generalizability.

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A Finer-grain Universal Dialogue Semantic Structures based Model For Abstractive Dialogue Summarization
Yuejie Lei | Fujia Zheng | Yuanmeng Yan | Keqing He | Weiran Xu

Although abstractive summarization models have achieved impressive results on document summarization tasks, their performance on dialogue modeling is much less satisfactory due to the crude and straight methods for dialogue encoding. To address this question, we propose a novel end-to-end Transformer-based model FinDS for abstractive dialogue summarization that leverages Finer-grain universal Dialogue semantic Structures to model dialogue and generates better summaries. Experiments on the SAMsum dataset show that FinDS outperforms various dialogue summarization approaches and achieves new state-of-the-art (SOTA) ROUGE results. Finally, we apply FinDS to a more complex scenario, showing the robustness of our model. We also release our source code.

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Constructing contrastive samples via summarization for text classification with limited annotations
Yangkai Du | Tengfei Ma | Lingfei Wu | Fangli Xu | Xuhong Zhang | Bo Long | Shouling Ji

Contrastive Learning has emerged as a powerful representation learning method and facilitates various downstream tasks especially when supervised data is limited. How to construct efficient contrastive samples through data augmentation is key to its success. Unlike vision tasks, the data augmentation method for contrastive learning has not been investigated sufficiently in language tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to construct contrastive samples for language tasks using text summarization. We use these samples for supervised contrastive learning to gain better text representations which greatly benefit text classification tasks with limited annotations. To further improve the method, we mix up samples from different classes and add an extra regularization, named Mixsum, in addition to the cross-entropy-loss. Experiments on real-world text classification datasets (Amazon-5, Yelp-5, AG News, and IMDb) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contrastive learning framework with summarization-based data augmentation and Mixsum regularization.

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End-to-end Neural Information Status Classification
Yufang Hou

Most previous studies on information status (IS) classification and bridging anaphora recognition assume that the gold mention or syntactic tree information is given (Hou et al., 2013; Roesiger et al., 2018; Hou, 2020; Yu and Poesio, 2020). In this paper, we propose an end-to-end neural approach for information status classification. Our approach consists of a mention extraction component and an information status assignment component. During the inference time, our system takes a raw text as the input and generates mentions together with their information status. On the ISNotes corpus (Markert et al., 2012), we show that our information status assignment component achieves new state-of-the-art results on fine-grained IS classification based on gold mentions. Furthermore, our system performs significantly better than other baselines for both mention extraction and fine-grained IS classification in the end-to-end setting. Finally, we apply our system on BASHI (Roesiger, 2018) and SciCorp (Roesiger, 2016) to recognize referential bridging anaphora. We find that our end-to-end system trained on ISNotes achieves competitive results on bridging anaphora recognition compared to the previous state-of-the-art system that relies on syntactic information and is trained on the in-domain datasets (Yu and Poesio, 2020).

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EventKE: Event-Enhanced Knowledge Graph Embedding
Zixuan Zhang | Hongwei Wang | Han Zhao | Hanghang Tong | Heng Ji

Relations in most of the traditional knowledge graphs (KGs) only reflect static and factual connections, but fail to represent the dynamic activities and state changes about entities. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of incorporating events in KG representation learning, and propose an event-enhanced KG embedding model EventKE. Specifically, given the original KG, we first incorporate event nodes by building a heterogeneous network, where entity nodes and event nodes are distributed on the two sides of the network inter-connected by event argument links. We then use entity-entity relations from the original KG and event-event temporal links to inner-connect entity and event nodes respectively. We design a novel and effective attention-based message passing method, which is conducted on entity-entity, event-entity, and event-event relations to fuse the event information into KG embeddings. Experimental results on real-world datasets demonstrate that events can greatly improve the quality of the KG embeddings on multiple downstream tasks.

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Modeling Concentrated Cross-Attention for Neural Machine Translation with Gaussian Mixture Model
Shaolei Zhang | Yang Feng

Cross-attention is an important component of neural machine translation (NMT), which is always realized by dot-product attention in previous methods. However, dot-product attention only considers the pair-wise correlation between words, resulting in dispersion when dealing with long sentences and neglect of source neighboring relationships. Inspired by linguistics, the above issues are caused by ignoring a type of cross-attention, called concentrated attention, which focuses on several central words and then spreads around them. In this work, we apply Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to model the concentrated attention in cross-attention. Experiments and analyses we conducted on three datasets show that the proposed method outperforms the baseline and has significant improvement on alignment quality, N-gram accuracy, and long sentence translation.

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Inconsistency Matters: A Knowledge-guided Dual-inconsistency Network for Multi-modal Rumor Detection
Mengzhu Sun | Xi Zhang | Jianqiang Ma | Yazheng Liu

Rumor spreaders are increasingly utilizing multimedia content to attract the attention and trust of news consumers. Though a set of rumor detection models have exploited the multi-modal data, they seldom consider the inconsistent relationships among images and texts. Moreover, they also fail to find a powerful way to spot the inconsistency information among the post contents and background knowledge. Motivated by the intuition that rumors are more likely to have inconsistency information in semantics, a novel Knowledge-guided Dual-inconsistency network is proposed to detect rumors with multimedia contents. It can capture the inconsistent semantics at the cross-modal level and the content-knowledge level in one unified framework. Extensive experiments on two public real-world datasets demonstrate that our proposal can outperform the state-of-the-art baselines.

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EfficientBERT: Progressively Searching Multilayer Perceptron via Warm-up Knowledge Distillation
Chenhe Dong | Guangrun Wang | Hang Xu | Jiefeng Peng | Xiaozhe Ren | Xiaodan Liang

Pre-trained language models have shown remarkable results on various NLP tasks. Nevertheless, due to their bulky size and slow inference speed, it is hard to deploy them on edge devices. In this paper, we have a critical insight that improving the feed-forward network (FFN) in BERT has a higher gain than improving the multi-head attention (MHA) since the computational cost of FFN is 2~3 times larger than MHA. Hence, to compact BERT, we are devoted to designing efficient FFN as opposed to previous works that pay attention to MHA. Since FFN comprises a multilayer perceptron (MLP) that is essential in BERT optimization, we further design a thorough search space towards an advanced MLP and perform a coarse-to-fine mechanism to search for an efficient BERT architecture. Moreover, to accelerate searching and enhance model transferability, we employ a novel warm-up knowledge distillation strategy at each search stage. Extensive experiments show our searched EfficientBERT is 6.9× smaller and 4.4× faster than BERT\rmBASE, and has competitive performances on GLUE and SQuAD Benchmarks. Concretely, EfficientBERT attains a 77.7 average score on GLUE test, 0.7 higher than MobileBERT\rmTINY, and achieves an 85.3/74.5 F1 score on SQuAD v1.1/v2.0 dev, 3.2/2.7 higher than TinyBERT4 even without data augmentation. The code is released at

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Uni-FedRec: A Unified Privacy-Preserving News Recommendation Framework for Model Training and Online Serving
Tao Qi | Fangzhao Wu | Chuhan Wu | Yongfeng Huang | Xing Xie

News recommendation techniques can help users on news platforms obtain their preferred news information. Most existing news recommendation methods rely on centrally stored user behavior data to train models and serve users. However, user data is usually highly privacy-sensitive, and centrally storing them in the news platform may raise privacy concerns and risks. In this paper, we propose a unified news recommendation framework, which can utilize user data locally stored in user clients to train models and serve users in a privacy-preserving way. Following a widely used paradigm in real-world recommender systems, our framework contains a stage for candidate news generation (i.e., recall) and a stage for candidate news ranking (i.e., ranking). At the recall stage, each client locally learns multiple interest representations from clicked news to comprehensively model user interests. These representations are uploaded to the server to recall candidate news from a large news pool, which are further distributed to the user client at the ranking stage for personalized news display. In addition, we propose an interest decomposer-aggregator method with perturbation noise to better protect private user information encoded in user interest representations. Besides, we collaboratively train both recall and ranking models on the data decentralized in a large number of user clients in a privacy-preserving way. Experiments on two real-world news datasets show that our method can outperform baseline methods and effectively protect user privacy.

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Mapping Language to Programs using Multiple Reward Components with Inverse Reinforcement Learning
Sayan Ghosh | Shashank Srivastava

Mapping natural language instructions to programs that computers can process is a fundamental challenge. Existing approaches focus on likelihood-based training or using reinforcement learning to fine-tune models based on a single reward. In this paper, we pose program generation from language as Inverse Reinforcement Learning. We introduce several interpretable reward components and jointly learn (1) a reward function that linearly combines them, and (2) a policy for program generation. Fine-tuning with our approach achieves significantly better performance than competitive methods using Reinforcement Learning (RL). On the VirtualHome framework, we get improvements of up to 9.0% on the Longest Common Subsequence metric and 14.7% on recall-based metrics over previous work on this framework (Puig et al., 2018). The approach is data-efficient, showing larger gains in performance in the low-data regime. Generated programs are also preferred by human evaluators over an RL-based approach, and rated higher on relevance, completeness, and human-likeness.

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Topic-Guided Abstractive Multi-Document Summarization
Peng Cui | Le Hu

A critical point of multi-document summarization (MDS) is to learn the relations among various documents. In this paper, we propose a novel abstractive MDS model, in which we represent multiple documents as a heterogeneous graph, taking semantic nodes of different granularities into account, and then apply a graph-to-sequence framework to generate summaries. Moreover, we employ a neural topic model to jointly discover latent topics that can act as cross-document semantic units to bridge different documents and provide global information to guide the summary generation. Since topic extraction can be viewed as a special type of summarization that “summarizes” texts into a more abstract format, i.e., a topic distribution, we adopt a multi-task learning strategy to jointly train the topic and summarization module, allowing the promotion of each other. Experimental results on the Multi-News dataset demonstrate that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art MDS models on both Rouge scores and human evaluation, meanwhile learns high-quality topics.

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An Edge-Enhanced Hierarchical Graph-to-Tree Network for Math Word Problem Solving
Qinzhuo Wu | Qi Zhang | Zhongyu Wei

Math word problem solving has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Previous works have shown the effectiveness of utilizing graph neural networks to capture the relationships in the problem. However, these works did not carefully take the edge label information and the long-range word relationship across sentences into consideration. In addition, during generation, they focus on the most relevant areas of the currently generated word, while neglecting the rest of the problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Edge-Enhanced Hierarchical Graph-to-Tree model (EEH-G2T), in which the math word problems are represented as edge-labeled graphs. Specifically, an edge-enhanced hierarchical graph encoder is used to incorporate edge label information. This encoder updates the graph nodes hierarchically in two steps: sentence-level aggregation and problem-level aggregation. Furthermore, a tree-structured decoder with a split attention mechanism is applied to guide the model to pay attention to different parts of the input problem. Experimental results on the MAWPS and Math23K dataset showed that our EEH-G2T can effectively improve performance compared with state-of-the-art methods.

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SciXGen: A Scientific Paper Dataset for Context-Aware Text Generation
Hong Chen | Hiroya Takamura | Hideki Nakayama

Generating texts in scientific papers requires not only capturing the content contained within the given input but also frequently acquiring the external information called context. We push forward the scientific text generation by proposing a new task, namely context-aware text generation in the scientific domain, aiming at exploiting the contributions of context in generated texts. To this end, we present a novel challenging large-scale Scientific Paper Dataset for ConteXt-Aware Text Generation (SciXGen), consisting of well-annotated 205,304 papers with full references to widely-used objects (e.g., tables, figures, algorithms) in a paper. We comprehensively benchmark, using state-of-the-arts, the efficacy of our newly constructed SciXGen dataset in generating description and paragraph. Our dataset and benchmarks will be made publicly available to hopefully facilitate the scientific text generation research.

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Don’t Miss the Potential Customers! Retrieving Similar Ads to Improve User Targeting
Yi Feng | Ting Wang | Chuanyi Li | Vincent Ng | Jidong Ge | Bin Luo | Yucheng Hu | Xiaopeng Zhang

User targeting is an essential task in the modern advertising industry: given a package of ads for a particular category of products (e.g., green tea), identify the online users to whom the ad package should be targeted. A (ad package specific) user targeting model is typically trained using historical clickthrough data: positive instances correspond to users who have clicked on an ad in the package before, whereas negative instances correspond to users who have not clicked on any ads in the package that were displayed to them. Collecting a sufficient amount of positive training data for training an accurate user targeting model, however, is by no means trivial. This paper focuses on the development of a method for automatic augmentation of the set of positive training instances. Experimental results on two datasets, including a real-world company dataset, demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

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Cross-lingual Transfer for Text Classification with Dictionary-based Heterogeneous Graph
Nuttapong Chairatanakul | Noppayut Sriwatanasakdi | Nontawat Charoenphakdee | Xin Liu | Tsuyoshi Murata

In cross-lingual text classification, it is required that task-specific training data in high-resource source languages are available, where the task is identical to that of a low-resource target language. However, collecting such training data can be infeasible because of the labeling cost, task characteristics, and privacy concerns. This paper proposes an alternative solution that uses only task-independent word embeddings of high-resource languages and bilingual dictionaries. First, we construct a dictionary-based heterogeneous graph (DHG) from bilingual dictionaries. This opens the possibility to use graph neural networks for cross-lingual transfer. The remaining challenge is the heterogeneity of DHG because multiple languages are considered. To address this challenge, we propose dictionary-based heterogeneous graph neural network (DHGNet) that effectively handles the heterogeneity of DHG by two-step aggregations, which are word-level and language-level aggregations. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms pretrained models even though it does not access to large corpora. Furthermore, it can perform well even though dictionaries contain many incorrect translations. Its robustness allows the usage of a wider range of dictionaries such as an automatically constructed dictionary and crowdsourced dictionary, which are convenient for real-world applications.

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Improving Distantly-Supervised Named Entity Recognition with Self-Collaborative Denoising Learning
Xinghua Zhang | Bowen Yu | Tingwen Liu | Zhenyu Zhang | Jiawei Sheng | Xue Mengge | Hongbo Xu

Distantly supervised named entity recognition (DS-NER) efficiently reduces labor costs but meanwhile intrinsically suffers from the label noise due to the strong assumption of distant supervision. Typically, the wrongly labeled instances comprise numbers of incomplete and inaccurate annotations, while most prior denoising works are only concerned with one kind of noise and fail to fully explore useful information in the training set. To address this issue, we propose a robust learning paradigm named Self-Collaborative Denoising Learning (SCDL), which jointly trains two teacher-student networks in a mutually-beneficial manner to iteratively perform noisy label refinery. Each network is designed to exploit reliable labels via self denoising, and two networks communicate with each other to explore unreliable annotations by collaborative denoising. Extensive experimental results on five real-world datasets demonstrate that SCDL is superior to state-of-the-art DS-NER denoising methods.

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Entity-Based Semantic Adequacy for Data-to-Text Generation
Juliette Faille | Albert Gatt | Claire Gardent

While powerful pre-trained language models have improved the fluency of text generation models, semantic adequacy -the ability to generate text that is semantically faithful to the input- remains an unsolved issue. In this paper, we introduce a novel automatic evaluation metric, Entity-Based Semantic Adequacy, which can be used to assess to what extent generation models that verbalise RDF (Resource Description Framework) graphs produce text that contains mentions of the entities occurring in the RDF input. This is important as RDF subject and object entities make up 2/3 of the input. We use our metric to compare 25 models from the WebNLG Shared Tasks and we examine correlation with results from human evaluations of semantic adequacy. We show that while our metric correlates with human evaluation scores, this correlation varies with the specifics of the human evaluation setup. This suggests that in order to measure the entity-based adequacy of generated texts, an automatic metric such as the one proposed here might be more reliable, as less subjective and more focused on correct verbalisation of the input, than human evaluation measures.

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MiRANews: Dataset and Benchmarks for Multi-Resource-Assisted News Summarization
Xinnuo Xu | Ondřej Dušek | Shashi Narayan | Verena Rieser | Ioannis Konstas

One of the most challenging aspects of current single-document news summarization is that the summary often contains ‘extrinsic hallucinations’, i.e., facts that are not present in the source document, which are often derived via world knowledge. This causes summarisation systems to act more like open-ended language models tending to hallucinate facts that are erroneous. In this paper, we mitigate this problem with the help of multiple supplementary resource documents assisting the task. We present a new dataset MiraNews and benchmark existing summarisation models. In contrast to multi-document summarization, which addresses multiple events from several source documents, we still aim at generating a summary for a single document. We show via data analysis that it’s not only the models which are to blame: more than 27% of facts mentioned in the gold summaries of MiraNews are better grounded on assisting documents than in the main source articles. An error analysis of generated summaries from pretrained models fine-tuned on MIRANEWS reveals that this has an even bigger effects on models: assisted summarisation reduces 55% of hallucinations when compared to single-document summarisation models trained on the main article only.

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A Conditional Generative Matching Model for Multi-lingual Reply Suggestion
Budhaditya Deb | Guoqing Zheng | Milad Shokouhi | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah

We study the problem of multilingual automated reply suggestions (RS) model serving many languages simultaneously. Multilingual models are often challenged by model capacity and severe data distribution skew across languages. While prior works largely focus on monolingual models, we propose Conditional Generative Matching models (CGM), optimized within a Variational Autoencoder framework to address challenges arising from multilingual RS. CGM does so with expressive message conditional priors, mixture densities to enhance multilingual data representation, latent alignment for language discrimination, and effective variational optimization techniques for training multilingual RS. The enhancements result in performance that exceed competitive baselines in relevance (ROUGE score) by more than 10% on average, and 16%for low resource languages. CGM also shows remarkable improvements in diversity (80%) illustrating its expressiveness in representation of multi-lingual data.

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Rethinking Sentiment Style Transfer
Ping Yu | Yang Zhao | Chunyuan Li | Changyou Chen

Though remarkable efforts have been made in non-parallel text style transfer, the evaluation system is unsatisfactory. It always evaluates over samples from only one checkpoint of the model and compares three metrics, i.e., transfer accuracy, BLEU score, and PPL score. In this paper, we argue the inappropriateness of both existing evaluation metrics and the evaluation method. Specifically, for evaluation metrics, we make a detailed analysis and comparison from three aspects: style transfer, content preservation, and naturalness; for the evaluation method, we reiterate the fallacy of picking one checkpoint for model comparison. As a result, we establish a robust evaluation method by examining the trade-off between style transfer and naturalness, and between content preservation and naturalness. Notably, we elaborate the human evaluation and automatically identify the inaccurate measurement of content preservation computed by the BLEU score. To overcome this issue, we propose a graph-based method to extract attribute content and attribute-independent content from input sentences in the YELP dataset and IMDB dataset. With the modified datasets, we design a new evaluation metric called “attribute hit” and propose an efficient regularization to leverage the attribute-dependent content and attribute-independent content as guiding signals. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

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HypoGen: Hyperbole Generation with Commonsense and Counterfactual Knowledge
Yufei Tian | Arvind krishna Sridhar | Nanyun Peng

A hyperbole is an intentional and creative exaggeration not to be taken literally. Despite its ubiquity in daily life, the computational explorations of hyperboles are scarce. In this paper, we tackle the under-explored and challenging task: sentence-level hyperbole generation. We start with a representative syntactic pattern for intensification and systematically study the semantic (commonsense and counterfactual) relationships between each component in such hyperboles. We then leverage commonsense and counterfactual inference to generate hyperbole candidates based on our findings from the pattern, and train neural classifiers to rank and select high-quality hyperboles. Automatic and human evaluations show that our generation method is able to generate hyperboles with high success rate, intensity, funniness, and creativity.

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Profiling News Discourse Structure Using Explicit Subtopic Structures Guided Critics
Prafulla Kumar Choubey | Ruihong Huang

We present an actor-critic framework to induce subtopical structures in a news article for news discourse profiling. The model uses multiple critics that act according to known subtopic structures while the actor aims to outperform them. The content structures constitute sentences that represent latent subtopic boundaries. Then, we introduce a hierarchical neural network that uses the identified subtopic boundary sentences to model multi-level interaction between sentences, subtopics, and the document. Experimental results and analyses on the NewsDiscourse corpus show that the actor model learns to effectively segment a document into subtopics and improves the performance of the hierarchical model on the news discourse profiling task.

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ProtoInfoMax: Prototypical Networks with Mutual Information Maximization for Out-of-Domain Detection
Iftitahu Nimah | Meng Fang | Vlado Menkovski | Mykola Pechenizkiy

The ability to detect Out-of-Domain (OOD) inputs has been a critical requirement in many real-world NLP applications. For example, intent classification in dialogue systems. The reason is that the inclusion of unsupported OOD inputs may lead to catastrophic failure of systems. However, it remains an empirical question whether current methods can tackle such problems reliably in a realistic scenario where zero OOD training data is available. In this study, we propose ProtoInfoMax, a new architecture that extends Prototypical Networks to simultaneously process in-domain and OOD sentences via Mutual Information Maximization (InfoMax) objective. Experimental results show that our proposed method can substantially improve performance up to 20% for OOD detection in low resource settings of text classification. We also show that ProtoInfoMax is less prone to typical overconfidence errors of Neural Networks, leading to more reliable prediction results.

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Learning from Language Description: Low-shot Named Entity Recognition via Decomposed Framework
Yaqing Wang | Haoda Chu | Chao Zhang | Jing Gao

In this work, we study the problem of named entity recognition (NER) in a low resource scenario, focusing on few-shot and zero-shot settings. Built upon large-scale pre-trained language models, we propose a novel NER framework, namely SpanNER, which learns from natural language supervision and enables the identification of never-seen entity classes without using in-domain labeled data. We perform extensive experiments on 5 benchmark datasets and evaluate the proposed method in the few-shot learning, domain transfer and zero-shot learning settings. The experimental results show that the proposed method can bring 10%, 23% and 26% improvements in average over the best baselines in few-shot learning, domain transfer and zero-shot learning settings respectively.

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BERT might be Overkill: A Tiny but Effective Biomedical Entity Linker based on Residual Convolutional Neural Networks
Tuan Lai | Heng Ji | ChengXiang Zhai

Biomedical entity linking is the task of linking entity mentions in a biomedical document to referent entities in a knowledge base. Recently, many BERT-based models have been introduced for the task. While these models achieve competitive results on many datasets, they are computationally expensive and contain about 110M parameters. Little is known about the factors contributing to their impressive performance and whether the over-parameterization is needed. In this work, we shed some light on the inner workings of these large BERT-based models. Through a set of probing experiments, we have found that the entity linking performance only changes slightly when the input word order is shuffled or when the attention scope is limited to a fixed window size. From these observations, we propose an efficient convolutional neural network with residual connections for biomedical entity linking. Because of the sparse connectivity and weight sharing properties, our model has a small number of parameters and is highly efficient. On five public datasets, our model achieves comparable or even better linking accuracy than the state-of-the-art BERT-based models while having about 60 times fewer parameters.

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Char2Subword: Extending the Subword Embedding Space Using Robust Character Compositionality
Gustavo Aguilar | Bryan McCann | Tong Niu | Nazneen Rajani | Nitish Shirish Keskar | Thamar Solorio

Byte-pair encoding (BPE) is a ubiquitous algorithm in the subword tokenization process of language models as it provides multiple benefits. However, this process is solely based on pre-training data statistics, making it hard for the tokenizer to handle infrequent spellings. On the other hand, though robust to misspellings, pure character-level models often lead to unreasonably long sequences and make it harder for the model to learn meaningful words. To alleviate these challenges, we propose a character-based subword module (char2subword) that learns the subword embedding table in pre-trained models like BERT. Our char2subword module builds representations from characters out of the subword vocabulary, and it can be used as a drop-in replacement of the subword embedding table. The module is robust to character-level alterations such as misspellings, word inflection, casing, and punctuation. We integrate it further with BERT through pre-training while keeping BERT transformer parameters fixed–and thus, providing a practical method. Finally, we show that incorporating our module to mBERT significantly improves the performance on the social media linguistic code-switching evaluation (LinCE) benchmark.

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Exploring Multitask Learning for Low-Resource Abstractive Summarization
Ahmed Magooda | Diane Litman | Mohamed Elaraby

This paper explores the effect of using multitask learning for abstractive summarization in the context of small training corpora. In particular, we incorporate four different tasks (extractive summarization, language modeling, concept detection, and paraphrase detection) both individually and in combination, with the goal of enhancing the target task of abstractive summarization via multitask learning. We show that for many task combinations, a model trained in a multitask setting outperforms a model trained only for abstractive summarization, with no additional summarization data introduced. Additionally, we do a comprehensive search and find that certain tasks (e.g. paraphrase detection) consistently benefit abstractive summarization, not only when combined with other tasks but also when using different architectures and training corpora.

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Conical Classification For Efficient One-Class Topic Determination
Sameer Khanna

As the Internet grows in size, so does the amount of text based information that exists. For many application spaces it is paramount to isolate and identify texts that relate to a particular topic. While one-class classification would be ideal for such analysis, there is a relative lack of research regarding efficient approaches with high predictive power. By noting that the range of documents we wish to identify can be represented as positive linear combinations of the Vector Space Model representing our text, we propose Conical classification, an approach that allows us to identify if a document is of a particular topic in a computationally efficient manner. We also propose Normal Exclusion, a modified version of Bi-Normal Separation that makes it more suitable within the one-class classification context. We show in our analysis that our approach not only has higher predictive power on our datasets, but is also faster to compute.

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Improving Dialogue State Tracking with Turn-based Loss Function and Sequential Data Augmentation
Jarana Manotumruksa | Jeff Dalton | Edgar Meij | Emine Yilmaz

While state-of-the-art Dialogue State Tracking (DST) models show promising results, all of them rely on a traditional cross-entropy loss function during the training process, which may not be optimal for improving the joint goal accuracy. Although several approaches recently propose augmenting the training set by copying user utterances and replacing the real slot values with other possible or even similar values, they are not effective at improving the performance of existing DST models. To address these challenges, we propose a Turn-based Loss Function (TLF) that penalises the model if it inaccurately predicts a slot value at the early turns more so than in later turns in order to improve joint goal accuracy. We also propose a simple but effective Sequential Data Augmentation (SDA) algorithm to generate more complex user utterances and system responses to effectively train existing DST models. Experimental results on two standard DST benchmark collections demonstrate that our proposed TLF and SDA techniques significantly improve the effectiveness of the state-of-the-art DST model by approximately 7-8% relative reduction in error and achieves a new state-of-the-art joint goal accuracy with 59.50 and 54.90 on MultiWOZ2.1 and MultiWOZ2.2, respectively.

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TIAGE: A Benchmark for Topic-Shift Aware Dialog Modeling
Huiyuan Xie | Zhenghao Liu | Chenyan Xiong | Zhiyuan Liu | Ann Copestake

Human conversations naturally evolve around different topics and fluently move between them. In research on dialog systems, the ability to actively and smoothly transition to new topics is often ignored. In this paper we introduce TIAGE, a new topic-shift aware dialog benchmark constructed utilizing human annotations on topic shifts. Based on TIAGE, we introduce three tasks to investigate different scenarios of topic-shift modeling in dialog settings: topic-shift detection, topic-shift triggered response generation and topic-aware dialog generation. Experiments on these tasks show that the topic-shift signals in TIAGE are useful for topic-shift response generation. On the other hand, dialog systems still struggle to decide when to change topic. This indicates further research is needed in topic-shift aware dialog modeling.

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Optimal Neural Program Synthesis from Multimodal Specifications
Xi Ye | Qiaochu Chen | Isil Dillig | Greg Durrett

Multimodal program synthesis, which leverages different types of user input to synthesize a desired program, is an attractive way to scale program synthesis to challenging settings; however, it requires integrating noisy signals from the user, like natural language, with hard constraints on the program’s behavior. This paper proposes an optimal neural synthesis approach where the goal is to find a program that satisfies user-provided constraints while also maximizing the program’s score with respect to a neural model. Specifically, we focus on multimodal synthesis tasks in which the user intent is expressed using a combination of natural language (NL) and input-output examples. At the core of our method is a top-down recurrent neural model that places distributions over abstract syntax trees conditioned on the NL input. This model not only allows for efficient search over the space of syntactically valid programs, but it allows us to leverage automated program analysis techniques for pruning the search space based on infeasibility of partial programs with respect to the user’s constraints. The experimental results on a multimodal synthesis dataset (StructuredRegex) show that our method substantially outperforms prior state-of-the-art techniques in terms of accuracy and efficiency, and finds model-optimal programs more frequently.

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Sent2Span: Span Detection for PICO Extraction in the Biomedical Text without Span Annotations
Shifeng Liu | Yifang Sun | Bing Li | Wei Wang | Florence T. Bourgeois | Adam G. Dunn

The rapid growth in published clinical trials makes it difficult to maintain up-to-date systematic reviews, which require finding all relevant trials. This leads to policy and practice decisions based on out-of-date, incomplete, and biased subsets of available clinical evidence. Extracting and then normalising Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) information from clinical trial articles may be an effective way to automatically assign trials to systematic reviews and avoid searching and screening—the two most time-consuming systematic review processes. We propose and test a novel approach to PICO span detection. The major difference between our proposed method and previous approaches comes from detecting spans without needing annotated span data and using only crowdsourced sentence-level annotations. Experiments on two datasets show that PICO span detection results achieve much higher results for recall when compared to fully supervised methods with PICO sentence detection at least as good as human annotations. By removing the reliance on expert annotations for span detection, this work could be used in a human-machine pipeline for turning low-quality, crowdsourced, and sentence-level PICO annotations into structured information that can be used to quickly assign trials to relevant systematic reviews.

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When in Doubt: Improving Classification Performance with Alternating Normalization
Menglin Jia | Austin Reiter | Ser-Nam Lim | Yoav Artzi | Claire Cardie

We introduce Classification with Alternating Normalization (CAN), a non-parametric post-processing step for classification. CAN improves classification accuracy for challenging examples by re-adjusting their predicted class probability distribution using the predicted class distributions of high-confidence validation examples. CAN is easily applicable to any probabilistic classifier, with minimal computation overhead. We analyze the properties of CAN using simulated experiments, and empirically demonstrate its effectiveness across a diverse set of classification tasks.

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APGN: Adversarial and Parameter Generation Networks for Multi-Source Cross-Domain Dependency Parsing
Ying Li | Meishan Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Zhefeng Wang | Baoxing Huai | Nicholas Jing Yuan

Thanks to the strong representation learning capability of deep learning, especially pre-training techniques with language model loss, dependency parsing has achieved great performance boost in the in-domain scenario with abundant labeled training data for target domains. However, the parsing community has to face the more realistic setting where the parsing performance drops drastically when labeled data only exists for several fixed out-domains. In this work, we propose a novel model for multi-source cross-domain dependency parsing. The model consists of two components, i.e., a parameter generation network for distinguishing domain-specific features, and an adversarial network for learning domain-invariant representations. Experiments on a recently released NLPCC-2019 dataset for multi-domain dependency parsing show that our model can consistently improve cross-domain parsing performance by about 2 points in averaged labeled attachment accuracy (LAS) over strong BERT-enhanced baselines. Detailed analysis is conducted to gain more insights on contributions of the two components.

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“Let Your Characters Tell Their Story”: A Dataset for Character-Centric Narrative Understanding
Faeze Brahman | Meng Huang | Oyvind Tafjord | Chao Zhao | Mrinmaya Sachan | Snigdha Chaturvedi

When reading a literary piece, readers often make inferences about various characters’ roles, personalities, relationships, intents, actions, etc. While humans can readily draw upon their past experiences to build such a character-centric view of the narrative, understanding characters in narratives can be a challenging task for machines. To encourage research in this field of character-centric narrative understanding, we present LiSCU – a new dataset of literary pieces and their summaries paired with descriptions of characters that appear in them. We also introduce two new tasks on LiSCU: Character Identification and Character Description Generation. Our experiments with several pre-trained language models adapted for these tasks demonstrate that there is a need for better models of narrative comprehension.

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Towards Developing a Multilingual and Code-Mixed Visual Question Answering System by Knowledge Distillation
Humair Raj Khan | Deepak Gupta | Asif Ekbal

Pre-trained language-vision models have shown remarkable performance on the visual question answering (VQA) task. However, most pre-trained models are trained by only considering monolingual learning, especially the resource-rich language like English. Training such models for multilingual setups demand high computing resources and multilingual language-vision dataset which hinders their application in practice. To alleviate these challenges, we propose a knowledge distillation approach to extend an English language-vision model (teacher) into an equally effective multilingual and code-mixed model (student). Unlike the existing knowledge distillation methods, which only use the output from the last layer of the teacher network for distillation, our student model learns and imitates the teacher from multiple intermediate layers (language and vision encoders) with appropriately designed distillation objectives for incremental knowledge extraction. We also create the large-scale multilingual and code-mixed VQA dataset in eleven different language setups considering the multiple Indian and European languages. Experimental results and in-depth analysis show the effectiveness of the proposed VQA model over the pre-trained language-vision models on eleven diverse language setups.

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An Iterative Multi-Knowledge Transfer Network for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Yunlong Liang | Fandong Meng | Jinchao Zhang | Yufeng Chen | Jinan Xu | Jie Zhou

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) mainly involves three subtasks: aspect term extraction, opinion term extraction, and aspect-level sentiment classification, which are typically handled in a separate or joint manner. However, previous approaches do not well exploit the interactive relations among three subtasks and do not pertinently leverage the easily available document-level labeled domain/sentiment knowledge, which restricts their performances. To address these issues, we propose a novel Iterative Multi-Knowledge Transfer Network (IMKTN) for end-to-end ABSA. For one thing, through the interactive correlations between the ABSA subtasks, our IMKTN transfers the task-specific knowledge from any two of the three subtasks to another one at the token level by utilizing a well-designed routing algorithm, that is, any two of the three subtasks will help the third one. For another, our IMKTN pertinently transfers the document-level knowledge, i.e., domain-specific and sentiment-related knowledge, to the aspect-level subtasks to further enhance the corresponding performance. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our approach.

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Semantic Alignment with Calibrated Similarity for Multilingual Sentence Embedding
Jiyeon Ham | Eun-Sol Kim

Measuring the similarity score between a pair of sentences in different languages is the essential requisite for multilingual sentence embedding methods. Predicting the similarity score consists of two sub-tasks, which are monolingual similarity evaluation and multilingual sentence retrieval. However, conventional methods have mainly tackled only one of the sub-tasks and therefore showed biased performances. In this paper, we suggest a novel and strong method for multilingual sentence embedding, which shows performance improvement on both sub-tasks, consequently resulting in robust predictions of multilingual similarity scores. The suggested method consists of two parts: to learn semantic similarity of sentences in the pivot language and then to extend the learned semantic structure to different languages. To align semantic structures across different languages, we introduce a teacher-student network. The teacher network distills the knowledge of the pivot language to different languages of the student network. During the distillation, the parameters of the teacher network are updated with the slow-moving average. Together with the distillation and the parameter updating, the semantic structure of the student network can be directly aligned across different languages while preserving the ability to measure the semantic similarity. Thus, the multilingual training method drives performance improvement on multilingual similarity evaluation. The suggested model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on extended STS 2017 multilingual similarity evaluation as well as two sub-tasks, which are extended STS 2017 monolingual similarity evaluation and Tatoeba multilingual retrieval in 14 languages.

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fBERT: A Neural Transformer for Identifying Offensive Content
Diptanu Sarkar | Marcos Zampieri | Tharindu Ranasinghe | Alexander Ororbia

Transformer-based models such as BERT, XLNET, and XLM-R have achieved state-of-the-art performance across various NLP tasks including the identification of offensive language and hate speech, an important problem in social media. In this paper, we present fBERT, a BERT model retrained on SOLID, the largest English offensive language identification corpus available with over 1.4 million offensive instances. We evaluate fBERT’s performance on identifying offensive content on multiple English datasets and we test several thresholds for selecting instances from SOLID. The fBERT model will be made freely available to the community.

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WIKIBIAS: Detecting Multi-Span Subjective Biases in Language
Yang Zhong | Jingfeng Yang | Wei Xu | Diyi Yang

Biases continue to be prevalent in modern text and media, especially subjective bias – a special type of bias that introduces improper attitudes or presents a statement with the presupposition of truth. To tackle the problem of detecting and further mitigating subjective bias, we introduce a manually annotated parallel corpus WIKIBIAS with more than 4,000 sentence pairs from Wikipedia edits. This corpus contains annotations towards both sentence-level bias types and token-level biased segments. We present systematic analyses of our dataset and results achieved by a set of state-of-the-art baselines in terms of three tasks: bias classification, tagging biased segments, and neutralizing biased text. We find that current models still struggle with detecting multi-span biases despite their reasonable performances, suggesting that our dataset can serve as a useful research benchmark. We also demonstrate that models trained on our dataset can generalize well to multiple domains such as news and political speeches.

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UnClE: Explicitly Leveraging Semantic Similarity to Reduce the Parameters of Word Embeddings
Zhi Li | Yuchen Zhai | Chengyu Wang | Minghui Qiu | Kailiang Li | Yin Zhang

Natural language processing (NLP) models often require a massive number of parameters for word embeddings, which limits their application on mobile devices. Researchers have employed many approaches, e.g. adaptive inputs, to reduce the parameters of word embeddings. However, existing methods rarely pay attention to semantic information. In this paper, we propose a novel method called Unique and Class Embeddings (UnClE), which explicitly leverages semantic similarity with weight sharing to reduce the dimensionality of word embeddings. Inspired by the fact that words with similar semantic can share a part of weights, we divide the embeddings of words into two parts: unique embedding and class embedding. The former is one-to-one mapping like traditional embedding, while the latter is many-to-one mapping and learn the representation of class information. Our method is suitable for both word-level and sub-word level models and can be used to reduce both input and output embeddings. Experimental results on the standard WMT 2014 English-German dataset show that our method is able to reduce the parameters of word embeddings by more than 11x, with about 93% performance retaining in BLEU metrics. For language modeling task, our model can reduce word embeddings by 6x or 11x on PTB/WT2 dataset at the cost of a certain degree of performance degradation.

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Grounded Graph Decoding improves Compositional Generalization in Question Answering
Yu Gai | Paras Jain | Wendi Zhang | Joseph Gonzalez | Dawn Song | Ion Stoica

Question answering models struggle to generalize to novel compositions of training patterns. Current end-to-end models learn a flat input embedding which can lose input syntax context. Prior approaches improve generalization by learning permutation invariant models, but these methods do not scale to more complex train-test splits. We propose Grounded Graph Decoding, a method to improve compositional generalization of language representations by grounding structured predictions with an attention mechanism. Grounding enables the model to retain syntax information from the input that significantly improves generalization to complex inputs. By predicting a structured graph containing conjunctions of query clauses, we learn a group invariant representation without making assumptions on the target domain. Our model performs competitively on the Compositional Freebase Questions (CFQ) dataset, a challenging benchmark for compositional generalization in question answering. Especially, our model effectively solves the MCD1 split with 98% accuracy. All source is available at

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Enhancing Visual Dialog Questioner with Entity-based Strategy Learning and Augmented Guesser
Duo Zheng | Zipeng Xu | Fandong Meng | Xiaojie Wang | Jiaan Wang | Jie Zhou

Considering the importance of building a good Visual Dialog (VD) Questioner, many researchers study the topic under a Q-Bot-A-Bot image-guessing game setting, where the Questioner needs to raise a series of questions to collect information of an undisclosed image. Despite progress has been made in Supervised Learning (SL) and Reinforcement Learning (RL), issues still exist. Firstly, previous methods do not provide explicit and effective guidance for Questioner to generate visually related and informative questions. Secondly, the effect of RL is hampered by an incompetent component, i.e., the Guesser, who makes image predictions based on the generated dialogs and assigns rewards accordingly. To enhance VD Questioner: 1) we propose a Related entity enhanced Questioner (ReeQ) that generates questions under the guidance of related entities and learns entity-based questioning strategy from human dialogs; 2) we propose an Augmented Guesser that is strong and is optimized for VD especially. Experimental results on the VisDial v1.0 dataset show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on both image-guessing task and question diversity. Human study further verifies that our model generates more visually related, informative and coherent questions.

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A Pretraining Numerical Reasoning Model for Ordinal Constrained Question Answering on Knowledge Base
Yu Feng | Jing Zhang | Gaole He | Wayne Xin Zhao | Lemao Liu | Quan Liu | Cuiping Li | Hong Chen

Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) is to answer natural language questions posed over knowledge bases (KBs). This paper targets at empowering the IR-based KBQA models with the ability of numerical reasoning for answering ordinal constrained questions. A major challenge is the lack of explicit annotations about numerical properties. To address this challenge, we propose a pretraining numerical reasoning model consisting of NumGNN and NumTransformer, guided by explicit self-supervision signals. The two modules are pretrained to encode the magnitude and ordinal properties of numbers respectively and can serve as model-agnostic plugins for any IR-based KBQA model to enhance its numerical reasoning ability. Extensive experiments on two KBQA benchmarks verify the effectiveness of our method to enhance the numerical reasoning ability for IR-based KBQA models.

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RoR: Read-over-Read for Long Document Machine Reading Comprehension
Jing Zhao | Junwei Bao | Yifan Wang | Yongwei Zhou | Youzheng Wu | Xiaodong He | Bowen Zhou

Transformer-based pre-trained models, such as BERT, have achieved remarkable results on machine reading comprehension. However, due to the constraint of encoding length (e.g., 512 WordPiece tokens), a long document is usually split into multiple chunks that are independently read. It results in the reading field being limited to individual chunks without information collaboration for long document machine reading comprehension. To address this problem, we propose RoR, a read-over-read method, which expands the reading field from chunk to document. Specifically, RoR includes a chunk reader and a document reader. The former first predicts a set of regional answers for each chunk, which are then compacted into a highly-condensed version of the original document, guaranteeing to be encoded once. The latter further predicts the global answers from this condensed document. Eventually, a voting strategy is utilized to aggregate and rerank the regional and global answers for final prediction. Extensive experiments on two benchmarks QuAC and TriviaQA demonstrate the effectiveness of RoR for long document reading. Notably, RoR ranks 1st place on the QuAC leaderboard ( at the time of submission (May 17th, 2021).

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Span Pointer Networks for Non-Autoregressive Task-Oriented Semantic Parsing
Akshat Shrivastava | Pierce Chuang | Arun Babu | Shrey Desai | Abhinav Arora | Alexander Zotov | Ahmed Aly

An effective recipe for building seq2seq, non-autoregressive, task-oriented parsers to map utterances to semantic frames proceeds in three steps: encoding an utterance x, predicting a frame’s length |y|, and decoding a |y|-sized frame with utterance and ontology tokens. Though empirically strong, these models are typically bottlenecked by length prediction, as even small inaccuracies change the syntactic and semantic characteristics of resulting frames. In our work, we propose span pointer networks, non-autoregressive parsers which shift the decoding task from text generation to span prediction; that is, when imputing utterance spans into frame slots, our model produces endpoints (e.g., [i, j]) as opposed to text (e.g., “6pm”). This natural quantization of the output space reduces the variability of gold frames, therefore improving length prediction and, ultimately, exact match. Furthermore, length prediction is now responsible for frame syntax and the decoder is responsible for frame semantics, resulting in a coarse-to-fine model. We evaluate our approach on several task-oriented semantic parsing datasets. Notably, we bridge the quality gap between non-autogressive and autoregressive parsers, achieving 87 EM on TOPv2 (Chen et al. 2020). Furthermore, due to our more consistent gold frames, we show strong improvements in model generalization in both cross-domain and cross-lingual transfer in low-resource settings. Finally, due to our diminished output vocabulary, we observe 70% reduction in latency and 83% reduction in memory at beam size 5 compared to prior non-autoregressive parsers.

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Language Resource Efficient Learning for Captioning
Jia Chen | Yike Wu | Shiwan Zhao | Qin Jin

Due to complex cognitive and inferential efforts involved in the manual generation of one caption per image/video input, the human annotation resources are very limited for captioning tasks. We define language resource efficient as reaching the same performance with fewer annotated captions per input. We first study the performance degradation of caption models in different language resource settings. Our analysis of caption models with SC loss shows that the performance degradation is caused by the increasingly noisy estimation of reward and baseline with fewer language resources. To mitigate this issue, we propose to reduce the variance of noise in the baseline by generalizing the single pairwise comparison in SC loss and using multiple generalized pairwise comparisons. The generalized pairwise comparison (GPC) measures the difference between the evaluation scores of two captions with respect to an input. Empirically, we show that the model trained with the proposed GPC loss is efficient on language resource and achieves similar performance with the state-of-the-art models on MSCOCO by using only half of the language resources. Furthermore, our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art models on a video caption dataset that has only one labeled caption per input in the training set.

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Translation as Cross-Domain Knowledge: Attention Augmentation for Unsupervised Cross-Domain Segmenting and Labeling Tasks
Ruixuan Luo | Yi Zhang | Sishuo Chen | Xu Sun

The nature of no word delimiter or inflection that can indicate segment boundaries or word semantics increases the difficulty of Chinese text understanding, and also intensifies the demand for word-level semantic knowledge to accomplish the tagging goal in Chinese segmenting and labeling tasks. However, for unsupervised Chinese cross-domain segmenting and labeling tasks, the model trained on the source domain frequently suffers from the deficient word-level semantic knowledge of the target domain. To address this issue, we propose a novel paradigm based on attention augmentation to introduce crucial cross-domain knowledge via a translation system. The proposed paradigm enables the model attention to draw cross-domain knowledge indicated by the implicit word-level cross-lingual alignment between the input and its corresponding translation. Aside from the model requiring cross-lingual input, we also establish an off-the-shelf model which eludes the dependency on cross-lingual translations. Experiments demonstrate that our proposal significantly advances the state-of-the-art results of cross-domain Chinese segmenting and labeling tasks.

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ContractNLI: A Dataset for Document-level Natural Language Inference for Contracts
Yuta Koreeda | Christopher Manning

Reviewing contracts is a time-consuming procedure that incurs large expenses to companies and social inequality to those who cannot afford it. In this work, we propose “document-level natural language inference (NLI) for contracts”, a novel, real-world application of NLI that addresses such problems. In this task, a system is given a set of hypotheses (such as “Some obligations of Agreement may survive termination.”) and a contract, and it is asked to classify whether each hypothesis is “entailed by”, “contradicting to” or “not mentioned by” (neutral to) the contract as well as identifying “evidence” for the decision as spans in the contract. We annotated and release the largest corpus to date consisting of 607 annotated contracts. We then show that existing models fail badly on our task and introduce a strong baseline, which (a) models evidence identification as multi-label classification over spans instead of trying to predict start and end tokens, and (b) employs more sophisticated context segmentation for dealing with long documents. We also show that linguistic characteristics of contracts, such as negations by exceptions, are contributing to the difficulty of this task and that there is much room for improvement.

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Japanese Zero Anaphora Resolution Can Benefit from Parallel Texts Through Neural Transfer Learning
Masato Umakoshi | Yugo Murawaki | Sadao Kurohashi

Parallel texts of Japanese and a non-pro-drop language have the potential of improving the performance of Japanese zero anaphora resolution (ZAR) because pronouns dropped in the former are usually mentioned explicitly in the latter. However, rule-based cross-lingual transfer is hampered by error propagation in an NLP pipeline and the frequent lack of transparency in translation correspondences. In this paper, we propose implicit transfer by injecting machine translation (MT) as an intermediate task between pretraining and ZAR. We employ a pretrained BERT model to initialize the encoder part of the encoder-decoder model for MT, and eject the encoder part for fine-tuning on ZAR. The proposed framework empirically demonstrates that ZAR performance can be improved by transfer learning from MT. In addition, we find that the incorporation of the masked language model training into MT leads to further gains.

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Grouped-Attention for Content-Selection and Content-Plan Generation
Bayu Distiawan Trisedya | Xiaojie Wang | Jianzhong Qi | Rui Zhang | Qingjun Cui

Content-planning is an essential part of data-to-text generation to determine the order of data mentioned in generated texts. Recent neural data-to-text generation models employ Pointer Networks to explicitly learn content-plan given a set of attributes as input. They use LSTM to encode the input, which assumes a sequential relationship in the input. This may be sub-optimal to encode a set of attributes, where the attributes have a composite structure: the attributes are disordered while each attribute value is an ordered list of tokens. We handle this problem by proposing a neural content-planner that can capture both local and global contexts of such a structure. Specifically, we propose a novel attention mechanism called GSC-attention. A key component of the GSC-attention is grouped-attention, which is token-level attention constrained within each input attribute that enables our proposed model captures both local and global context. Moreover, our content-planner explicitly learns content-selection, which is integrated into the content-planner to select the most important data to be included in the generated text via an attention masking procedure. Experimental results show that our model outperforms the competitors by 4.92%, 4.70%, and 16.56% in terms of Damerau-Levenshtein Distance scores on three real-world datasets.

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An Explicit-Joint and Supervised-Contrastive Learning Framework for Few-Shot Intent Classification and Slot Filling
Han Liu | Feng Zhang | Xiaotong Zhang | Siyang Zhao | Xianchao Zhang

Intent classification (IC) and slot filling (SF) are critical building blocks in task-oriented dialogue systems. These two tasks are closely-related and can flourish each other. Since only a few utterances can be utilized for identifying fast-emerging new intents and slots, data scarcity issue often occurs when implementing IC and SF. However, few IC/SF models perform well when the number of training samples per class is quite small. In this paper, we propose a novel explicit-joint and supervised-contrastive learning framework for few-shot intent classification and slot filling. Its highlights are as follows. (i) The model extracts intent and slot representations via bidirectional interactions, and extends prototypical network to achieve explicit-joint learning, which guarantees that IC and SF tasks can mutually reinforce each other. (ii) The model integrates with supervised contrastive learning, which ensures that samples from same class are pulled together and samples from different classes are pushed apart. In addition, the model follows a not common but practical way to construct the episode, which gets rid of the traditional setting with fixed way and shot, and allows for unbalanced datasets. Extensive experiments on three public datasets show that our model can achieve promising performance.

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Retrieve, Discriminate and Rewrite: A Simple and Effective Framework for Obtaining Affective Response in Retrieval-Based Chatbots
Xin Lu | Yijian Tian | Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin

Obtaining affective response is a key step in building empathetic dialogue systems. This task has been studied a lot in generation-based chatbots, but the related research in retrieval-based chatbots is still in the early stage. Existing works in retrieval-based chatbots are based on Retrieve-and-Rerank framework, which have a common problem of satisfying affect label at the expense of response quality. To address this problem, we propose a simple and effective Retrieve-Discriminate-Rewrite framework. The framework replaces the reranking mechanism with a new discriminate-and-rewrite mechanism, which predicts the affect label of the retrieved high-quality response via discrimination module and further rewrites the affect unsatisfied response via rewriting module. This can not only guarantee the quality of the response, but also satisfy the given affect label. In addition, another challenge for this line of research is the lack of an off-the-shelf affective response dataset. To address this problem and test our proposed framework, we annotate a Sentimental Douban Conversation Corpus based on the original Douban Conversation Corpus. Experimental results show that our proposed framework is effective and outperforms competitive baselines.

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Span Fine-tuning for Pre-trained Language Models
Rongzhou Bao | Zhuosheng Zhang | Hai Zhao

Pre-trained language models (PrLM) have to carefully manage input units when training on a very large text with a vocabulary consisting of millions of words. Previous works have shown that incorporating span-level information over consecutive words in pre-training could further improve the performance of PrLMs. However, given that span-level clues are introduced and fixed in pre-training, previous methods are time-consuming and lack of flexibility. To alleviate the inconvenience, this paper presents a novel span fine-tuning method for PrLMs, which facilitates the span setting to be adaptively determined by specific downstream tasks during the fine-tuning phase. In detail, any sentences processed by the PrLM will be segmented into multiple spans according to a pre-sampled dictionary. Then the segmentation information will be sent through a hierarchical CNN module together with the representation outputs of the PrLM and ultimately generate a span-enhanced representation. Experiments on GLUE benchmark show that the proposed span fine-tuning method significantly enhances the PrLM, and at the same time, offer more flexibility in an efficient way.

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DIRECT: Direct and Indirect Responses in Conversational Text Corpus
Junya Takayama | Tomoyuki Kajiwara | Yuki Arase

We create a large-scale dialogue corpus that provides pragmatic paraphrases to advance technology for understanding the underlying intentions of users. While neural conversation models acquire the ability to generate fluent responses through training on a dialogue corpus, previous corpora have mainly focused on the literal meanings of utterances. However, in reality, people do not always present their intentions directly. For example, if a person said to the operator of a reservation service “I don’t have enough budget.”, they, in fact, mean “please find a cheaper option for me.” Our corpus provides a total of 71,498 indirect–direct utterance pairs accompanied by a multi-turn dialogue history extracted from the MultiWoZ dataset. In addition, we propose three tasks to benchmark the ability of models to recognize and generate indirect and direct utterances. We also investigated the performance of state-of-the-art pre-trained models as baselines.

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Retrieval, Analogy, and Composition: A framework for Compositional Generalization in Image Captioning
Zhan Shi | Hui Liu | Martin Renqiang Min | Christopher Malon | Li Erran Li | Xiaodan Zhu

Image captioning systems are expected to have the ability to combine individual concepts when describing scenes with concept combinations that are not observed during training. In spite of significant progress in image captioning with the help of the autoregressive generation framework, current approaches fail to generalize well to novel concept combinations. We propose a new framework that revolves around probing several similar image caption training instances (retrieval), performing analogical reasoning over relevant entities in retrieved prototypes (analogy), and enhancing the generation process with reasoning outcomes (composition). Our method augments the generation model by referring to the neighboring instances in the training set to produce novel concept combinations in generated captions. We perform experiments on the widely used image captioning benchmarks. The proposed models achieve substantial improvement over the compared baselines on both composition-related evaluation metrics and conventional image captioning metrics.

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TURINGBENCH: A Benchmark Environment for Turing Test in the Age of Neural Text Generation
Adaku Uchendu | Zeyu Ma | Thai Le | Rui Zhang | Dongwon Lee

Recent progress in generative language models has enabled machines to generate astonishingly realistic texts. While there are many legitimate applications of such models, there is also a rising need to distinguish machine-generated texts from human-written ones (e.g., fake news detection). However, to our best knowledge, there is currently no benchmark environment with datasets and tasks to systematically study the so-called ”Turing Test” problem for neural text generation methods. In this work, we present the TURINGBENCH benchmark environment, which is comprised of (1) a dataset with 200K human- or machine-generated samples across 20 labels Human, GPT-1, GPT-2_small, GPT-2_medium, GPT-2_large,GPT-2_xl, GPT-2_PyTorch, GPT-3, GROVER_base, GROVER_large, GROVER_mega, CTRL, XLM, XLNET_base, XLNET_large, FAIR_wmt19, FAIR_wmt20, TRANSFORMER_XL, PPLM_distil, PPLM_gpt2, (2) two benchmark tasks–i.e., Turing Test (TT) and Authorship Attribution (AA), and (3) a website with leaderboards. Our preliminary experimental results using TURINGBENCH show that GPT-3 and FAIR_wmt20 are the current winners, among all language models tested, in generating the most human-like indistinguishable texts with the lowest F1 score by five state-of-the-art TT detection models. The TURINGBENCH is available at:

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Say ‘YES’ to Positivity: Detecting Toxic Language in Workplace Communications
Meghana Moorthy Bhat | Saghar Hosseini | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Paul Bennett | Weisheng Li

Workplace communication (e.g. email, chat, etc.) is a central part of enterprise productivity. Healthy conversations are crucial for creating an inclusive environment and maintaining harmony in an organization. Toxic communications at the workplace can negatively impact overall job satisfaction and are often subtle, hidden, or demonstrate human biases. The linguistic subtlety of mild yet hurtful conversations has made it difficult for researchers to quantify and extract toxic conversations automatically. While offensive language or hate speech has been extensively studied in social communities, there has been little work studying toxic communication in emails. Specifically, the lack of corpus, sparsity of toxicity in enterprise emails, and well-defined criteria for annotating toxic conversations have prevented researchers from addressing the problem at scale. We take the first step towards studying toxicity in workplace emails by providing (1) a general and computationally viable taxonomy to study toxic language at the workplace (2) a dataset to study toxic language at the workplace based on the taxonomy and (3) analysis on why offensive language and hate-speech datasets are not suitable to detect workplace toxicity.

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Natural SQL: Making SQL Easier to Infer from Natural Language Specifications
Yujian Gan | Xinyun Chen | Jinxia Xie | Matthew Purver | John R. Woodward | John Drake | Qiaofu Zhang

Addressing the mismatch between natural language descriptions and the corresponding SQL queries is a key challenge for text-to-SQL translation. To bridge this gap, we propose an SQL intermediate representation (IR) called Natural SQL (NatSQL). Specifically, NatSQL preserves the core functionalities of SQL, while it simplifies the queries as follows: (1) dispensing with operators and keywords such as GROUP BY, HAVING, FROM, JOIN ON, which are usually hard to find counterparts in the text descriptions; (2) removing the need of nested subqueries and set operators; and (3) making the schema linking easier by reducing the required number of schema items. On Spider, a challenging text-to-SQL benchmark that contains complex and nested SQL queries, we demonstrate that NatSQL outperforms other IRs, and significantly improves the performance of several previous SOTA models. Furthermore, for existing models that do not support executable SQL generation, NatSQL easily enables them to generate executable SQL queries, and achieves the new state-of-the-art execution accuracy.

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Mitigating Data Scarceness through Data Synthesis, Augmentation and Curriculum for Abstractive Summarization
Ahmed Magooda | Diane Litman

This paper explores three simple data manipulation techniques (synthesis, augmentation, curriculum) for improving abstractive summarization models without the need for any additional data. We introduce a method of data synthesis with paraphrasing, a data augmentation technique with sample mixing, and curriculum learning with two new difficulty metrics based on specificity and abstractiveness. We conduct experiments to show that these three techniques can help improve abstractive summarization across two summarization models and two different small datasets. Furthermore, we show that these techniques can improve performance when applied in isolation and when combined.

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Self- and Pseudo-self-supervised Prediction of Speaker and Key-utterance for Multi-party Dialogue Reading Comprehension
Yiyang Li | Hai Zhao

Multi-party dialogue machine reading comprehension (MRC) brings tremendous challenge since it involves multiple speakers at one dialogue, resulting in intricate speaker information flows and noisy dialogue contexts. To alleviate such difficulties, previous models focus on how to incorporate these information using complex graph-based modules and additional manually labeled data, which is usually rare in real scenarios. In this paper, we design two labour-free self- and pseudo-self-supervised prediction tasks on speaker and key-utterance to implicitly model the speaker information flows, and capture salient clues in a long dialogue. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets have justified the effectiveness of our method over competitive baselines and current state-of-the-art models.

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Few-Shot Novel Concept Learning for Semantic Parsing
Soham Dan | Osbert Bastani | Dan Roth

Humans are capable of learning novel concepts from very few examples; in contrast, state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms typically need thousands of examples to do so. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for learning novel concepts by representing them as programs over existing concepts. This way the concept learning problem is naturally a program synthesis problem and our algorithm learns from a few examples to synthesize a program representing the novel concept. In addition, we perform a theoretical analysis of our approach for the case where the program defining the novel concept over existing ones is context-free. We show that given a learned grammar-based parser and a novel production rule, we can augment the parser with the production rule in a way that provably generalizes. We evaluate our approach by learning concepts in the semantic parsing domain extended to the few-shot novel concept learning setting, showing that our approach significantly outperforms end-to-end neural semantic parsers.

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Compositional Data and Task Augmentation for Instruction Following
Soham Dan | Xinran Han | Dan Roth

Executing natural language instructions in a physically grounded domain requires a model that understands both spatial concepts such as “left of” and “above”, and the compositional language used to identify landmarks and articulate instructions relative to them. In this paper, we study instruction understanding in the blocks world domain. Given an initial arrangement of blocks and a natural language instruction, the system executes the instruction by manipulating selected blocks. The highly compositional instructions are composed of atomic components and understanding these components is a necessary step to executing the instruction. We show that while end-to-end training (supervised only by the correct block location) fails to address the challenges of this task and performs poorly on instructions involving a single atomic component, knowledge-free auxiliary signals can be used to significantly improve performance by providing supervision for the instruction’s components. Specifically, we generate signals that aim at helping the model gradually understand components of the compositional instructions, as well as those that help it better understand spatial concepts, and show their benefit to the overall task for two datasets and two state-of-the-art (SOTA) models, especially when the training data is limited—which is usual in such tasks.

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Are Factuality Checkers Reliable? Adversarial Meta-evaluation of Factuality in Summarization
Yiran Chen | Pengfei Liu | Xipeng Qiu

With the continuous upgrading of the summarization systems driven by deep neural networks, researchers have higher requirements on the quality of the generated summaries, which should be not only fluent and informative but also factually correct. As a result, the field of factual evaluation has developed rapidly recently. Despite its initial progress in evaluating generated summaries, the meta-evaluation methodologies of factuality metrics are limited in their opacity, leading to the insufficient understanding of factuality metrics’ relative advantages and their applicability. In this paper, we present an adversarial meta-evaluation methodology that allows us to (i) diagnose the fine-grained strengths and weaknesses of 6 existing top-performing metrics over 24 diagnostic test datasets, (ii) search for directions for further improvement by data augmentation. Our observations from this work motivate us to propose several calls for future research. We make all codes, diagnostic test datasets, trained factuality models available:

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On the Effects of Transformer Size on In- and Out-of-Domain Calibration
Soham Dan | Dan Roth

Large, pre-trained transformer language models, which are pervasive in natural language processing tasks, are notoriously expensive to train. To reduce the cost of training such large models, prior work has developed smaller, more compact models which achieves a significant speedup in training time while maintaining competitive accuracy to the original model on downstream tasks. Though these smaller pre-trained models have been widely adopted by the community, it is not known how well are they calibrated compared to their larger counterparts. In this paper, focusing on a wide range of tasks, we thoroughly investigate the calibration properties of pre-trained transformers, as a function of their size. We demonstrate that when evaluated in-domain, smaller models are able to achieve competitive, and often better, calibration compared to larger models, while achieving significant speedup in training time. Post-hoc calibration techniques further reduce calibration error for all models in-domain. However, when evaluated out-of-domain, larger models tend to be better calibrated, and label-smoothing instead is an effective strategy to calibrate models in this setting.

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Detecting Polarized Topics Using Partisanship-aware Contextualized Topic Embeddings
Zihao He | Negar Mokhberian | António Câmara | Andres Abeliuk | Kristina Lerman

Growing polarization of the news media has been blamed for fanning disagreement, controversy and even violence. Early identification of polarized topics is thus an urgent matter that can help mitigate conflict. However, accurate measurement of topic-wise polarization is still an open research challenge. To address this gap, we propose Partisanship-aware Contextualized Topic Embeddings (PaCTE), a method to automatically detect polarized topics from partisan news sources. Specifically, utilizing a language model that has been finetuned on recognizing partisanship of the news articles, we represent the ideology of a news corpus on a topic by corpus-contextualized topic embedding and measure the polarization using cosine distance. We apply our method to a dataset of news articles about the COVID-19 pandemic. Extensive experiments on different news sources and topics demonstrate the efficacy of our method to capture topical polarization, as indicated by its effectiveness of retrieving the most polarized topics.

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GenerativeRE: Incorporating a Novel Copy Mechanism and Pretrained Model for Joint Entity and Relation Extraction
Jiarun Cao | Sophia Ananiadou

Previous neural Seq2Seq models have shown the effectiveness for jointly extracting relation triplets. However, most of these models suffer from incompletion and disorder problems when they extract multi-token entities from input sentences. To tackle these problems, we propose a generative, multi-task learning framework, named GenerativeRE. We firstly propose a special entity labelling method on both input and output sequences. During the training stage, GenerativeRE fine-tunes the pre-trained generative model and learns the special entity labels simultaneously. During the inference stage, we propose a novel copy mechanism equipped with three mask strategies, to generate the most probable tokens by diminishing the scope of the model decoder. Experimental results show that our model achieves 4.6% and 0.9% F1 score improvements over the current state-of-the-art methods in the NYT24 and NYT29 benchmark datasets respectively.

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Re-entry Prediction for Online Conversations via Self-Supervised Learning
Lingzhi Wang | Xingshan Zeng | Huang Hu | Kam-Fai Wong | Daxin Jiang

In recent years, world business in online discussions and opinion sharing on social media is booming. Re-entry prediction task is thus proposed to help people keep track of the discussions which they wish to continue. Nevertheless, existing works only focus on exploiting chatting history and context information, and ignore the potential useful learning signals underlying conversation data, such as conversation thread patterns and repeated engagement of target users, which help better understand the behavior of target users in conversations. In this paper, we propose three interesting and well-founded auxiliary tasks, namely, Spread Pattern, Repeated Target user, and Turn Authorship, as the self-supervised signals for re-entry prediction. These auxiliary tasks are trained together with the main task in a multi-task manner. Experimental results on two datasets newly collected from Twitter and Reddit show that our method outperforms the previous state-of-the-arts with fewer parameters and faster convergence. Extensive experiments and analysis show the effectiveness of our proposed models and also point out some key ideas in designing self-supervised tasks.

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proScript: Partially Ordered Scripts Generation
Keisuke Sakaguchi | Chandra Bhagavatula | Ronan Le Bras | Niket Tandon | Peter Clark | Yejin Choi

Scripts – prototypical event sequences describing everyday activities – have been shown to help understand narratives by providing expectations, resolving ambiguity, and filling in unstated information. However, to date they have proved hard to author or extract from text. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time that pre-trained neural language models can be finetuned to generate high-quality scripts, at varying levels of granularity, for a wide range of everyday scenarios (e.g., bake a cake). To do this, we collect a large (6.4k) crowdsourced partially ordered scripts (named proScript), that is substantially larger than prior datasets, and develop models that generate scripts by combining language generation and graph structure prediction. We define two complementary tasks: (i) edge prediction: given a scenario and unordered events, organize the events into a valid (possibly partial-order) script, and (ii) script generation: given only a scenario, generate events and organize them into a (possibly partial-order) script. Our experiments show that our models perform well (e.g., F1=75.7 on task (i)), illustrating a new approach to overcoming previous barriers to script collection. We also show that there is still significant room for improvement toward human level performance. Together, our tasks, dataset, and models offer a new research direction for learning script knowledge.

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Speaker Turn Modeling for Dialogue Act Classification
Zihao He | Leili Tavabi | Kristina Lerman | Mohammad Soleymani

Dialogue Act (DA) classification is the task of classifying utterances with respect to the function they serve in a dialogue. Existing approaches to DA classification model utterances without incorporating the turn changes among speakers throughout the dialogue, therefore treating it no different than non-interactive written text. In this paper, we propose to integrate the turn changes in conversations among speakers when modeling DAs. Specifically, we learn conversation-invariant speaker turn embeddings to represent the speaker turns in a conversation; the learned speaker turn embeddings are then merged with the utterance embeddings for the downstream task of DA classification. With this simple yet effective mechanism, our model is able to capture the semantics from the dialogue content while accounting for different speaker turns in a conversation. Validation on three benchmark public datasets demonstrates superior performance of our model.

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Unsupervised Domain Adaptation Method with Semantic-Structural Alignment for Dependency Parsing
Boda Lin | Mingzheng Li | Si Li | Yong Luo

Unsupervised cross-domain dependency parsing is to accomplish domain adaptation for dependency parsing without using labeled data in target domain. Existing methods are often of the pseudo-annotation type, which generates data through self-annotation of the base model and performing iterative training. However, these methods fail to consider the change of model structure for domain adaptation. In addition, the structural information contained in the text cannot be fully exploited. To remedy these drawbacks, we propose a Semantics-Structure Adaptative Dependency Parser (SSADP), which accomplishes unsupervised cross-domain dependency parsing without relying on pseudo-annotation or data selection. In particular, we design two feature extractors to extract semantic and structural features respectively. For each type of features, a corresponding feature adaptation method is utilized to achieve domain adaptation to align the domain distribution, which effectively enhances the unsupervised cross-domain transfer capability of the model. We validate the effectiveness of our model by conducting experiments on the CODT1 and CTB9 respectively, and the results demonstrate that our model can achieve consistent performance improvement. Besides, we verify the structure transfer ability of the proposed model by introducing Weisfeiler-Lehman Test.

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Devil’s Advocate: Novel Boosting Ensemble Method from Psychological Findings for Text Classification
Hwiyeol Jo | Jaeseo Lim | Byoung-Tak Zhang

We present a new form of ensemble method–Devil’s Advocate, which uses a deliberately dissenting model to force other submodels within the ensemble to better collaborate. Our method consists of two different training settings: one follows the conventional training process (Norm), and the other is trained by artificially generated labels (DevAdv). After training the models, Norm models are fine-tuned through an additional loss function, which uses the DevAdv model as a constraint. In making a final decision, the proposed ensemble model sums the scores of Norm models and then subtracts the score of the DevAdv model. The DevAdv model improves the overall performance of the other models within the ensemble. In addition to our ensemble framework being based on psychological background, it also shows comparable or improved performance on 5 text classification tasks when compared to conventional ensemble methods.

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SideControl: Controlled Open-domain Dialogue Generation via Additive Side Networks
Wanyu Du | Yangfeng Ji

Transformer-based pre-trained language models boost the performance of open-domain dialogue systems. Prior works leverage Transformer-based pre-trained language models to generate texts with desired attributes in two general approaches: (1) gradient-based methods: updating all latent representations of pre-trained models with gradients from attribute models; (2) weighted-decoding methods: re-ranking beam candidates from pre-trained models with attribute functions. However, gradient-based methods lead to high computation cost and can easily get overfitted on small training sets, while weighted-decoding methods are inherently constrained by the low-variance high-bias pre-trained model. In this work, we propose a novel approach to control the generation of Transformer-based pre-trained language models: the SideControl framework, which leverages a novel control attributes loss to incorporate useful control signals, and is shown to perform well with very limited training samples. We evaluate our proposed method on two benchmark open-domain dialogue datasets, and results show that the SideControl framework has better controllability, higher generation quality and better sample-efficiency than existing gradient-based and weighted-decoding baselines.

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Is BERT a Cross-Disciplinary Knowledge Learner? A Surprising Finding of Pre-trained Models’ Transferability
Wei-Tsung Kao | Hung-yi Lee

This paper investigates whether the power of the models pre-trained on text data, such as BERT, can be transferred to general token sequence classification applications. To verify pre-trained models’ transferability, we test the pre-trained models on text classification tasks with meanings of tokens mismatches, and real-world non-text token sequence classification data, including amino acid, DNA, and music. We find that even on non-text data, the models pre-trained on text converge faster, perform better than the randomly initialized models, and only slightly worse than the models using task-specific knowledge. We also find that the representations of the text and non-text pre-trained models share non-trivial similarities.

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Geo-BERT Pre-training Model for Query Rewriting in POI Search
Xiao Liu | Juan Hu | Qi Shen | Huan Chen

Query Rewriting (QR) is proposed to solve the problem of the word mismatch between queries and documents in Web search. Existing approaches usually model QR with an end-to-end sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) model. The state-of-the-art Transformer-based models can effectively learn textual semantics from user session logs, but they often ignore users’ geographic location information that is crucial for the Point-of-Interest (POI) search of map services. In this paper, we proposed a pre-training model, called Geo-BERT, to integrate semantics and geographic information in the pre-trained representations of POIs. Firstly, we simulate POI distribution in the real world as a graph, in which nodes represent POIs and multiple geographic granularities. Then we use graph representation learning methods to get geographic representations. Finally, we train a BERT-like pre-training model with text and POIs’ graph embeddings to get an integrated representation of both geographic and semantic information, and apply it in the QR of POI search. The proposed model achieves excellent accuracy on a wide range of real-world datasets of map services.

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Leveraging Bidding Graphs for Advertiser-Aware Relevance Modeling in Sponsored Search
Shuxian Bi | Chaozhuo Li | Xiao Han | Zheng Liu | Xing Xie | Haizhen Huang | Zengxuan Wen

Recently, sponsored search has become one of the most lucrative channels for marketing. As the fundamental basis of sponsored search, relevance modeling has attracted increasing attention due to the tremendous practical value. Most existing methods solely rely on the query-keyword pairs. However, keywords are usually short texts with scarce semantic information, which may not precisely reflect the underlying advertising intents. In this paper, we investigate the novel problem of advertiser-aware relevance modeling, which leverages the advertisers’ information to bridge the gap between the search intents and advertising purposes. Our motivation lies in incorporating the unsupervised bidding behaviors as the complementary graphs to learn desirable advertiser representations. We further propose a Bidding-Graph augmented Triple-based Relevance model BGTR with three towers to deeply fuse the bidding graphs and semantic textual data. Empirically, we evaluate the BGTR model over a large industry dataset, and the experimental results consistently demonstrate its superiority.

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GPT3Mix: Leveraging Large-scale Language Models for Text Augmentation
Kang Min Yoo | Dongju Park | Jaewook Kang | Sang-Woo Lee | Woomyoung Park

Large-scale language models such as GPT-3 are excellent few-shot learners, allowing them to be controlled via natural text prompts. Recent studies report that prompt-based direct classification eliminates the need for fine-tuning but lacks data and inference scalability. This paper proposes a novel data augmentation technique that leverages large-scale language models to generate realistic text samples from a mixture of real samples. We also propose utilizing soft-labels predicted by the language models, effectively distilling knowledge from the large-scale language models and creating textual perturbations simultaneously. We perform data augmentation experiments on diverse classification tasks and show that our method hugely outperforms existing text augmentation methods. We also conduct experiments on our newly proposed benchmark to show that the augmentation effect is not only attributed to memorization. Further ablation studies and a qualitative analysis provide more insights into our approach.

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Context-aware Entity Typing in Knowledge Graphs
Weiran Pan | Wei Wei | Xian-Ling Mao

Knowledge graph entity typing aims to infer entities’ missing types in knowledge graphs which is an important but under-explored issue. This paper proposes a novel method for this task by utilizing entities’ contextual information. Specifically, we design two inference mechanisms: i) N2T: independently use each neighbor of an entity to infer its type; ii) Agg2T: aggregate the neighbors of an entity to infer its type. Those mechanisms will produce multiple inference results, and an exponentially weighted pooling method is used to generate the final inference result. Furthermore, we propose a novel loss function to alleviate the false-negative problem during training. Experiments on two real-world KGs demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The source code and data of this paper can be obtained from

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Attribute Alignment: Controlling Text Generation from Pre-trained Language Models
Dian Yu | Zhou Yu | Kenji Sagae

Large language models benefit from training with a large amount of unlabeled text, which gives them increasingly fluent and diverse generation capabilities. However, using these models for text generation that takes into account target attributes, such as sentiment polarity or specific topics, remains a challenge. We propose a simple and flexible method for controlling text generation by aligning disentangled attribute representations. In contrast to recent efforts on training a discriminator to perturb the token level distribution for an attribute, we use the same data to learn an alignment function to guide the pre-trained, non-controlled language model to generate texts with the target attribute without changing the original language model parameters. We evaluate our method on sentiment- and topic-controlled generation, and show large performance gains over previous methods while retaining fluency and diversity.

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Generate & Rank: A Multi-task Framework for Math Word Problems
Jianhao Shen | Yichun Yin | Lin Li | Lifeng Shang | Xin Jiang | Ming Zhang | Qun Liu

Math word problem (MWP) is a challenging and critical task in natural language processing. Many recent studies formalize MWP as a generation task and have adopted sequence-to-sequence models to transform problem descriptions to mathematical expressions. However, mathematical expressions are prone to minor mistakes while the generation objective does not explicitly handle such mistakes. To address this limitation, we devise a new ranking task for MWP and propose Generate & Rank, a multi-task framework based on a generative pre-trained language model. By joint training with generation and ranking, the model learns from its own mistakes and is able to distinguish between correct and incorrect expressions. Meanwhile, we perform tree-based disturbance specially designed for MWP and an online update to boost the ranker. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method on the benchmark and the results show that our method consistently outperforms baselines in all datasets. Particularly, in the classical Math23k, our method is 7% (78.4% to 85.4%) higher than the state-of-the-art. Code could be found at

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MIRTT: Learning Multimodal Interaction Representations from Trilinear Transformers for Visual Question Answering
Junjie Wang | Yatai Ji | Jiaqi Sun | Yujiu Yang | Tetsuya Sakai

In Visual Question Answering (VQA), existing bilinear methods focus on the interaction between images and questions. As a result, the answers are either spliced into the questions or utilized as labels only for classification. On the other hand, trilinear models such as the CTI model efficiently utilize the inter-modality information between answers, questions, and images, while ignoring intra-modality information. Inspired by this observation, we propose a new trilinear interaction framework called MIRTT (Learning Multimodal Interaction Representations from Trilinear Transformers), incorporating the attention mechanisms for capturing inter-modality and intra-modality relationships. Moreover, we design a two-stage workflow where a bilinear model reduces the free-form, open-ended VQA problem into a multiple-choice VQA problem. Furthermore, to obtain accurate and generic multimodal representations, we pre-train MIRTT with masked language prediction. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Visual7W Telling task and VQA-1.0 Multiple Choice task and outperforms bilinear baselines on the VQA-2.0, TDIUC and GQA datasets.

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UniteD-SRL: A Unified Dataset for Span- and Dependency-Based Multilingual and Cross-Lingual Semantic Role Labeling
Rocco Tripodi | Simone Conia | Roberto Navigli

Multilingual and cross-lingual Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) have recently garnered increasing attention as multilingual text representation techniques have become more effective and widely available. While recent work has attained growing success, results on gold multilingual benchmarks are still not easily comparable across languages, making it difficult to grasp where we stand. For example, in CoNLL-2009, the standard benchmark for multilingual SRL, language-to-language comparisons are affected by the fact that each language has its own dataset which differs from the others in size, domains, sets of labels and annotation guidelines. In this paper, we address this issue and propose UniteD-SRL, a new benchmark for multilingual and cross-lingual, span- and dependency-based SRL. UniteD-SRL provides expert-curated parallel annotations using a common predicate-argument structure inventory, allowing direct comparisons across languages and encouraging studies on cross-lingual transfer in SRL. We release UniteD-SRL v1.0 at

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Enhancing Dual-Encoders with Question and Answer Cross-Embeddings for Answer Retrieval
Yanmeng Wang | Jun Bai | Ye Wang | Jianfei Zhang | Wenge Rong | Zongcheng Ji | Shaojun Wang | Jing Xiao

Dual-Encoders is a promising mechanism for answer retrieval in question answering (QA) systems. Currently most conventional Dual-Encoders learn the semantic representations of questions and answers merely through matching score. Researchers proposed to introduce the QA interaction features in scoring function but at the cost of low efficiency in inference stage. To keep independent encoding of questions and answers during inference stage, variational auto-encoder is further introduced to reconstruct answers (questions) from question (answer) embeddings as an auxiliary task to enhance QA interaction in representation learning in training stage. However, the needs of text generation and answer retrieval are different, which leads to hardness in training. In this work, we propose a framework to enhance the Dual-Encoders model with question answer cross-embeddings and a novel Geometry Alignment Mechanism (GAM) to align the geometry of embeddings from Dual-Encoders with that from Cross-Encoders. Extensive experimental results show that our framework significantly improves Dual-Encoders model and outperforms the state-of-the-art method on multiple answer retrieval datasets.

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A Neural Graph-based Local Coherence Model
Mohsen Mesgar | Leonardo F. R. Ribeiro | Iryna Gurevych

Entity grids and entity graphs are two frameworks for modeling local coherence. These frameworks represent entity relations between sentences and then extract features from such representations to encode coherence. The benefits of convolutional neural models for extracting informative features from entity grids have been recently studied. In this work, we study the benefits of Relational Graph Convolutional Networks (RGCN) to encode entity graphs for measuring local coherence. We evaluate our neural graph-based model for two benchmark coherence evaluation tasks: sentence ordering (SO) and summary coherence rating (SCR). The results show that our neural graph-based model consistently outperforms the neural grid-based model for both tasks. Our model performs competitively with a strong baseline coherence model, while our model uses 50% fewer parameters. Our work defines a new, efficient, and effective baseline for local coherence modeling.

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GiBERT: Enhancing BERT with Linguistic Information using a Lightweight Gated Injection Method
Nicole Peinelt | Marek Rei | Maria Liakata

Large pre-trained language models such as BERT have been the driving force behind recent improvements across many NLP tasks. However, BERT is only trained to predict missing words – either through masking or next sentence prediction – and has no knowledge of lexical, syntactic or semantic information beyond what it picks up through unsupervised pre-training. We propose a novel method to explicitly inject linguistic information in the form of word embeddings into any layer of a pre-trained BERT. When injecting counter-fitted and dependency-based embeddings, the performance improvements on multiple semantic similarity datasets indicate that such information is beneficial and currently missing from the original model. Our qualitative analysis shows that counter-fitted embedding injection is particularly beneficial, with notable improvements on examples that require synonym resolution.

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RollingLDA: An Update Algorithm of Latent Dirichlet Allocation to Construct Consistent Time Series from Textual Data
Jonas Rieger | Carsten Jentsch | Jörg Rahnenführer

We propose a rolling version of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation, called RollingLDA. By a sequential approach, it enables the construction of LDA-based time series of topics that are consistent with previous states of LDA models. After an initial modeling, updates can be computed efficiently, allowing for real-time monitoring and detection of events or structural breaks. For this purpose, we propose suitable similarity measures for topics and provide simulation evidence of superiority over other commonly used approaches. The adequacy of the resulting method is illustrated by an application to an example corpus. In particular, we compute the similarity of sequentially obtained topic and word distributions over consecutive time periods. For a representative example corpus consisting of The New York Times articles from 1980 to 2020, we analyze the effect of several tuning parameter choices and we run the RollingLDA method on the full dataset of approximately 4 million articles to demonstrate its feasibility.

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What If Sentence-hood is Hard to Define: A Case Study in Chinese Reading Comprehension
Jiawei Wang | Hai Zhao | Yinggong Zhao | Libin Shen

Machine reading comprehension (MRC) is a challenging NLP task for it requires to carefully deal with all linguistic granularities from word, sentence to passage. For extractive MRC, the answer span has been shown mostly determined by key evidence linguistic units, in which it is a sentence in most cases. However, we recently discovered that sentences may not be clearly defined in many languages to different extents, so that this causes so-called location unit ambiguity problem and as a result makes it difficult for the model to determine which sentence exactly contains the answer span when sentence itself has not been clearly defined at all. Taking Chinese language as a case study, we explain and analyze such a linguistic phenomenon and correspondingly propose a reader with Explicit Span-Sentence Predication to alleviate such a problem. Our proposed reader eventually helps achieve a new state-of-the-art on Chinese MRC benchmark and shows great potential in dealing with other languages.

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Refining BERT Embeddings for Document Hashing via Mutual Information Maximization
Zijing Ou | Qinliang Su | Jianxing Yu | Ruihui Zhao | Yefeng Zheng | Bang Liu

Existing unsupervised document hashing methods are mostly established on generative models. Due to the difficulties of capturing long dependency structures, these methods rarely model the raw documents directly, but instead to model the features extracted from them (e.g. bag-of-words (BOG), TFIDF). In this paper, we propose to learn hash codes from BERT embeddings after observing their tremendous successes on downstream tasks. As a first try, we modify existing generative hashing models to accommodate the BERT embeddings. However, little improvement is observed over the codes learned from the old BOG or TFIDF features. We attribute this to the reconstruction requirement in the generative hashing, which will enforce irrelevant information that is abundant in the BERT embeddings also compressed into the codes. To remedy this issue, a new unsupervised hashing paradigm is further proposed based on the mutual information (MI) maximization principle. Specifically, the method first constructs appropriate global and local codes from the documents and then seeks to maximize their mutual information. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is able to generate hash codes that outperform existing ones learned from BOG features by a substantial margin.

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REBEL: Relation Extraction By End-to-end Language generation
Pere-Lluís Huguet Cabot | Roberto Navigli

Extracting relation triplets from raw text is a crucial task in Information Extraction, enabling multiple applications such as populating or validating knowledge bases, factchecking, and other downstream tasks. However, it usually involves multiple-step pipelines that propagate errors or are limited to a small number of relation types. To overcome these issues, we propose the use of autoregressive seq2seq models. Such models have previously been shown to perform well not only in language generation, but also in NLU tasks such as Entity Linking, thanks to their framing as seq2seq tasks. In this paper, we show how Relation Extraction can be simplified by expressing triplets as a sequence of text and we present REBEL, a seq2seq model based on BART that performs end-to-end relation extraction for more than 200 different relation types. We show our model’s flexibility by fine-tuning it on an array of Relation Extraction and Relation Classification benchmarks, with it attaining state-of-the-art performance in most of them.

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Wine is not v i n. On the Compatibility of Tokenizations across Languages
Antonis Maronikolakis | Philipp Dufter | Hinrich Schütze

The size of the vocabulary is a central design choice in large pretrained language models, with respect to both performance and memory requirements. Typically, subword tokenization algorithms such as byte pair encoding and WordPiece are used. In this work, we investigate the compatibility of tokenizations for multilingual static and contextualized embedding spaces and propose a measure that reflects the compatibility of tokenizations across languages. Our goal is to prevent incompatible tokenizations, e.g., “wine” (word-level) in English vs. “v i n” (character-level) in French, which make it hard to learn good multilingual semantic representations. We show that our compatibility measure allows the system designer to create vocabularies across languages that are compatible – a desideratum that so far has been neglected in multilingual models.

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Temporal Adaptation of BERT and Performance on Downstream Document Classification: Insights from Social Media
Paul Röttger | Janet Pierrehumbert

Language use differs between domains and even within a domain, language use changes over time. For pre-trained language models like BERT, domain adaptation through continued pre-training has been shown to improve performance on in-domain downstream tasks. In this article, we investigate whether temporal adaptation can bring additional benefits. For this purpose, we introduce a corpus of social media comments sampled over three years. It contains unlabelled data for adaptation and evaluation on an upstream masked language modelling task as well as labelled data for fine-tuning and evaluation on a downstream document classification task. We find that temporality matters for both tasks: temporal adaptation improves upstream and temporal fine-tuning downstream task performance. Time-specific models generally perform better on past than on future test sets, which matches evidence on the bursty usage of topical words. However, adapting BERT to time and domain does not improve performance on the downstream task over only adapting to domain. Token-level analysis shows that temporal adaptation captures event-driven changes in language use in the downstream task, but not those changes that are actually relevant to task performance. Based on our findings, we discuss when temporal adaptation may be more effective.

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Skim-Attention: Learning to Focus via Document Layout
Laura Nguyen | Thomas Scialom | Jacopo Staiano | Benjamin Piwowarski

Transformer-based pre-training techniques of text and layout have proven effective in a number of document understanding tasks. Despite this success, multimodal pre-training models suffer from very high computational and memory costs. Motivated by human reading strategies, this paper presents Skim-Attention, a new attention mechanism that takes advantage of the structure of the document and its layout. Skim-Attention only attends to the 2-dimensional position of the words in a document. Our experiments show that Skim-Attention obtains a lower perplexity than prior works, while being more computationally efficient. Skim-Attention can be further combined with long-range Transformers to efficiently process long documents. We also show how Skim-Attention can be used off-the-shelf as a mask for any Pre-trained Language Model, allowing to improve their performance while restricting attention. Finally, we show the emergence of a document structure representation in Skim-Attention.

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Attention-based Contrastive Learning for Winograd Schemas
Tassilo Klein | Moin Nabi

Self-supervised learning has recently attracted considerable attention in the NLP community for its ability to learn discriminative features using a contrastive objective. This paper investigates whether contrastive learning can be extended to Transfomer attention to tackling the Winograd Schema Challenge. To this end, we propose a novel self-supervised framework, leveraging a contrastive loss directly at the level of self-attention. Experimental analysis of our attention-based models on multiple datasets demonstrates superior commonsense reasoning capabilities. The proposed approach outperforms all comparable unsupervised approaches while occasionally surpassing supervised ones.

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Give the Truth: Incorporate Semantic Slot into Abstractive Dialogue Summarization
Lulu Zhao | Weihao Zeng | Weiran Xu | Jun Guo

Abstractive dialogue summarization suffers from a lots of factual errors, which are due to scattered salient elements in the multi-speaker information interaction process. In this work, we design a heterogeneous semantic slot graph with a slot-level mask cross-attention to enhance the slot features for more correct summarization. We also propose a slot-driven beam search algorithm in the decoding process to give priority to generating salient elements in a limited length by “filling-in-the-blanks”. Besides, an adversarial contrastive learning assisting the training process is introduced to alleviate the exposure bias. Experimental performance on different types of factual errors shows the effectiveness of our methods and human evaluation further verifies the results..

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Challenges in Detoxifying Language Models
Johannes Welbl | Amelia Glaese | Jonathan Uesato | Sumanth Dathathri | John Mellor | Lisa Anne Hendricks | Kirsty Anderson | Pushmeet Kohli | Ben Coppin | Po-Sen Huang

Large language models (LM) generate remarkably fluent text and can be efficiently adapted across NLP tasks. Measuring and guaranteeing the quality of generated text in terms of safety is imperative for deploying LMs in the real world; to this end, prior work often relies on automatic evaluation of LM toxicity. We critically discuss this approach, evaluate several toxicity mitigation strategies with respect to both automatic and human evaluation, and analyze consequences of toxicity mitigation in terms of model bias and LM quality. We demonstrate that while basic intervention strategies can effectively optimize previously established automatic metrics on the REALTOXICITYPROMPTS dataset, this comes at the cost of reduced LM coverage for both texts about, and dialects of, marginalized groups. Additionally, we find that human raters often disagree with high automatic toxicity scores after strong toxicity reduction interventions—highlighting further the nuances involved in careful evaluation of LM toxicity.

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Collecting a Large-Scale Gender Bias Dataset for Coreference Resolution and Machine Translation
Shahar Levy | Koren Lazar | Gabriel Stanovsky

Recent works have found evidence of gender bias in models of machine translation and coreference resolution using mostly synthetic diagnostic datasets. While these quantify bias in a controlled experiment, they often do so on a small scale and consist mostly of artificial, out-of-distribution sentences. In this work, we find grammatical patterns indicating stereotypical and non-stereotypical gender-role assignments (e.g., female nurses versus male dancers) in corpora from three domains, resulting in a first large-scale gender bias dataset of 108K diverse real-world English sentences. We manually verify the quality of our corpus and use it to evaluate gender bias in various coreference resolution and machine translation models. We find that all tested models tend to over-rely on gender stereotypes when presented with natural inputs, which may be especially harmful when deployed in commercial systems. Finally, we show that our dataset lends itself to finetuning a coreference resolution model, finding it mitigates bias on a held out set. Our dataset and models are publicly available at We hope they will spur future research into gender bias evaluation mitigation techniques in realistic settings.

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Competence-based Curriculum Learning for Multilingual Machine Translation
Mingliang Zhang | Fandong Meng | Yunhai Tong | Jie Zhou

Currently, multilingual machine translation is receiving more and more attention since it brings better performance for low resource languages (LRLs) and saves more space. However, existing multilingual machine translation models face a severe challenge: imbalance. As a result, the translation performance of different languages in multilingual translation models are quite different. We argue that this imbalance problem stems from the different learning competencies of different languages. Therefore, we focus on balancing the learning competencies of different languages and propose Competence-based Curriculum Learning for Multilingual Machine Translation, named CCL-M. Specifically, we firstly define two competencies to help schedule the high resource languages (HRLs) and the low resource languages: 1) Self-evaluated Competence, evaluating how well the language itself has been learned; and 2) HRLs-evaluated Competence, evaluating whether an LRL is ready to be learned according to HRLs’ Self-evaluated Competence. Based on the above competencies, we utilize the proposed CCL-M algorithm to gradually add new languages into the training set in a curriculum learning manner. Furthermore, we propose a novel competence-aware dynamic balancing sampling strategy for better selecting training samples in multilingual training. Experimental results show that our approach has achieved a steady and significant performance gain compared to the previous state-of-the-art approach on the TED talks dataset.

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Informed Sampling for Diversity in Concept-to-Text NLG
Giulio Zhou | Gerasimos Lampouras

Deep-learning models for language generation tasks tend to produce repetitive output. Various methods have been proposed to encourage lexical diversity during decoding, but this often comes at a cost to the perceived fluency and adequacy of the output. In this work, we propose to ameliorate this cost by using an Imitation Learning approach to explore the level of diversity that a language generation model can reliably produce. Specifically, we augment the decoding process with a meta-classifier trained to distinguish which words at any given timestep will lead to high-quality output. We focus our experiments on concept-to-text generation where models are sensitive to the inclusion of irrelevant words due to the strict relation between input and output. Our analysis shows that previous methods for diversity underperform in this setting, while human evaluation suggests that our proposed method achieves a high level of diversity with minimal effect on the output’s fluency and adequacy.

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Novel Natural Language Summarization of Program Code via Leveraging Multiple Input Representations
Fuxiang Chen | Mijung Kim | Jaegul Choo

The lack of description of a given program code acts as a big hurdle to those developers new to the code base for its understanding. To tackle this problem, previous work on code summarization, the task of automatically generating code description given a piece of code reported that an auxiliary learning model trained to produce API (Application Programming Interface) embeddings showed promising results when applied to a downstream, code summarization model. However, different codes having different summaries can have the same set of API sequences. If we train a model to generate summaries given an API sequence, the model will not be able to learn effectively. Nevertheless, we note that the API sequence can still be useful and has not been actively utilized. This work proposes a novel multi-task approach that simultaneously trains two similar tasks: 1) summarizing a given code (code to summary), and 2) summarizing a given API sequence (API sequence to summary). We propose a novel code-level encoder based on BERT capable of expressing the semantics of code, and obtain representations for every line of code. Our work is the first code summarization work that utilizes a natural language-based contextual pre-trained language model in its encoder. We evaluate our approach using two common datasets (Java and Python) that have been widely used in previous studies. Our experimental results show that our multi-task approach improves over the baselines and achieves the new state-of-the-art.

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WikiNEuRal: Combined Neural and Knowledge-based Silver Data Creation for Multilingual NER
Simone Tedeschi | Valentino Maiorca | Niccolò Campolungo | Francesco Cecconi | Roberto Navigli

Multilingual Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a key intermediate task which is needed in many areas of NLP. In this paper, we address the well-known issue of data scarcity in NER, especially relevant when moving to a multilingual scenario, and go beyond current approaches to the creation of multilingual silver data for the task. We exploit the texts of Wikipedia and introduce a new methodology based on the effective combination of knowledge-based approaches and neural models, together with a novel domain adaptation technique, to produce high-quality training corpora for NER. We evaluate our datasets extensively on standard benchmarks for NER, yielding substantial improvements up to 6 span-based F1-score points over previous state-of-the-art systems for data creation.

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Beyond Grammatical Error Correction: Improving L1-influenced research writing in English using pre-trained encoder-decoder models
Gustavo Zomer | Ana Frankenberg-Garcia

In this paper, we present a new method for training a writing improvement model adapted to the writer’s first language (L1) that goes beyond grammatical error correction (GEC). Without using annotated training data, we rely solely on pre-trained language models fine-tuned with parallel corpora of reference translation aligned with machine translation. We evaluate our model with corpora of academic papers written in English by L1 Portuguese and L1 Spanish scholars and a reference corpus of expert academic English. We show that our model is able to address specific L1-influenced writing and more complex linguistic phenomena than existing methods, outperforming what a state-of-the-art GEC system can achieve in this regard. Our code and data are open to other researchers.

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Classification and Geotemporal Analysis of Quality-of-Life Issues in Tenant Reviews
Adam Haber | Zeev Waks

Online tenant reviews of multifamily residential properties present a unique source of information for commercial real estate investing and research. Real estate professionals frequently read tenant reviews to uncover property-related issues that are otherwise difficult to detect, a process that is both biased and time-consuming. Using this as motivation, we asked whether a text classification-based approach can automate the detection of four carefully defined, major quality-of-life issues: severe crime, noise nuisance, pest burden, and parking difficulties. We aggregate 5.5 million tenant reviews from five sources and use two-stage crowdsourced labeling on 0.1% of the data to produce high-quality labels for subsequent text classification. Following fine-tuning of pretrained language models on millions of reviews, we train a multi-label reviews classifier that achieves a mean AUROC of 0.965 on these labels. We next use the model to reveal temporal and spatial patterns among tens of thousands of multifamily properties. Collectively, these results highlight the feasibility of automated analysis of housing trends and investment opportunities using tenant-perspective data.

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Probing Pre-trained Language Models for Semantic Attributes and their Values
Meriem Beloucif | Chris Biemann

Pretrained language models (PTLMs) yield state-of-the-art performance on many natural language processing tasks, including syntax, semantics and commonsense. In this paper, we focus on identifying to what extent do PTLMs capture semantic attributes and their values, e.g., the correlation between rich and high net worth. We use PTLMs to predict masked tokens using patterns and lists of items from Wikidata in order to verify how likely PTLMs encode semantic attributes along with their values. Such inferences based on semantics are intuitive for humans as part of our language understanding. Since PTLMs are trained on large amount of Wikipedia data we would assume that they can generate similar predictions, yet our findings reveal that PTLMs are still much worse than humans on this task. We show evidence and analysis explaining how to exploit our methodology to integrate better context and semantics into PTLMs using knowledge bases.

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Uncovering the Limits of Text-based Emotion Detection
Nurudin Alvarez-Gonzalez | Andreas Kaltenbrunner | Vicenç Gómez

Identifying emotions from text is crucial for a variety of real world tasks. We consider the two largest now-available corpora for emotion classification: GoEmotions, with 58k messages labelled by readers, and Vent, with 33M writer-labelled messages. We design a benchmark and evaluate several feature spaces and learning algorithms, including two simple yet novel models on top of BERT that outperform previous strong baselines on GoEmotions. Through an experiment with human participants, we also analyze the differences between how writers express emotions and how readers perceive them. Our results suggest that emotions expressed by writers are harder to identify than emotions that readers perceive. We share a public web interface for researchers to explore our models.

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Named Entity Recognition for Entity Linking: What Works and What’s Next
Simone Tedeschi | Simone Conia | Francesco Cecconi | Roberto Navigli

Entity Linking (EL) systems have achieved impressive results on standard benchmarks mainly thanks to the contextualized representations provided by recent pretrained language models. However, such systems still require massive amounts of data – millions of labeled examples – to perform at their best, with training times that often exceed several days, especially when limited computational resources are available. In this paper, we look at how Named Entity Recognition (NER) can be exploited to narrow the gap between EL systems trained on high and low amounts of labeled data. More specifically, we show how and to what extent an EL system can benefit from NER to enhance its entity representations, improve candidate selection, select more effective negative samples and enforce hard and soft constraints on its output entities. We release our software – code and model checkpoints – at

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Learning Numeracy: A Simple Yet Effective Number Embedding Approach Using Knowledge Graph
Hanyu Duan | Yi Yang | Kar Yan Tam

Numeracy plays a key role in natural language understanding. However, existing NLP approaches, not only traditional word2vec approach or contextualized transformer-based language models, fail to learn numeracy. As the result, the performance of these models is limited when they are applied to number-intensive applications in clinical and financial domains. In this work, we propose a simple number embedding approach based on knowledge graph. We construct a knowledge graph consisting of number entities and magnitude relations. Knowledge graph embedding method is then applied to obtain number vectors. Our approach is easy to implement, and experiment results on various numeracy-related NLP tasks demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our method.

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Weakly Supervised Semantic Parsing by Learning from Mistakes
Jiaqi Guo | Jian-Guang Lou | Ting Liu | Dongmei Zhang

Weakly supervised semantic parsing (WSP) aims at training a parser via utterance-denotation pairs. This task is challenging because it requires (1) searching consistent logical forms in a huge space; and (2) dealing with spurious logical forms. In this work, we propose Learning from Mistakes (LFM), a simple yet effective learning framework for WSP. LFM utilizes the mistakes made by a parser during searching, i.e., generating logical forms that do not execute to correct denotations, for tackling the two challenges. In a nutshell, LFM additionally trains a parser using utterance-logical form pairs created from mistakes, which can quickly bootstrap the parser to search consistent logical forms. Also, it can motivate the parser to learn the correct mapping between utterances and logical forms, thus dealing with the spuriousness of logical forms. We evaluate LFM on WikiTableQuestions, WikiSQL, and TabFact in the WSP setting. The parser trained with LFM outperforms the previous state-of-the-art semantic parsing approaches on the three datasets. Also, we find that LFM can substantially reduce the need for labeled data. Using only 10% of utterance-denotation pairs, the parser achieves 84.2 denotation accuracy on WikiSQL, which is competitive with the previous state-of-the-art approaches using 100% labeled data.

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CodeQA: A Question Answering Dataset for Source Code Comprehension
Chenxiao Liu | Xiaojun Wan

We propose CodeQA, a free-form question answering dataset for the purpose of source code comprehension: given a code snippet and a question, a textual answer is required to be generated. CodeQA contains a Java dataset with 119,778 question-answer pairs and a Python dataset with 70,085 question-answer pairs. To obtain natural and faithful questions and answers, we implement syntactic rules and semantic analysis to transform code comments into question-answer pairs. We present the construction process and conduct systematic analysis of our dataset. Experiment results achieved by several neural baselines on our dataset are shown and discussed. While research on question-answering and machine reading comprehension develops rapidly, few prior work has drawn attention to code question answering. This new dataset can serve as a useful research benchmark for source code comprehension.

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Subword Mapping and Anchoring across Languages
Giorgos Vernikos | Andrei Popescu-Belis

State-of-the-art multilingual systems rely on shared vocabularies that sufficiently cover all considered languages. To this end, a simple and frequently used approach makes use of subword vocabularies constructed jointly over several languages. We hypothesize that such vocabularies are suboptimal due to false positives (identical subwords with different meanings across languages) and false negatives (different subwords with similar meanings). To address these issues, we propose Subword Mapping and Anchoring across Languages (SMALA), a method to construct bilingual subword vocabularies. SMALA extracts subword alignments using an unsupervised state-of-the-art mapping technique and uses them to create cross-lingual anchors based on subword similarities. We demonstrate the benefits of SMALA for cross-lingual natural language inference (XNLI), where it improves zero-shot transfer to an unseen language without task-specific data, but only by sharing subword embeddings. Moreover, in neural machine translation, we show that joint subword vocabularies obtained with SMALA lead to higher BLEU scores on sentences that contain many false positives and false negatives.

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CDLM: Cross-Document Language Modeling
Avi Caciularu | Arman Cohan | Iz Beltagy | Matthew Peters | Arie Cattan | Ido Dagan

We introduce a new pretraining approach geared for multi-document language modeling, incorporating two key ideas into the masked language modeling self-supervised objective. First, instead of considering documents in isolation, we pretrain over sets of multiple related documents, encouraging the model to learn cross-document relationships. Second, we improve over recent long-range transformers by introducing dynamic global attention that has access to the entire input to predict masked tokens. We release CDLM (Cross-Document Language Model), a new general language model for multi-document setting that can be easily applied to downstream tasks. Our extensive analysis shows that both ideas are essential for the success of CDLM, and work in synergy to set new state-of-the-art results for several multi-text tasks.

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Patterns of Polysemy and Homonymy in Contextualised Language Models
Janosch Haber | Massimo Poesio

One of the central aspects of contextualised language models is that they should be able to distinguish the meaning of lexically ambiguous words by their contexts. In this paper we investigate the extent to which the contextualised embeddings of word forms that display multiplicity of sense reflect traditional distinctions of polysemy and homonymy. To this end, we introduce an extended, human-annotated dataset of graded word sense similarity and co-predication acceptability, and evaluate how well the similarity of embeddings predicts similarity in meaning. Both types of human judgements indicate that the similarity of polysemic interpretations falls in a continuum between identity of meaning and homonymy. However, we also observe significant differences within the similarity ratings of polysemes, forming consistent patterns for different types of polysemic sense alternation. Our dataset thus appears to capture a substantial part of the complexity of lexical ambiguity, and can provide a realistic test bed for contextualised embeddings. Among the tested models, BERT Large shows the strongest correlation with the collected word sense similarity ratings, but struggles to consistently replicate the observed similarity patterns. When clustering ambiguous word forms based on their embeddings, the model displays high confidence in discerning homonyms and some types of polysemic alternations, but consistently fails for others.

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Cross-Lingual Leveled Reading Based on Language-Invariant Features
Simin Rao | Hua Zheng | Sujian Li

Leveled reading (LR) aims to automatically classify texts by the cognitive levels of readers, which is fundamental in providing appropriate reading materials regarding different reading capabilities. However, most state-of-the-art LR methods rely on the availability of copious annotated resources, which prevents their adaptation to low-resource languages like Chinese. In our work, to tackle LR in Chinese, we explore how different language transfer methods perform on English-Chinese LR. Specifically, we focus on adversarial training and cross-lingual pre-training method to transfer the LR knowledge learned from annotated data in the resource-rich English language to Chinese. For evaluation, we first introduce the age-based standard to align datasets with different leveling standards. Then we conduct experiments in both zero-shot and few-shot settings. Comparing these two methods, quantitative and qualitative evaluations show that the cross-lingual pre-training method effectively captures the language-invariant features between English and Chinese. We conduct analysis to propose further improvement in cross-lingual LR.

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Controlled Neural Sentence-Level Reframing of News Articles
Wei-Fan Chen | Khalid Al Khatib | Benno Stein | Henning Wachsmuth

Framing a news article means to portray the reported event from a specific perspective, e.g., from an economic or a health perspective. Reframing means to change this perspective. Depending on the audience or the submessage, reframing can become necessary to achieve the desired effect on the readers. Reframing is related to adapting style and sentiment, which can be tackled with neural text generation techniques. However, it is more challenging since changing a frame requires rewriting entire sentences rather than single phrases. In this paper, we study how to computationally reframe sentences in news articles while maintaining their coherence to the context. We treat reframing as a sentence-level fill-in-the-blank task for which we train neural models on an existing media frame corpus. To guide the training, we propose three strategies: framed-language pretraining, named-entity preservation, and adversarial learning. We evaluate respective models automatically and manually for topic consistency, coherence, and successful reframing. Our results indicate that generating properly-framed text works well but with tradeoffs.

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DialogueTRM: Exploring Multi-Modal Emotional Dynamics in a Conversation
Yuzhao Mao | Guang Liu | Xiaojie Wang | Weiguo Gao | Xuan Li

Emotion dynamics formulates principles explaining the emotional fluctuation during conversations. Recent studies explore the emotion dynamics from the self and inter-personal dependencies, however, ignoring the temporal and spatial dependencies in the situation of multi-modal conversations. To address the issue, we extend the concept of emotion dynamics to multi-modal settings and propose a Dialogue Transformer for simultaneously modeling the intra-modal and inter-modal emotion dynamics. Specifically, the intra-modal emotion dynamics is to not only capture the temporal dependency but also satisfy the context preference in every single modality. The inter-modal emotional dynamics aims at handling multi-grained spatial dependency across all modalities. Our models outperform the state-of-the-art with a margin of 4%-16% for most of the metrics on three benchmark datasets.

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Adversarial Examples for Evaluating Math Word Problem Solvers
Vivek Kumar | Rishabh Maheshwary | Vikram Pudi

Standard accuracy metrics have shown that Math Word Problem (MWP) solvers have achieved high performance on benchmark datasets. However, the extent to which existing MWP solvers truly understand language and its relation with numbers is still unclear. In this paper, we generate adversarial attacks to evaluate the robustness of state-of-the-art MWP solvers. We propose two methods, Question Reordering and Sentence Paraphrasing to generate adversarial attacks. We conduct experiments across three neural MWP solvers over two benchmark datasets. On average, our attack method is able to reduce the accuracy of MWP solvers by over 40% on these datasets. Our results demonstrate that existing MWP solvers are sensitive to linguistic variations in the problem text. We verify the validity and quality of generated adversarial examples through human evaluation.

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Improving Numerical Reasoning Skills in the Modular Approach for Complex Question Answering on Text
Xiao-Yu Guo | Yuan-Fang Li | Gholamreza Haffari

Numerical reasoning skills are essential for complex question answering (CQA) over text. It requires opertaions including counting, comparison, addition and subtraction. A successful approach to CQA on text, Neural Module Networks (NMNs), follows the programmer-interpreter paradigm and leverages specialised modules to perform compositional reasoning. However, the NMNs framework does not consider the relationship between numbers and entities in both questions and paragraphs. We propose effective techniques to improve NMNs’ numerical reasoning capabilities by making the interpreter question-aware and capturing the relationship between entities and numbers. On the same subset of the DROP dataset for CQA on text, experimental results show that our additions outperform the original NMNs by 3.0 points for the overall F1 score.

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Retrieval Augmented Code Generation and Summarization
Md Rizwan Parvez | Wasi Ahmad | Saikat Chakraborty | Baishakhi Ray | Kai-Wei Chang

Software developers write a lot of source code and documentation during software development. Intrinsically, developers often recall parts of source code or code summaries that they had written in the past while implementing software or documenting them. To mimic developers’ code or summary generation behavior, we propose a retrieval augmented framework, REDCODER, that retrieves relevant code or summaries from a retrieval database and provides them as a supplement to code generation or summarization models. REDCODER has a couple of uniqueness. First, it extends the state-of-the-art dense retrieval technique to search for relevant code or summaries. Second, it can work with retrieval databases that include unimodal (only code or natural language description) or bimodal instances (code-description pairs). We conduct experiments and extensive analysis on two benchmark datasets of code generation and summarization in Java and Python, and the promising results endorse the effectiveness of our proposed retrieval augmented framework.

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Multilingual Translation via Grafting Pre-trained Language Models
Zewei Sun | Mingxuan Wang | Lei Li

Can pre-trained BERT for one language and GPT for another be glued together to translate texts? Self-supervised training using only monolingual data has led to the success of pre-trained (masked) language models in many NLP tasks. However, directly connecting BERT as an encoder and GPT as a decoder can be challenging in machine translation, for GPT-like models lack a cross-attention component that is needed in seq2seq decoders. In this paper, we propose Graformer to graft separately pre-trained (masked) language models for machine translation. With monolingual data for pre-training and parallel data for grafting training, we maximally take advantage of the usage of both types of data. Experiments on 60 directions show that our method achieves average improvements of 5.8 BLEU in x2en and 2.9 BLEU in en2x directions comparing with the multilingual Transformer of the same size.

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AEDA: An Easier Data Augmentation Technique for Text Classification
Akbar Karimi | Leonardo Rossi | Andrea Prati

This paper proposes AEDA (An Easier Data Augmentation) technique to help improve the performance on text classification tasks. AEDA includes only random insertion of punctuation marks into the original text. This is an easier technique to implement for data augmentation than EDA method (Wei and Zou, 2019) with which we compare our results. In addition, it keeps the order of the words while changing their positions in the sentence leading to a better generalized performance. Furthermore, the deletion operation in EDA can cause loss of information which, in turn, misleads the network, whereas AEDA preserves all the input information. Following the baseline, we perform experiments on five different datasets for text classification. We show that using the AEDA-augmented data for training, the models show superior performance compared to using the EDA-augmented data in all five datasets. The source code will be made available for further study and reproduction of the results.

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A Comprehensive Comparison of Word Embeddings in Event & Entity Coreference Resolution.
Judicael Poumay | Ashwin Ittoo

Coreference Resolution is an important NLP task and most state-of-the-art methods rely on word embeddings for word representation. However, one issue that has been largely overlooked in literature is that of comparing the performance of different embeddings across and within families. Therefore, we frame our study in the context of Event and Entity Coreference Resolution (EvCR & EnCR), and address two questions : 1) Is there a trade-off between performance (predictive and run-time) and embedding size? 2) How do the embeddings’ performance compare within and across families? Our experiments reveal several interesting findings. First, we observe diminishing returns in performance with respect to embedding size. E.g. a model using solely a character embedding achieves 86% of the performance of the largest model (Elmo, GloVe, Character) while being 1.2% of its size. Second, the larger models using multiple embeddings learns faster despite being slower per epoch. However, it is still slower at test time. Finally, Elmo performs best on both EvCR and EnCR, while GloVe and FastText perform best in EvCR and EnCR respectively.

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Wav-BERT: Cooperative Acoustic and Linguistic Representation Learning for Low-Resource Speech Recognition
Guolin Zheng | Yubei Xiao | Ke Gong | Pan Zhou | Xiaodan Liang | Liang Lin

Unifying acoustic and linguistic representation learning has become increasingly crucial to transfer the knowledge learned on the abundance of high-resource language data for low-resource speech recognition. Existing approaches simply cascade pre-trained acoustic and language models to learn the transfer from speech to text. However, how to solve the representation discrepancy of speech and text is unexplored, which hinders the utilization of acoustic and linguistic information. Moreover, previous works simply replace the embedding layer of the pre-trained language model with the acoustic features, which may cause the catastrophic forgetting problem. In this work, we introduce Wav-BERT, a cooperative acoustic and linguistic representation learning method to fuse and utilize the contextual information of speech and text. Specifically, we unify a pre-trained acoustic model (wav2vec 2.0) and a language model (BERT) into an end-to-end trainable framework. A Representation Aggregation Module is designed to aggregate acoustic and linguistic representation, and an Embedding Attention Module is introduced to incorporate acoustic information into BERT, which can effectively facilitate the cooperation of two pre-trained models and thus boost the representation learning. Extensive experiments show that our Wav-BERT significantly outperforms the existing approaches and achieves state-of-the-art performance on low-resource speech recognition.

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Multilingual AMR Parsing with Noisy Knowledge Distillation
Deng Cai | Xin Li | Jackie Chun-Sing Ho | Lidong Bing | Wai Lam

We study multilingual AMR parsing from the perspective of knowledge distillation, where the aim is to learn and improve a multilingual AMR parser by using an existing English parser as its teacher. We constrain our exploration in a strict multilingual setting: there is but one model to parse all different languages including English. We identify that noisy input and precise output are the key to successful distillation. Together with extensive pre-training, we obtain an AMR parser whose performances surpass all previously published results on four different foreign languages, including German, Spanish, Italian, and Chinese, by large margins (up to 18.8 Smatch points on Chinese and on average 11.3 Smatch points). Our parser also achieves comparable performance on English to the latest state-of-the-art English-only parser.

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Open-Domain Contextual Link Prediction and its Complementarity with Entailment Graphs
Mohammad Javad Hosseini | Shay B. Cohen | Mark Johnson | Mark Steedman

An open-domain knowledge graph (KG) has entities as nodes and natural language relations as edges, and is constructed by extracting (subject, relation, object) triples from text. The task of open-domain link prediction is to infer missing relations in the KG. Previous work has used standard link prediction for the task. Since triples are extracted from text, we can ground them in the larger textual context in which they were originally found. However, standard link prediction methods only rely on the KG structure and ignore the textual context that each triple was extracted from. In this paper, we introduce the new task of open-domain contextual link prediction which has access to both the textual context and the KG structure to perform link prediction. We build a dataset for the task and propose a model for it. Our experiments show that context is crucial in predicting missing relations. We also demonstrate the utility of contextual link prediction in discovering context-independent entailments between relations, in the form of entailment graphs (EG), in which the nodes are the relations. The reverse holds too: context-independent EGs assist in predicting relations in context.

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Analysis of Language Change in Collaborative Instruction Following
Anna Effenberger | Rhia Singh | Eva Yan | Alane Suhr | Yoav Artzi

We analyze language change over time in a collaborative, goal-oriented instructional task, where utility-maximizing participants form conventions and increase their expertise. Prior work studied such scenarios mostly in the context of reference games, and consistently found that language complexity is reduced along multiple dimensions, such as utterance length, as conventions are formed. In contrast, we find that, given the ability to increase instruction utility, instructors increase language complexity along these previously studied dimensions to better collaborate with increasingly skilled instruction followers.

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Counter-Interference Adapter for Multilingual Machine Translation
Yaoming Zhu | Jiangtao Feng | Chengqi Zhao | Mingxuan Wang | Lei Li

Developing a unified multilingual model has been a long pursuing goal for machine translation. However, existing approaches suffer from performance degradation - a single multilingual model is inferior to separately trained bilingual ones on rich-resource languages. We conjecture that such a phenomenon is due to interference brought by joint training with multiple languages. To accommodate the issue, we propose CIAT, an adapted Transformer model with a small parameter overhead for multilingual machine translation. We evaluate CIAT on multiple benchmark datasets, including IWSLT, OPUS-100, and WMT. Experiments show that the CIAT consistently outperforms strong multilingual baselines on 64 of total 66 language directions, 42 of which have above 0.5 BLEU improvement.

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Progressive Transformer-Based Generation of Radiology Reports
Farhad Nooralahzadeh | Nicolas Perez Gonzalez | Thomas Frauenfelder | Koji Fujimoto | Michael Krauthammer

Inspired by Curriculum Learning, we propose a consecutive (i.e., image-to-text-to-text) generation framework where we divide the problem of radiology report generation into two steps. Contrary to generating the full radiology report from the image at once, the model generates global concepts from the image in the first step and then reforms them into finer and coherent texts using transformer-based architecture. We follow the transformer-based sequence-to-sequence paradigm at each step. We improve upon the state-of-the-art on two benchmark datasets.

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“Be nice to your wife! The restaurants are closed”: Can Gender Stereotype Detection Improve Sexism Classification?
Patricia Chiril | Farah Benamara | Véronique Moriceau

In this paper, we focus on the detection of sexist hate speech against women in tweets studying for the first time the impact of gender stereotype detection on sexism classification. We propose: (1) the first dataset annotated for gender stereotype detection, (2) a new method for data augmentation based on sentence similarity with multilingual external datasets, and (3) a set of deep learning experiments first to detect gender stereotypes and then, to use this auxiliary task for sexism detection. Although the presence of stereotypes does not necessarily entail hateful content, our results show that sexism classification can definitively benefit from gender stereotype detection.

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Automatic Discrimination between Inherited and Borrowed Latin Words in Romance Languages
Alina Maria Cristea | Liviu P. Dinu | Simona Georgescu | Mihnea-Lucian Mihai | Ana Sabina Uban

In this paper, we address the problem of automatically discriminating between inherited and borrowed Latin words. We introduce a new dataset and investigate the case of Romance languages (Romanian, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan), where words directly inherited from Latin coexist with words borrowed from Latin, and explore whether automatic discrimination between them is possible. Having entered the language at a later stage, borrowed words are no longer subject to historical sound shift rules, hence they are presumably less eroded, which is why we expect them to have a different intrinsic structure distinguishable by computational means. We employ several machine learning models to automatically discriminate between inherited and borrowed words and compare their performance with various feature sets. We analyze the models’ predictive power on two versions of the datasets, orthographic and phonetic. We also investigate whether prior knowledge of the etymon provides better results, employing n-gram character features extracted from the word-etymon pairs and from their alignment.

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Adapting Language Models for Zero-shot Learning by Meta-tuning on Dataset and Prompt Collections
Ruiqi Zhong | Kristy Lee | Zheng Zhang | Dan Klein

Large pre-trained language models (LMs) such as GPT-3 have acquired a surprising ability to perform zero-shot learning. For example, to classify sentiment without any training examples, we can “prompt” the LM with the review and the label description “Does the user like this movie?”, and ask whether the next word is “yes” or “no”. However, the next word prediction training objective is still misaligned with the target zero-shot learning objective. To address this weakness, we propose meta-tuning, which directly optimizes the zero-shot learning objective by fine-tuning pre-trained language models on a collection of datasets. We focus on classification tasks, and construct the meta-dataset by aggregating 43 existing datasets and annotating 441 label descriptions in a question-answering (QA) format. When evaluated on unseen tasks, meta-tuned models outperform a same-sized QA model and the previous SOTA zero-shot learning system based on natural language inference. Additionally, increasing parameter count from 220M to 770M improves AUC-ROC scores by 6.3%, and we forecast that even larger models would perform better. Therefore, measuring zero-shot learning performance on language models out-of-the-box might underestimate their true potential, and community-wide efforts on aggregating datasets and unifying their formats can help build models that answer prompts better.

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Knowledge-Interactive Network with Sentiment Polarity Intensity-Aware Multi-Task Learning for Emotion Recognition in Conversations
Yunhe Xie | Kailai Yang | Chengjie Sun | Bingquan Liu | Zhenzhou Ji

Emotion Recognition in Conversation (ERC) has gained much attention from the NLP community recently. Some models concentrate on leveraging commonsense knowledge or multi-task learning to help complicated emotional reasoning. However, these models neglect direct utterance-knowledge interaction. In addition, these models utilize emotion-indirect auxiliary tasks, which provide limited affective information for the ERC task. To address the above issues, we propose a Knowledge-Interactive Network with sentiment polarity intensity-aware multi-task learning, namely KI-Net, which leverages both commonsense knowledge and sentiment lexicon to augment semantic information. Specifically, we use a self-matching module for internal utterance-knowledge interaction. Considering correlations with the ERC task, a phrase-level Sentiment Polarity Intensity Prediction (SPIP) task is devised as an auxiliary task. Experiments show that all knowledge integration, self-matching and SPIP modules improve the model performance respectively on three datasets. Moreover, our KI-Net model shows 1.04% performance improvement over the state-of-the-art model on the IEMOCAP dataset.

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Minimizing Annotation Effort via Max-Volume Spectral Sampling
Ariadna Quattoni | Xavier Carreras

We address the annotation data bottleneck for sequence classification. Specifically we ask the question: if one has a budget of N annotations, which samples should we select for annotation? The solution we propose looks for diversity in the selected sample, by maximizing the amount of information that is useful for the learning algorithm, or equivalently by minimizing the redundancy of samples in the selection. This is formulated in the context of spectral learning of recurrent functions for sequence classification. Our method represents unlabeled data in the form of a Hankel matrix, and uses the notion of spectral max-volume to find a compact sub-block from which annotation samples are drawn. Experiments on sequence classification confirm that our spectral sampling strategy is in fact efficient and yields good models.

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On the Complementarity between Pre-Training and Back-Translation for Neural Machine Translation
Xuebo Liu | Longyue Wang | Derek F. Wong | Liang Ding | Lidia S. Chao | Shuming Shi | Zhaopeng Tu

Pre-training (PT) and back-translation (BT) are two simple and powerful methods to utilize monolingual data for improving the model performance of neural machine translation (NMT). This paper takes the first step to investigate the complementarity between PT and BT. We introduce two probing tasks for PT and BT respectively and find that PT mainly contributes to the encoder module while BT brings more benefits to the decoder. Experimental results show that PT and BT are nicely complementary to each other, establishing state-of-the-art performances on the WMT16 English-Romanian and English-Russian benchmarks. Through extensive analyses on sentence originality and word frequency, we also demonstrate that combining Tagged BT with PT is more helpful to their complementarity, leading to better translation quality. Source code is freely available at

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Lexicon-Based Graph Convolutional Network for Chinese Word Segmentation
Kaiyu Huang | Hao Yu | Junpeng Liu | Wei Liu | Jingxiang Cao | Degen Huang

Precise information of word boundary can alleviate the problem of lexical ambiguity to improve the performance of natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Thus, Chinese word segmentation (CWS) is a fundamental task in NLP. Due to the development of pre-trained language models (PLM), pre-trained knowledge can help neural methods solve the main problems of the CWS in significant measure. Existing methods have already achieved high performance on several benchmarks (e.g., Bakeoff-2005). However, recent outstanding studies are limited by the small-scale annotated corpus. To further improve the performance of CWS methods based on fine-tuning the PLMs, we propose a novel neural framework, LBGCN, which incorporates a lexicon-based graph convolutional network into the Transformer encoder. Experimental results on five benchmarks and four cross-domain datasets show the lexicon-based graph convolutional network successfully captures the information of candidate words and helps to improve performance on the benchmarks (Bakeoff-2005 and CTB6) and the cross-domain datasets (SIGHAN-2010). Further experiments and analyses demonstrate that our proposed framework effectively models the lexicon to enhance the ability of basic neural frameworks and strengthens the robustness in the cross-domain scenario.

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KFCNet: Knowledge Filtering and Contrastive Learning for Generative Commonsense Reasoning
Haonan Li | Yeyun Gong | Jian Jiao | Ruofei Zhang | Timothy Baldwin | Nan Duan

Pre-trained language models have led to substantial gains over a broad range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks, but have been shown to have limitations for natural language generation tasks with high-quality requirements on the output, such as commonsense generation and ad keyword generation. In this work, we present a novel Knowledge Filtering and Contrastive learning Network (KFCNet) which references external knowledge and achieves better generation performance. Specifically, we propose a BERT-based filter model to remove low-quality candidates, and apply contrastive learning separately to each of the encoder and decoder, within a general encoder–decoder architecture. The encoder contrastive module helps to capture global target semantics during encoding, and the decoder contrastive module enhances the utility of retrieved prototypes while learning general features. Extensive experiments on the CommonGen benchmark show that our model outperforms the previous state of the art by a large margin: +6.6 points (42.5 vs. 35.9) for BLEU-4, +3.7 points (33.3 vs. 29.6) for SPICE, and +1.3 points (18.3 vs. 17.0) for CIDEr. We further verify the effectiveness of the proposed contrastive module on ad keyword generation, and show that our model has potential commercial value.

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Monolingual and Cross-Lingual Acceptability Judgments with the Italian CoLA corpus
Daniela Trotta | Raffaele Guarasci | Elisa Leonardelli | Sara Tonelli

The development of automated approaches to linguistic acceptability has been greatly fostered by the availability of the English CoLA corpus, which has also been included in the widely used GLUE benchmark. However, this kind of research for languages other than English, as well as the analysis of cross-lingual approaches, has been hindered by the lack of resources with a comparable size in other languages. We have therefore developed the ItaCoLA corpus, containing almost 10,000 sentences with acceptability judgments, which has been created following the same approach and the same steps as the English one. In this paper we describe the corpus creation, we detail its content, and we present the first experiments on this new resource. We compare in-domain and out-of-domain classification, and perform a specific evaluation of nine linguistic phenomena. We also present the first cross-lingual experiments, aimed at assessing whether multilingual transformer-based approaches can benefit from using sentences in two languages during fine-tuning.

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Hyperbolic Hierarchy-Aware Knowledge Graph Embedding for Link Prediction
Zhe Pan | Peng Wang

Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) using low-dimensional representations to predict missing information is widely applied in knowledge completion. Existing embedding methods are mostly built on Euclidean space, which are difficult to handle hierarchical structures. Hyperbolic embedding methods have shown the promise of high fidelity and concise representation for hierarchical data. However, the logical patterns in knowledge graphs are not considered well in these methods. To address this problem, we propose a novel KGE model with extended Poincaré Ball and polar coordinate system to capture hierarchical structures. We use the tangent space and exponential transformation to initialize and map the corresponding vectors to the Poincaré Ball in hyperbolic space. To solve the boundary conditions, the boundary is stretched and zoomed by expanding the modulus length in the Poincaré Ball. We optimize our model using polar coordinate and changing operators in the extended Poincaré Ball. Experiments achieve new state-of-the-art results on part of link prediction tasks, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method.

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A Discourse-Aware Graph Neural Network for Emotion Recognition in Multi-Party Conversation
Yang Sun | Nan Yu | Guohong Fu

Emotion recognition in multi-party conversation (ERMC) is becoming increasingly popular as an emerging research topic in natural language processing. Prior research focuses on exploring sequential information but ignores the discourse structures of conversations. In this paper, we investigate the importance of discourse structures in handling informative contextual cues and speaker-specific features for ERMC. To this end, we propose a discourse-aware graph neural network (ERMC-DisGCN) for ERMC. In particular, we design a relational convolution to lever the self-speaker dependency of interlocutors to propagate contextual information. Furthermore, we exploit a gated convolution to select more informative cues for ERMC from dependent utterances. The experimental results show our method outperforms multiple baselines, illustrating that discourse structures are of great value to ERMC.

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MeLT: Message-Level Transformer with Masked Document Representations as Pre-Training for Stance Detection
Matthew Matero | Nikita Soni | Niranjan Balasubramanian | H. Andrew Schwartz

Much of natural language processing is focused on leveraging large capacity language models, typically trained over single messages with a task of predicting one or more tokens. However, modeling human language at higher-levels of context (i.e., sequences of messages) is under-explored. In stance detection and other social media tasks where the goal is to predict an attribute of a message, we have contextual data that is loosely semantically connected by authorship. Here, we introduce Message-Level Transformer (MeLT) – a hierarchical message-encoder pre-trained over Twitter and applied to the task of stance prediction. We focus on stance prediction as a task benefiting from knowing the context of the message (i.e., the sequence of previous messages). The model is trained using a variant of masked-language modeling; where instead of predicting tokens, it seeks to generate an entire masked (aggregated) message vector via reconstruction loss. We find that applying this pre-trained masked message-level transformer to the downstream task of stance detection achieves F1 performance of 67%.

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LMSOC: An Approach for Socially Sensitive Pretraining
Vivek Kulkarni | Shubhanshu Mishra | Aria Haghighi

While large-scale pretrained language models have been shown to learn effective linguistic representations for many NLP tasks, there remain many real-world contextual aspects of language that current approaches do not capture. For instance, consider a cloze test “I enjoyed the _____ game this weekend”: the correct answer depends heavily on where the speaker is from, when the utterance occurred, and the speaker’s broader social milieu and preferences. Although language depends heavily on the geographical, temporal, and other social contexts of the speaker, these elements have not been incorporated into modern transformer-based language models. We propose a simple but effective approach to incorporate speaker social context into the learned representations of large-scale language models. Our method first learns dense representations of social contexts using graph representation learning algorithms and then primes language model pretraining with these social context representations. We evaluate our approach on geographically-sensitive language modeling tasks and show a substantial improvement (more than 100% relative lift on MRR) compared to baselines.

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Extract, Integrate, Compete: Towards Verification Style Reading Comprehension
Chen Zhang | Yuxuan Lai | Yansong Feng | Dongyan Zhao

In this paper, we present a new verification style reading comprehension dataset named VGaokao from Chinese Language tests of Gaokao. Different from existing efforts, the new dataset is originally designed for native speakers’ evaluation, thus requiring more advanced language understanding skills. To address the challenges in VGaokao, we propose a novel Extract-Integrate-Compete approach, which iteratively selects complementary evidence with a novel query updating mechanism and adaptively distills supportive evidence, followed by a pairwise competition to push models to learn the subtle difference among similar text pieces. Experiments show that our methods outperform various baselines on VGaokao with retrieved complementary evidence, while having the merits of efficiency and explainability. Our dataset and code are released for further research.

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Comparing learnability of two dependency schemes: ‘semantic’ (UD) and ‘syntactic’ (SUD)
Ryszard Tuora | Adam Przepiórkowski | Aleksander Leczkowski

This paper contributes to the thread of research on the learnability of different dependency annotation schemes: one (‘semantic’) favouring content words as heads of dependency relations and the other (‘syntactic’) favouring syntactic heads. Several studies have lent support to the idea that choosing syntactic criteria for assigning heads in dependency trees improves the performance of dependency parsers. This may be explained by postulating that syntactic approaches are generally more learnable. In this study, we test this hypothesis by comparing the performance of five parsing systems (both transition- and graph-based) on a selection of 21 treebanks, each in a ‘semantic’ variant, represented by standard UD (Universal Dependencies), and a ‘syntactic’ variant, represented by SUD (Surface-syntactic Universal Dependencies): unlike previously reported experiments, which considered learnability of ‘semantic’ and ‘syntactic’ annotations of particular constructions in vitro, the experiments reported here consider whole annotation schemes in vivo. Additionally, we compare these annotation schemes using a range of quantitative syntactic properties, which may also reflect their learnability. The results of the experiments show that SUD tends to be more learnable than UD, but the advantage of one or the other scheme depends on the parser and the corpus in question.

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Argumentation-Driven Evidence Association in Criminal Cases
Yefei Teng | WenHan Chao

Evidence association in criminal cases is dividing a set of judicial evidence into several non-overlapping subsets, improving the interpretability and legality of conviction. Observably, evidence divided into the same subset usually supports the same claim. Therefore, we propose an argumentation-driven supervised learning method to calculate the distance between evidence pairs for the following evidence association step in this paper. Experimental results on a real-world dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

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Eliminating Sentiment Bias for Aspect-Level Sentiment Classification with Unsupervised Opinion Extraction
Bo Wang | Tao Shen | Guodong Long | Tianyi Zhou | Yi Chang

Aspect-level sentiment classification (ALSC) aims at identifying the sentiment polarity of a specified aspect in a sentence. ALSC is a practical setting in aspect-based sentiment analysis due to no opinion term labeling needed, but it fails to interpret why a sentiment polarity is derived for the aspect. To address this problem, recent works fine-tune pre-trained Transformer encoders for ALSC to extract an aspect-centric dependency tree that can locate the opinion words. However, the induced opinion words only provide an intuitive cue far below human-level interpretability. Besides, the pre-trained encoder tends to internalize an aspect’s intrinsic sentiment, causing sentiment bias and thus affecting model performance. In this paper, we propose a span-based anti-bias aspect representation learning framework. It first eliminates the sentiment bias in the aspect embedding by adversarial learning against aspects’ prior sentiment. Then, it aligns the distilled opinion candidates with the aspect by span-based dependency modeling to highlight the interpretable opinion terms. Our method achieves new state-of-the-art performance on five benchmarks, with the capability of unsupervised opinion extraction.

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Data Efficient Masked Language Modeling for Vision and Language
Yonatan Bitton | Michael Elhadad | Gabriel Stanovsky | Roy Schwartz

Masked language modeling (MLM) is one of the key sub-tasks in vision-language pretraining. In the cross-modal setting, tokens in the sentence are masked at random, and the model predicts the masked tokens given the image and the text. In this paper, we observe several key disadvantages of MLM in this setting. First, as captions tend to be short, in a third of the sentences no token is sampled. Second, the majority of masked tokens are stop-words and punctuation, leading to under-utilization of the image. We investigate a range of alternative masking strategies specific to the cross-modal setting that address these shortcomings, aiming for better fusion of text and image in the learned representation. When pre-training the LXMERT model, our alternative masking strategies consistently improve over the original masking strategy on three downstream tasks, especially in low resource settings. Further, our pre-training approach substantially outperforms the baseline model on a prompt-based probing task designed to elicit image objects. These results and our analysis indicate that our method allows for better utilization of the training data.

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Improving Multilingual Neural Machine Translation with Auxiliary Source Languages
Weijia Xu | Yuwei Yin | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Haoyang Huang

Multilingual neural machine translation models typically handle one source language at a time. However, prior work has shown that translating from multiple source languages improves translation quality. Different from existing approaches on multi-source translation that are limited to the test scenario where parallel source sentences from multiple languages are available at inference time, we propose to improve multilingual translation in a more common scenario by exploiting synthetic source sentences from auxiliary languages. We train our model on synthetic multi-source corpora and apply random masking to enable flexible inference with single-source or bi-source inputs. Extensive experiments on Chinese/English-Japanese and a large-scale multilingual translation benchmark show that our model outperforms the multilingual baseline significantly by up to +4.0 BLEU with the largest improvements on low-resource or distant language pairs.

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How Does Fine-tuning Affect the Geometry of Embedding Space: A Case Study on Isotropy
Sara Rajaee | Mohammad Taher Pilehvar

It is widely accepted that fine-tuning pre-trained language models usually brings about performance improvements in downstream tasks. However, there are limited studies on the reasons behind this effectiveness, particularly from the viewpoint of structural changes in the embedding space. Trying to fill this gap, in this paper, we analyze the extent to which the isotropy of the embedding space changes after fine-tuning. We demonstrate that, even though isotropy is a desirable geometrical property, fine-tuning does not necessarily result in isotropy enhancements. Moreover, local structures in pre-trained contextual word representations (CWRs), such as those encoding token types or frequency, undergo a massive change during fine-tuning. Our experiments show dramatic growth in the number of elongated directions in the embedding space, which, in contrast to pre-trained CWRs, carry the essential linguistic knowledge in the fine-tuned embedding space, making existing isotropy enhancement methods ineffective.

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Locality Preserving Sentence Encoding
Changrong Min | Yonghe Chu | Liang Yang | Bo Xu | Hongfei Lin

Although researches on word embeddings have made great progress in recent years, many tasks in natural language processing are on the sentence level. Thus, it is essential to learn sentence embeddings. Recently, Sentence BERT (SBERT) is proposed to learn embeddings on the sentence level, and it uses the inner product (or, cosine similarity) to compute semantic similarity between sentences. However, this measurement cannot well describe the semantic structures among sentences. The reason is that sentences may lie on a manifold in the ambient space rather than distribute in an Euclidean space. Thus, cosine similarity cannot approximate distances on the manifold. To tackle the severe problem, we propose a novel sentence embedding method called Sentence BERT with Locality Preserving (SBERT-LP), which discovers the sentence submanifold from a high-dimensional space and yields a compact sentence representation subspace by locally preserving geometric structures of sentences. We compare the SBERT-LP with several existing sentence embedding approaches from three perspectives: sentence similarity, sentence classification and sentence clustering. Experimental results and case studies demonstrate that our method encodes sentences better in the sense of semantic structures.

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Knowledge Representation Learning with Contrastive Completion Coding
Bo Ouyang | Wenbing Huang | Runfa Chen | Zhixing Tan | Yang Liu | Maosong Sun | Jihong Zhu

Knowledge representation learning (KRL) has been used in plenty of knowledge-driven tasks. Despite fruitfully progress, existing methods still suffer from the immaturity on tackling potentially-imperfect knowledge graphs and highly-imbalanced positive-negative instances during training, both of which would hinder the performance of KRL. In this paper, we propose Contrastive Completion Coding (C3), a novel KRL framework that is composed of two functional components: 1. Hierarchical Architecture, which integrates both low-level standalone features and high-level topology-aware features to yield robust embedding for each entity/relation. 2. Normalized Contrasitive Training, which conducts normalized one-to-many contrasitive learning to emphasize different negatives with different weights, delivering better convergence compared to conventional training losses. Extensive experiments on several benchmarks verify the efficacy of the two proposed techniques and combing them together generally achieves superior performance against state-of-the-art approaches.

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Knowledge-Enhanced Evidence Retrieval for Counterargument Generation
Yohan Jo | Haneul Yoo | JinYeong Bak | Alice Oh | Chris Reed | Eduard Hovy

Finding counterevidence to statements is key to many tasks, including counterargument generation. We build a system that, given a statement, retrieves counterevidence from diverse sources on the Web. At the core of this system is a natural language inference (NLI) model that determines whether a candidate sentence is valid counterevidence or not. Most NLI models to date, however, lack proper reasoning abilities necessary to find counterevidence that involves complex inference. Thus, we present a knowledge-enhanced NLI model that aims to handle causality- and example-based inference by incorporating knowledge graphs. Our NLI model outperforms baselines for NLI tasks, especially for instances that require the targeted inference. In addition, this NLI model further improves the counterevidence retrieval system, notably finding complex counterevidence better.

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Investigating Numeracy Learning Ability of a Text-to-Text Transfer Model
Kuntal Kumar Pal | Chitta Baral

The transformer-based pre-trained language models have been tremendously successful in most of the conventional NLP tasks. But they often struggle in those tasks where numerical understanding is required. Some possible reasons can be the tokenizers and pre-training objectives which are not specifically designed to learn and preserve numeracy. Here we investigate the ability of text-to-text transfer learning model (T5), which has outperformed its predecessors in the conventional NLP tasks, to learn numeracy. We consider four numeracy tasks: numeration, magnitude order prediction, finding minimum and maximum in a series, and sorting. We find that, although T5 models perform reasonably well in the interpolation setting, they struggle considerably in the extrapolation setting across all four tasks.

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Modeling Mathematical Notation Semantics in Academic Papers
Hwiyeol Jo | Dongyeop Kang | Andrew Head | Marti A. Hearst

Natural language models often fall short when understanding and generating mathematical notation. What is not clear is whether these shortcomings are due to fundamental limitations of the models, or the absence of appropriate tasks. In this paper, we explore the extent to which natural language models can learn semantics between mathematical notation and their surrounding text. We propose two notation prediction tasks, and train a model that selectively masks notation tokens and encodes left and/or right sentences as context. Compared to baseline models trained by masked language modeling, our method achieved significantly better performance at the two tasks, showing that this approach is a good first step towards modeling mathematical texts. However, the current models rarely predict unseen symbols correctly, and token-level predictions are more accurate than symbol-level predictions, indicating more work is needed to represent structural patterns. Based on the results, we suggest future works toward modeling mathematical texts.

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Unpacking the Interdependent Systems of Discrimination: Ableist Bias in NLP Systems through an Intersectional Lens
Saad Hassan | Matt Huenerfauth | Cecilia Ovesdotter Alm

Much of the world’s population experiences some form of disability during their lifetime. Caution must be exercised while designing natural language processing (NLP) systems to prevent systems from inadvertently perpetuating ableist bias against people with disabilities, i.e., prejudice that favors those with typical abilities. We report on various analyses based on word predictions of a large-scale BERT language model. Statistically significant results demonstrate that people with disabilities can be disadvantaged. Findings also explore overlapping forms of discrimination related to interconnected gender and race identities.

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Constructing Emotional Consensus and Utilizing Unpaired Data for Empathetic Dialogue Generation
Lei Shen | Jinchao Zhang | Jiao Ou | Xiaofang Zhao | Jie Zhou

Researches on dialogue empathy aim to endow an agent with the capacity of accurate understanding and proper responding for emotions. Existing models for empathetic dialogue generation focus on the emotion flow in one direction, that is, from the context to response. We argue that conducting an empathetic conversation is a bidirectional process, where empathy occurs when the emotions of two interlocutors could converge on the same point, i.e., reaching an emotional consensus. Besides, we also find that the empathetic dialogue corpus is extremely limited, which further restricts the model performance. To address the above issues, we propose a dual-generative model, Dual-Emp, to simultaneously construct the emotional consensus and utilize some external unpaired data. Specifically, our model integrates a forward dialogue model, a backward dialogue model, and a discrete latent variable representing the emotional consensus into a unified architecture. Then, to alleviate the constraint of paired data, we extract unpaired emotional data from open-domain conversations and employ Dual-Emp to produce pseudo paired empathetic samples, which is more efficient and low-cost than the human annotation. Automatic and human evaluations demonstrate that our method outperforms competitive baselines in producing coherent and empathetic responses.

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Automatic rule generation for time expression normalization
Wentao Ding | Jianhao Chen | Jinmao Li | Yuzhong Qu

The understanding of time expressions includes two sub-tasks: recognition and normalization. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the recognition of time expressions while research on normalization has lagged behind. Existing SOTA normalization methods highly rely on rules or grammars designed by experts, which limits their performance on emerging corpora, such as social media texts. In this paper, we model time expression normalization as a sequence of operations to construct the normalized temporal value, and we present a novel method called ARTime, which can automatically generate normalization rules from training data without expert interventions. Specifically, ARTime automatically captures possible operation sequences from annotated data and generates normalization rules on time expressions with common surface forms. The experimental results show that ARTime can significantly surpass SOTA methods on the Tweets benchmark, and achieves competitive results with existing expert-engineered rule methods on the TempEval-3 benchmark.

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RW-KD: Sample-wise Loss Terms Re-Weighting for Knowledge Distillation
Peng Lu | Abbas Ghaddar | Ahmad Rashid | Mehdi Rezagholizadeh | Ali Ghodsi | Philippe Langlais

Knowledge Distillation (KD) is extensively used in Natural Language Processing to compress the pre-training and task-specific fine-tuning phases of large neural language models. A student model is trained to minimize a convex combination of the prediction loss over the labels and another over the teacher output. However, most existing works either fix the interpolating weight between the two losses apriori or vary the weight using heuristics. In this work, we propose a novel sample-wise loss weighting method, RW-KD. A meta-learner, simultaneously trained with the student, adaptively re-weights the two losses for each sample. We demonstrate, on 7 datasets of the GLUE benchmark, that RW-KD outperforms other loss re-weighting methods for KD.

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Visual Cues and Error Correction for Translation Robustness
Zhenhao Li | Marek Rei | Lucia Specia

Neural Machine Translation models are sensitive to noise in the input texts, such as misspelled words and ungrammatical constructions. Existing robustness techniques generally fail when faced with unseen types of noise and their performance degrades on clean texts. In this paper, we focus on three types of realistic noise that are commonly generated by humans and introduce the idea of visual context to improve translation robustness for noisy texts. In addition, we describe a novel error correction training regime that can be used as an auxiliary task to further improve translation robustness. Experiments on English-French and English-German translation show that both multimodal and error correction components improve model robustness to noisy texts, while still retaining translation quality on clean texts.

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Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg: Assessing Coherence of Text Classifiers
Shane Storks | Joyce Chai

As large-scale, pre-trained language models achieve human-level and superhuman accuracy on existing language understanding tasks, statistical bias in benchmark data and probing studies have recently called into question their true capabilities. For a more informative evaluation than accuracy on text classification tasks can offer, we propose evaluating systems through a novel measure of prediction coherence. We apply our framework to two existing language understanding benchmarks with different properties to demonstrate its versatility. Our experimental results show that this evaluation framework, although simple in ideas and implementation, is a quick, effective, and versatile measure to provide insight into the coherence of machines’ predictions.

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Does Pretraining for Summarization Require Knowledge Transfer?
Kundan Krishna | Jeffrey Bigham | Zachary C. Lipton

Pretraining techniques leveraging enormous datasets have driven recent advances in text summarization. While folk explanations suggest that knowledge transfer accounts for pretraining’s benefits, little is known about why it works or what makes a pretraining task or dataset suitable. In this paper, we challenge the knowledge transfer story, showing that pretraining on documents consisting of character n-grams selected at random, we can nearly match the performance of models pretrained on real corpora. This work holds the promise of eliminating upstream corpora, which may alleviate some concerns over offensive language, bias, and copyright issues. To see whether the small residual benefit of using real data could be accounted for by the structure of the pretraining task, we design several tasks motivated by a qualitative study of summarization corpora. However, these tasks confer no appreciable benefit, leaving open the possibility of a small role for knowledge transfer.

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Bandits Don’t Follow Rules: Balancing Multi-Facet Machine Translation with Multi-Armed Bandits
Julia Kreutzer | David Vilar | Artem Sokolov

Training data for machine translation (MT) is often sourced from a multitude of large corpora that are multi-faceted in nature, e.g. containing contents from multiple domains or different levels of quality or complexity. Naturally, these facets do not occur with equal frequency, nor are they equally important for the test scenario at hand. In this work, we propose to optimize this balance jointly with MT model parameters to relieve system developers from manual schedule design. A multi-armed bandit is trained to dynamically choose between facets in a way that is most beneficial for the MT system. We evaluate it on three different multi-facet applications: balancing translationese and natural training data, or data from multiple domains or multiple language pairs. We find that bandit learning leads to competitive MT systems across tasks, and our analysis provides insights into its learned strategies and the underlying data sets.

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Sometimes We Want Ungrammatical Translations
Prasanna Parthasarathi | Koustuv Sinha | Joelle Pineau | Adina Williams

Rapid progress in Neural Machine Translation (NMT) systems over the last few years has focused primarily on improving translation quality, and as a secondary focus, improving robustness to perturbations (e.g. spelling). While performance and robustness are important objectives, by over-focusing on these, we risk overlooking other important properties. In this paper, we draw attention to the fact that for some applications, faithfulness to the original (input) text is important to preserve, even if it means introducing unusual language patterns in the (output) translation. We propose a simple, novel way to quantify whether an NMT system exhibits robustness or faithfulness, by focusing on the case of word-order perturbations. We explore a suite of functions to perturb the word order of source sentences without deleting or injecting tokens, and measure their effects on the target side. Across several experimental conditions, we observe a strong tendency towards robustness rather than faithfulness. These results allow us to better understand the trade-off between faithfulness and robustness in NMT, and opens up the possibility of developing systems where users have more autonomy and control in selecting which property is best suited for their use case.

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An animated picture says at least a thousand words: Selecting Gif-based Replies in Multimodal Dialog
Xingyao Wang | David Jurgens

Online conversations include more than just text. Increasingly, image-based responses such as memes and animated gifs serve as culturally recognized and often humorous responses in conversation. However, while NLP has broadened to multimodal models, conversational dialog systems have largely focused only on generating text replies. Here, we introduce a new dataset of 1.56M text-gif conversation turns and introduce a new multimodal conversational model Pepe the King Prawn for selecting gif-based replies. We demonstrate that our model produces relevant and high-quality gif responses and, in a large randomized control trial of multiple models replying to real users, we show that our model replies with gifs that are significantly better received by the community.

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SciCap: Generating Captions for Scientific Figures
Ting-Yao Hsu | C Lee Giles | Ting-Hao Huang

Researchers use figures to communicate rich, complex information in scientific papers. The captions of these figures are critical to conveying effective messages. However, low-quality figure captions commonly occur in scientific articles and may decrease understanding. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end neural framework to automatically generate informative, high-quality captions for scientific figures. To this end, we introduce SCICAP, a large-scale figure-caption dataset based on computer science arXiv papers published between 2010 and 2020. After pre-processing – including figure-type classification, sub-figure identification, text normalization, and caption text selection – SCICAP contained more than two million figures extracted from over 290,000 papers. We then established baseline models that caption graph plots, the dominant (19.2%) figure type. The experimental results showed both opportunities and steep challenges of generating captions for scientific figures.

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SentNoB: A Dataset for Analysing Sentiment on Noisy Bangla Texts
Khondoker Ittehadul Islam | Sudipta Kar | Md Saiful Islam | Mohammad Ruhul Amin

In this paper, we propose an annotated sentiment analysis dataset made of informally written Bangla texts. This dataset comprises public comments on news and videos collected from social media covering 13 different domains, including politics, education, and agriculture. These comments are labeled with one of the polarity labels, namely positive, negative, and neutral. One significant characteristic of the dataset is that each of the comments is noisy in terms of the mix of dialects and grammatical incorrectness. Our experiments to develop a benchmark classification system show that hand-crafted lexical features provide superior performance than neural network and pretrained language models. We have made the dataset and accompanying models presented in this paper publicly available at

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Translate & Fill: Improving Zero-Shot Multilingual Semantic Parsing with Synthetic Data
Massimo Nicosia | Zhongdi Qu | Yasemin Altun

While multilingual pretrained language models (LMs) fine-tuned on a single language have shown substantial cross-lingual task transfer capabilities, there is still a wide performance gap in semantic parsing tasks when target language supervision is available. In this paper, we propose a novel Translate-and-Fill (TaF) method to produce silver training data for a multilingual semantic parser. This method simplifies the popular Translate-Align-Project (TAP) pipeline and consists of a sequence-to-sequence filler model that constructs a full parse conditioned on an utterance and a view of the same parse. Our filler is trained on English data only but can accurately complete instances in other languages (i.e., translations of the English training utterances), in a zero-shot fashion. Experimental results on three multilingual semantic parsing datasets show that data augmentation with TaF reaches accuracies competitive with similar systems which rely on traditional alignment techniques.

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NewsBERT: Distilling Pre-trained Language Model for Intelligent News Application
Chuhan Wu | Fangzhao Wu | Yang Yu | Tao Qi | Yongfeng Huang | Qi Liu

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) like BERT have made great progress in NLP. News articles usually contain rich textual information, and PLMs have the potentials to enhance news text modeling for various intelligent news applications like news recommendation and retrieval. However, most existing PLMs are in huge size with hundreds of millions of parameters. Many online news applications need to serve millions of users with low latency tolerance, which poses great challenges to incorporating PLMs in these scenarios. Knowledge distillation techniques can compress a large PLM into a much smaller one and meanwhile keeps good performance. However, existing language models are pre-trained and distilled on general corpus like Wikipedia, which has gaps with the news domain and may be suboptimal for news intelligence. In this paper, we propose NewsBERT, which can distill PLMs for efficient and effective news intelligence. In our approach, we design a teacher-student joint learning and distillation framework to collaboratively learn both teacher and student models, where the student model can learn from the learning experience of the teacher model. In addition, we propose a momentum distillation method by incorporating the gradients of teacher model into the update of student model to better transfer the knowledge learned by the teacher model. Thorough experiments on two real-world datasets with three tasks show that NewsBERT can empower various intelligent news applications with much smaller models.

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SD-QA: Spoken Dialectal Question Answering for the Real World
Fahim Faisal | Sharlina Keshava | Md Mahfuz Ibn Alam | Antonios Anastasopoulos

Question answering (QA) systems are now available through numerous commercial applications for a wide variety of domains, serving millions of users that interact with them via speech interfaces. However, current benchmarks in QA research do not account for the errors that speech recognition models might introduce, nor do they consider the language variations (dialects) of the users. To address this gap, we augment an existing QA dataset to construct a multi-dialect, spoken QA benchmark on five languages (Arabic, Bengali, English, Kiswahili, Korean) with more than 68k audio prompts in 24 dialects from 255 speakers. We provide baseline results showcasing the real-world performance of QA systems and analyze the effect of language variety and other sensitive speaker attributes on downstream performance. Last, we study the fairness of the ASR and QA models with respect to the underlying user populations.

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The Low-Resource Double Bind: An Empirical Study of Pruning for Low-Resource Machine Translation
Orevaoghene Ahia | Julia Kreutzer | Sara Hooker

A “bigger is better” explosion in the number of parameters in deep neural networks has made it increasingly challenging to make state-of-the-art networks accessible in compute-restricted environments. Compression techniques have taken on renewed importance as a way to bridge the gap. However, evaluation of the trade-offs incurred by popular compression techniques has been centered on high-resource datasets. In this work, we instead consider the impact of compression in a data-limited regime. We introduce the term low-resource double bind to refer to the co-occurrence of data limitations and compute resource constraints. This is a common setting for NLP for low-resource languages, yet the trade-offs in performance are poorly studied. Our work offers surprising insights into the relationship between capacity and generalization in data-limited regimes for the task of machine translation. Our experiments on magnitude pruning for translations from English into Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo and German show that in low-resource regimes, sparsity preserves performance on frequent sentences but has a disparate impact on infrequent ones. However, it improves robustness to out-of-distribution shifts, especially for datasets that are very distinct from the training distribution. Our findings suggest that sparsity can play a beneficial role at curbing memorization of low frequency attributes, and therefore offers a promising solution to the low-resource double bind.

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Transformer over Pre-trained Transformer for Neural Text Segmentation with Enhanced Topic Coherence
Kelvin Lo | Yuan Jin | Weicong Tan | Ming Liu | Lan Du | Wray Buntine

This paper proposes a transformer over transformer framework, called Transformerˆ2, to perform neural text segmentation. It consists of two components: bottom-level sentence encoders using pre-trained transformers, and an upper-level transformer-based segmentation model based on the sentence embeddings. The bottom-level component transfers the pre-trained knowledge learnt from large external corpora under both single and pair-wise supervised NLP tasks to model the sentence embeddings for the documents. Given the sentence embeddings, the upper-level transformer is trained to recover the segmentation boundaries as well as the topic labels of each sentence. Equipped with a multi-task loss and the pre-trained knowledge, Transformerˆ2 can better capture the semantic coherence within the same segments. Our experiments show that (1) Transformerˆ2$manages to surpass state-of-the-art text segmentation models in terms of a commonly-used semantic coherence measure; (2) in most cases, both single and pair-wise pre-trained knowledge contribute to the model performance; (3) bottom-level sentence encoders pre-trained on specific languages yield better performance than those pre-trained on specific domains.

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Self-Supervised Neural Topic Modeling
Seyed Ali Bahrainian | Martin Jaggi | Carsten Eickhoff

Topic models are useful tools for analyzing and interpreting the main underlying themes of large corpora of text. Most topic models rely on word co-occurrence for computing a topic, i.e., a weighted set of words that together represent a high-level semantic concept. In this paper, we propose a new light-weight Self-Supervised Neural Topic Model (SNTM) that learns a rich context by learning a topic representation jointly from three co-occurring words and a document that the triple originates from. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed neural topic model, SNTM, outperforms previously existing topic models in coherence metrics as well as document clustering accuracy. Moreover, apart from the topic coherence and clustering performance, the proposed neural topic model has a number of advantages, namely, being computationally efficient and easy to train.

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Coreference-aware Surprisal Predicts Brain Response
Evan Jaffe | Byung-Doh Oh | William Schuler

Recent evidence supports a role for coreference processing in guiding human expectations about upcoming words during reading, based on covariation between reading times and word surprisal estimated by a coreference-aware semantic processing model (Jaffe et al. 2020).The present study reproduces and elaborates on this finding by (1) enabling the parser to process subword information that might better approximate human morphological knowledge, and (2) extending evaluation of coreference effects from self-paced reading to human brain imaging data. Results show that an expectation-based processing effect of coreference is still evident even in the presence of the stronger psycholinguistic baseline provided by the subword model, and that the coreference effect is observed in both self-paced reading and fMRI data, providing evidence of the effect’s robustness.

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Distilling the Knowledge of Large-scale Generative Models into Retrieval Models for Efficient Open-domain Conversation
Beomsu Kim | Seokjun Seo | Seungju Han | Enkhbayar Erdenee | Buru Chang

Despite the remarkable performance of large-scale generative models in open-domain conversation, they are known to be less practical for building real-time conversation systems due to high latency. On the other hand, retrieval models could return responses with much lower latency but show inferior performance to the large-scale generative models since the conversation quality is bounded by the pre-defined response set. To take advantage of both approaches, we propose a new training method called G2R (Generative-to-Retrieval distillation) that preserves the efficiency of a retrieval model while leveraging the conversational ability of a large-scale generative model by infusing the knowledge of the generative model into the retrieval model. G2R consists of two distinct techniques of distillation: the data-level G2R augments the dialogue dataset with additional responses generated by the large-scale generative model, and the model-level G2R transfers the response quality score assessed by the generative model to the score of the retrieval model by the knowledge distillation loss. Through extensive experiments including human evaluation, we demonstrate that our retrieval-based conversation system trained with G2R shows a substantially improved performance compared to the baseline retrieval model while showing significantly lower inference latency than the large-scale generative models.

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Modeling Users and Online Communities for Abuse Detection: A Position on Ethics and Explainability
Pushkar Mishra | Helen Yannakoudakis | Ekaterina Shutova

Abuse on the Internet is an important societal problem of our time. Millions of Internet users face harassment, racism, personal attacks, and other types of abuse across various platforms. The psychological effects of abuse on individuals can be profound and lasting. Consequently, over the past few years, there has been a substantial research effort towards automated abusive language detection in the field of NLP. In this position paper, we discuss the role that modeling of users and online communities plays in abuse detection. Specifically, we review and analyze the state of the art methods that leverage user or community information to enhance the understanding and detection of abusive language. We then explore the ethical challenges of incorporating user and community information, laying out considerations to guide future research. Finally, we address the topic of explainability in abusive language detection, proposing properties that an explainable method should aim to exhibit. We describe how user and community information can facilitate the realization of these properties and discuss the effective operationalization of explainability in view of the properties.

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Detecting Community Sensitive Norm Violations in Online Conversations
Chan Young Park | Julia Mendelsohn | Karthik Radhakrishnan | Kinjal Jain | Tushar Kanakagiri | David Jurgens | Yulia Tsvetkov

Online platforms and communities establish their own norms that govern what behavior is acceptable within the community. Substantial effort in NLP has focused on identifying unacceptable behaviors and, recently, on forecasting them before they occur. However, these efforts have largely focused on toxicity as the sole form of community norm violation. Such focus has overlooked the much larger set of rules that moderators enforce. Here, we introduce a new dataset focusing on a more complete spectrum of community norms and their violations in the local conversational and global community contexts. We introduce a series of models that use this data to develop context- and community-sensitive norm violation detection, showing that these changes give high performance.

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SupCL-Seq: Supervised Contrastive Learning for Downstream Optimized Sequence Representations
Hooman Sedghamiz | Shivam Raval | Enrico Santus | Tuka Alhanai | Mohammad Ghassemi

While contrastive learning is proven to be an effective training strategy in computer vision, Natural Language Processing (NLP) is only recently adopting it as a self-supervised alternative to Masked Language Modeling (MLM) for improving sequence representations. This paper introduces SupCL-Seq, which extends the supervised contrastive learning from computer vision to the optimization of sequence representations in NLP. By altering the dropout mask probability in standard Transformer architectures (e.g. BERT-base), for every representation (anchor), we generate augmented altered views. A supervised contrastive loss is then utilized to maximize the system’s capability of pulling together similar samples (e.g., anchors and their altered views) and pushing apart the samples belonging to the other classes. Despite its simplicity, SupCL-Seq leads to large gains in many sequence classification tasks on the GLUE benchmark compared to a standard BERT-base, including 6% absolute improvement on CoLA, 5.4% on MRPC, 4.7% on RTE and 2.6% on STS-B. We also show consistent gains over self-supervised contrastively learned representations, especially in non-semantic tasks. Finally we show that these gains are not solely due to augmentation, but rather to a downstream optimized sequence representation.

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mDAPT: Multilingual Domain Adaptive Pretraining in a Single Model
Rasmus Kær Jørgensen | Mareike Hartmann | Xiang Dai | Desmond Elliott

Domain adaptive pretraining, i.e. the continued unsupervised pretraining of a language model on domain-specific text, improves the modelling of text for downstream tasks within the domain. Numerous real-world applications are based on domain-specific text, e.g. working with financial or biomedical documents, and these applications often need to support multiple languages. However, large-scale domain-specific multilingual pretraining data for such scenarios can be difficult to obtain, due to regulations, legislation, or simply a lack of language- and domain-specific text. One solution is to train a single multilingual model, taking advantage of the data available in as many languages as possible. In this work, we explore the benefits of domain adaptive pretraining with a focus on adapting to multiple languages within a specific domain. We propose different techniques to compose pretraining corpora that enable a language model to both become domain-specific and multilingual. Evaluation on nine domain-specific datasets—for biomedical named entity recognition and financial sentence classification—covering seven different languages show that a single multilingual domain-specific model can outperform the general multilingual model, and performs close to its monolingual counterpart. This finding holds across two different pretraining methods, adapter-based pretraining and full model pretraining.

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COSMic: A Coherence-Aware Generation Metric for Image Descriptions
Mert Inan | Piyush Sharma | Baber Khalid | Radu Soricut | Matthew Stone | Malihe Alikhani

Developers of text generation models rely on automated evaluation metrics as a stand-in for slow and expensive manual evaluations. However, image captioning metrics have struggled to give accurate learned estimates of the semantic and pragmatic success of output text. We address this weakness by introducing the first discourse-aware learned generation metric for evaluating image descriptions. Our approach is inspired by computational theories of discourse for capturing information goals using coherence. We present a dataset of image–description pairs annotated with coherence relations. We then train a coherence-aware metric on a subset of the Conceptual Captions dataset and measure its effectiveness—its ability to predict human ratings of output captions—on a test set composed of out-of-domain images. We demonstrate a higher Kendall Correlation Coefficient for our proposed metric with the human judgments for the results of a number of state-of-the-art coherence-aware caption generation models when compared to several other metrics including recently proposed learned metrics such as BLEURT and BERTScore.

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Relation-Guided Pre-Training for Open-Domain Question Answering
Ziniu Hu | Yizhou Sun | Kai-Wei Chang

Answering complex open-domain questions requires understanding the latent relations between involving entities. However, we found that the existing QA datasets are extremely imbalanced in some types of relations, which hurts the generalization performance over questions with long-tail relations. To remedy this problem, in this paper, we propose a Relation-Guided Pre-Training (RGPT-QA) framework. We first generate a relational QA dataset covering a wide range of relations from both the Wikidata triplets and Wikipedia hyperlinks. We then pre-train a QA model to infer the latent relations from the question, and then conduct extractive QA to get the target answer entity. We demonstrate that by pre-training with propoed RGPT-QA techique, the popular open-domain QA model, Dense Passage Retriever (DPR), achieves 2.2%, 2.4%, and 6.3% absolute improvement in Exact Match accuracy on Natural Questions, TriviaQA, and WebQuestions. Particularly, we show that RGPT-QA improves significantly on questions with long-tail relations.

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MURAL: Multimodal, Multitask Representations Across Languages
Aashi Jain | Mandy Guo | Krishna Srinivasan | Ting Chen | Sneha Kudugunta | Chao Jia | Yinfei Yang | Jason Baldridge

Both image-caption pairs and translation pairs provide the means to learn deep representations of and connections between languages. We use both types of pairs in MURAL (MUltimodal, MUltitask Representations Across Languages), a dual encoder that solves two tasks: 1) image-text matching and 2) translation pair matching. By incorporating billions of translation pairs, MURAL extends ALIGN (Jia et al.)–a state-of-the-art dual encoder learned from 1.8 billion noisy image-text pairs. When using the same encoders, MURAL’s performance matches or exceeds ALIGN’s cross-modal retrieval performance on well-resourced languages across several datasets. More importantly, it considerably improves performance on under-resourced languages, showing that text-text learning can overcome a paucity of image-caption examples for these languages. On the Wikipedia Image-Text dataset, for example, MURAL-base improves zero-shot mean recall by 8.1% on average for eight under-resourced languages and by 6.8% on average when fine-tuning. We additionally show that MURAL’s text representations cluster not only with respect to genealogical connections but also based on areal linguistics, such as the Balkan Sprachbund.

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AStitchInLanguageModels: Dataset and Methods for the Exploration of Idiomaticity in Pre-Trained Language Models
Harish Tayyar Madabushi | Edward Gow-Smith | Carolina Scarton | Aline Villavicencio

Despite their success in a variety of NLP tasks, pre-trained language models, due to their heavy reliance on compositionality, fail in effectively capturing the meanings of multiword expressions (MWEs), especially idioms. Therefore, datasets and methods to improve the representation of MWEs are urgently needed. Existing datasets are limited to providing the degree of idiomaticity of expressions along with the literal and, where applicable, (a single) non-literal interpretation of MWEs. This work presents a novel dataset of naturally occurring sentences containing MWEs manually classified into a fine-grained set of meanings, spanning both English and Portuguese. We use this dataset in two tasks designed to test i) a language model’s ability to detect idiom usage, and ii) the effectiveness of a language model in generating representations of sentences containing idioms. Our experiments demonstrate that, on the task of detecting idiomatic usage, these models perform reasonably well in the one-shot and few-shot scenarios, but that there is significant scope for improvement in the zero-shot scenario. On the task of representing idiomaticity, we find that pre-training is not always effective, while fine-tuning could provide a sample efficient method of learning representations of sentences containing MWEs.

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Refine and Imitate: Reducing Repetition and Inconsistency in Persuasion Dialogues via Reinforcement Learning and Human Demonstration
Weiyan Shi | Yu Li | Saurav Sahay | Zhou Yu

Persuasion dialogue system reflects the machine’s ability to make strategic moves beyond verbal communication, and therefore differentiates itself from task-oriented or open-domain dialogues and has its own unique values. However, the repetition and inconsistency problems still persist in dialogue response generation and could substantially impact user experience and impede the persuasion outcome. Besides, although reinforcement learning (RL) approaches have achieved big success in strategic tasks such as games, it requires a sophisticated user simulator to provide real-time feedback to the dialogue system, which limits the application of RL on persuasion dialogues. To address these issues towards a better persuasion dialogue system, we apply RL to refine a language model baseline without user simulators, and distill sentence-level information about repetition, inconsistency, and task relevance through rewards. Moreover, to better accomplish the persuasion task, the model learns from human demonstration to imitate human persuasion behavior and selects the most persuasive responses. Experiments show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art dialogue models on both automatic metrics and human evaluation results on a donation persuasion task, and generates more diverse, consistent and persuasive conversations according to the user feedback. We will make the code and model publicly available.

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A Computational Exploration of Pejorative Language in Social Media
Liviu P. Dinu | Ioan-Bogdan Iordache | Ana Sabina Uban | Marcos Zampieri

In this paper we study pejorative language, an under-explored topic in computational linguistics. Unlike existing models of offensive language and hate speech, pejorative language manifests itself primarily at the lexical level, and describes a word that is used with a negative connotation, making it different from offensive language or other more studied categories. Pejorativity is also context-dependent: the same word can be used with or without pejorative connotations, thus pejorativity detection is essentially a problem similar to word sense disambiguation. We leverage online dictionaries to build a multilingual lexicon of pejorative terms for English, Spanish, Italian, and Romanian. We additionally release a dataset of tweets annotated for pejorative use. Based on these resources, we present an analysis of the usage and occurrence of pejorative words in social media, and present an attempt to automatically disambiguate pejorative usage in our dataset.

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Evidence-based Fact-Checking of Health-related Claims
Mourad Sarrouti | Asma Ben Abacha | Yassine Mrabet | Dina Demner-Fushman

The task of verifying the truthfulness of claims in textual documents, or fact-checking, has received significant attention in recent years. Many existing evidence-based factchecking datasets contain synthetic claims and the models trained on these data might not be able to verify real-world claims. Particularly few studies addressed evidence-based fact-checking of health-related claims that require medical expertise or evidence from the scientific literature. In this paper, we introduce HEALTHVER, a new dataset for evidence-based fact-checking of health-related claims that allows to study the validity of real-world claims by evaluating their truthfulness against scientific articles. Using a three-step data creation method, we first retrieved real-world claims from snippets returned by a search engine for questions about COVID-19. Then we automatically retrieved and re-ranked relevant scientific papers using a T5 relevance-based model. Finally, the relations between each evidence statement and the associated claim were manually annotated as SUPPORT, REFUTE and NEUTRAL. To validate the created dataset of 14,330 evidence-claim pairs, we developed baseline models based on pretrained language models. Our experiments showed that training deep learning models on real-world medical claims greatly improves performance compared to models trained on synthetic and open-domain claims. Our results and manual analysis suggest that HEALTHVER provides a realistic and challenging dataset for future efforts on evidence-based fact-checking of health-related claims. The dataset, source code, and a leaderboard are available at

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Learning and Analyzing Generation Order for Undirected Sequence Models
Yichen Jiang | Mohit Bansal

Undirected neural sequence models have achieved performance competitive with the state-of-the-art directed sequence models that generate monotonically from left to right in machine translation tasks. In this work, we train a policy that learns the generation order for a pre-trained, undirected translation model via reinforcement learning. We show that the translations decoded by our learned orders achieve higher BLEU scores than the outputs decoded from left to right or decoded by the learned order from Mansimov et al. (2019) on the WMT’14 German-English translation task. On examples with a maximum source and target length of 30 from De-En and WMT’16 English-Romanian tasks, our learned order outperforms all heuristic generation orders on three out of four language pairs. We next carefully analyze the learned order patterns via qualitative and quantitative analysis. We show that our policy generally follows an outer-to-inner order, predicting the left-most and right-most positions first, and then moving toward the middle while skipping less important words at the beginning. Furthermore, the policy usually predicts positions for a single syntactic constituent structure in consecutive steps. We believe our findings could provide more insights on the mechanism of undirected generation models and encourage further research in this direction.

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Automatic Bilingual Markup Transfer
Thomas Zenkel | Joern Wuebker | John DeNero

We describe the task of bilingual markup transfer, which involves placing markup tags from a source sentence into a fixed target translation. This task arises in practice when a human translator generates the target translation without markup, and then the system infers the placement of markup tags. This task contrasts from previous work in which markup transfer is performed jointly with machine translation. We propose two novel metrics and evaluate several approaches based on unsupervised word alignments as well as a supervised neural sequence-to-sequence model. Our best approach achieves an average accuracy of 94.7% across six language pairs, indicating its potential usefulness for real-world localization tasks.

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Exploring a Unified Sequence-To-Sequence Transformer for Medical Product Safety Monitoring in Social Media
Shivam Raval | Hooman Sedghamiz | Enrico Santus | Tuka Alhanai | Mohammad Ghassemi | Emmanuele Chersoni

Adverse Events (AE) are harmful events resulting from the use of medical products. Although social media may be crucial for early AE detection, the sheer scale of this data makes it logistically intractable to analyze using human agents, with NLP representing the only low-cost and scalable alternative. In this paper, we frame AE Detection and Extraction as a sequence-to-sequence problem using the T5 model architecture and achieve strong performance improvements over the baselines on several English benchmarks (F1 = 0.71, 12.7% relative improvement for AE Detection; Strict F1 = 0.713, 12.4% relative improvement for AE Extraction). Motivated by the strong commonalities between AE tasks, the class imbalance in AE benchmarks, and the linguistic and structural variety typical of social media texts, we propose a new strategy for multi-task training that accounts, at the same time, for task and dataset characteristics. Our approach increases model robustness, leading to further performance gains. Finally, our framework shows some language transfer capabilities, obtaining higher performance than Multilingual BERT in zero-shot learning on French data.

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Disentangling Generative Factors in Natural Language with Discrete Variational Autoencoders
Giangiacomo Mercatali | André Freitas

The ability of learning disentangled representations represents a major step for interpretable NLP systems as it allows latent linguistic features to be controlled. Most approaches to disentanglement rely on continuous variables, both for images and text. We argue that despite being suitable for image datasets, continuous variables may not be ideal to model features of textual data, due to the fact that most generative factors in text are discrete. We propose a Variational Autoencoder based method which models language features as discrete variables and encourages independence between variables for learning disentangled representations. The proposed model outperforms continuous and discrete baselines on several qualitative and quantitative benchmarks for disentanglement as well as on a text style transfer downstream application.

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MSD: Saliency-aware Knowledge Distillation for Multimodal Understanding
Woojeong Jin | Maziar Sanjabi | Shaoliang Nie | Liang Tan | Xiang Ren | Hamed Firooz

To reduce a model size but retain performance, we often rely on knowledge distillation (KD) which transfers knowledge from a large “teacher” model to a smaller “student” model. However, KD on multimodal datasets such as vision-language tasks is relatively unexplored, and digesting multimodal information is challenging since different modalities present different types of information. In this paper, we perform a large-scale empirical study to investigate the importance and effects of each modality in knowledge distillation. Furthermore, we introduce a multimodal knowledge distillation framework, modality-specific distillation (MSD), to transfer knowledge from a teacher on multimodal tasks by learning the teacher’s behavior within each modality. The idea aims at mimicking a teacher’s modality-specific predictions by introducing auxiliary loss terms for each modality. Furthermore, because each modality has different saliency for predictions, we define saliency scores for each modality and investigate saliency-based weighting schemes for the auxiliary losses. We further study a weight learning approach to learn the optimal weights on these loss terms. In our empirical analysis, we examine the saliency of each modality in KD, demonstrate the effectiveness of the weighting scheme in MSD, and show that it achieves better performance than KD on four multimodal datasets.

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Do UD Trees Match Mention Spans in Coreference Annotations?
Martin Popel | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Anna Nedoluzhko | Michal Novák | Daniel Zeman

One can find dozens of data resources for various languages in which coreference - a relation between two or more expressions that refer to the same real-world entity - is manually annotated. One could also assume that such expressions usually constitute syntactically meaningful units; however, mention spans have been annotated simply by delimiting token intervals in most coreference projects, i.e., independently of any syntactic representation. We argue that it could be advantageous to make syntactic and coreference annotations convergent in the long term. We present a pilot empirical study focused on matches and mismatches between hand-annotated linear mention spans and automatically parsed syntactic trees that follow Universal Dependencies conventions. The study covers 9 datasets for 8 different languages.

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Beyond Distillation: Task-level Mixture-of-Experts for Efficient Inference
Sneha Kudugunta | Yanping Huang | Ankur Bapna | Maxim Krikun | Dmitry Lepikhin | Minh-Thang Luong | Orhan Firat

Sparse Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) has been a successful approach for scaling multilingual translation models to billions of parameters without a proportional increase in training computation. However, MoE models are prohibitively large and practitioners often resort to methods such as distillation for serving. In this work, we investigate routing strategies at different granularity (token, sentence, task) in MoE models to bypass distillation. Experiments on WMT and a web-scale dataset suggest that task-level routing (task-MoE) enables us to extract smaller, ready-to-deploy sub-networks from large sparse models. On WMT, our task-MoE with 32 experts (533M parameters) outperforms the best performing token-level MoE model (token-MoE) by +1.0 BLEU on average across 30 language pairs. The peak inference throughput is also improved by a factor of 1.9x when we route by tasks instead of tokens. While distilling a token-MoE to a smaller dense model preserves only 32% of the BLEU gains, our sub-network task-MoE, by design, preserves all the gains with the same inference cost as the distilled student model. Finally, when scaling up to 200 language pairs, our 128-expert task-MoE (13B parameters) performs competitively with a token-level counterpart, while improving the peak inference throughput by a factor of 2.6x.

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TAG: Gradient Attack on Transformer-based Language Models
Jieren Deng | Yijue Wang | Ji Li | Chenghong Wang | Chao Shang | Hang Liu | Sanguthevar Rajasekaran | Caiwen Ding

Although distributed learning has increasingly gained attention in terms of effectively utilizing local devices for data privacy enhancement, recent studies show that publicly shared gradients in the training process can reveal the private training data (gradient leakage) to a third-party. We have, however, no systematic understanding of the gradient leakage mechanism on the Transformer based language models. In this paper, as the first attempt, we formulate the gradient attack problem on the Transformer-based language models and propose a gradient attack algorithm, TAG, to reconstruct the local training data. Experimental results on Transformer, TinyBERT4, TinyBERT6 BERT_BASE, and BERT_LARGE using GLUE benchmark show that compared with DLG, TAG works well on more weight distributions in reconstructing training data and achieves 1.5x recover rate and 2.5x ROUGE-2 over prior methods without the need of ground truth label. TAG can obtain up to 90% data by attacking gradients in CoLA dataset. In addition, TAG is stronger than previous approaches on larger models, smaller dictionary size, and smaller input length. We hope the proposed TAG will shed some light on the privacy leakage problem in Transformer-based NLP models.

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Generating Realistic Natural Language Counterfactuals
Marcel Robeer | Floris Bex | Ad Feelders

Counterfactuals are a valuable means for understanding decisions made by ML systems. However, the counterfactuals generated by the methods currently available for natural language text are either unrealistic or introduce imperceptible changes. We propose CounterfactualGAN: a method that combines a conditional GAN and the embeddings of a pretrained BERT encoder to model-agnostically generate realistic natural language text counterfactuals for explaining regression and classification tasks. Experimental results show that our method produces perceptibly distinguishable counterfactuals, while outperforming four baseline methods on fidelity and human judgments of naturalness, across multiple datasets and multiple predictive models.

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Unsupervised Chunking as Syntactic Structure Induction with a Knowledge-Transfer Approach
Anup Anand Deshmukh | Qianqiu Zhang | Ming Li | Jimmy Lin | Lili Mou

In this paper, we address unsupervised chunking as a new task of syntactic structure induction, which is helpful for understanding the linguistic structures of human languages as well as processing low-resource languages. We propose a knowledge-transfer approach that heuristically induces chunk labels from state-of-the-art unsupervised parsing models; a hierarchical recurrent neural network (HRNN) learns from such induced chunk labels to smooth out the noise of the heuristics. Experiments show that our approach largely bridges the gap between supervised and unsupervised chunking.

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Model-based analysis of brain activity reveals the hierarchy of language in 305 subjects
Charlotte Caucheteux | Alexandre Gramfort | Jean-Remi King

A popular approach to decompose the neural bases of language consists in correlating, across individuals, the brain responses to different stimuli (e.g. regular speech versus scrambled words, sentences, or paragraphs). Although successful, this ‘model-free’ approach necessitates the acquisition of a large and costly set of neuroimaging data. Here, we show that a model-based approach can reach equivalent results within subjects exposed to natural stimuli. We capitalize on the recently-discovered similarities between deep language models and the human brain to compute the mapping between i) the brain responses to regular speech and ii) the activations of deep language models elicited by modified stimuli (e.g. scrambled words, sentences, or paragraphs). Our model-based approach successfully replicates the seminal study of Lerner et al. (2011), which revealed the hierarchy of language areas by comparing the functional-magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of seven subjects listening to 7min of both regular and scrambled narratives. We further extend and precise these results to the brain signals of 305 individuals listening to 4.1 hours of narrated stories. Overall, this study paves the way for efficient and flexible analyses of the brain bases of language.

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Gated Transformer for Robust De-noised Sequence-to-Sequence Modelling
Ayan Sengupta | Amit Kumar | Sourabh Kumar Bhattacharjee | Suman Roy

Robust sequence-to-sequence modelling is an essential task in the real world where the inputs are often noisy. Both user-generated and machine generated inputs contain various kinds of noises in the form of spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, character recognition errors, all of which impact downstream tasks and affect interpretability of texts. In this work, we devise a novel sequence-to-sequence architecture for detecting and correcting different real world and artificial noises (adversarial attacks) from English texts. Towards that we propose a modified Transformer-based encoder-decoder architecture that uses a gating mechanism to detect types of corrections required and accordingly corrects texts. Experimental results show that our gated architecture with pre-trained language models perform significantly better that the non-gated counterparts and other state-of-the-art error correction models in correcting spelling and grammatical errors. Extrinsic evaluation of our model on Machine Translation (MT) and Summarization tasks show the competitive performance of the model against other generative sequence-to-sequence models under noisy inputs.

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Token-wise Curriculum Learning for Neural Machine Translation
Chen Liang | Haoming Jiang | Xiaodong Liu | Pengcheng He | Weizhu Chen | Jianfeng Gao | Tuo Zhao

Existing curriculum learning approaches to Neural Machine Translation (NMT) require sampling sufficient amounts of “easy” samples from training data at the early training stage. This is not always achievable for low-resource languages where the amount of training data is limited. To address such a limitation, we propose a novel token-wise curriculum learning approach that creates sufficient amounts of easy samples. Specifically, the model learns to predict a short sub-sequence from the beginning part of each target sentence at the early stage of training. Then the sub-sequence is gradually expanded as the training progresses. Such a new curriculum design is inspired by the cumulative effect of translation errors, which makes the latter tokens more challenging to predict than the beginning ones. Extensive experiments show that our approach can consistently outperform baselines on five language pairs, especially for low-resource languages. Combining our approach with sentence-level methods further improves the performance of high-resource languages.

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RelDiff: Enriching Knowledge Graph Relation Representations for Sensitivity Classification
Hitarth Narvala | Graham McDonald | Iadh Ounis

The relationships that exist between entities can be a reliable indicator for classifying sensitive information, such as commercially sensitive information. For example, the relation person-IsDirectorOf-company can indicate whether an individual’s salary should be considered as sensitive personal information. Representations of such relations are often learned using a knowledge graph to produce embeddings for relation types, generalised across different entity-pairs. However, a relation type may or may not correspond to a sensitivity depending on the entities that participate to the relation. Therefore, generalised relation embeddings are typically insufficient for classifying sensitive information. In this work, we propose a novel method for representing entities and relations within a single embedding to better capture the relationship between the entities. Moreover, we show that our proposed entity-relation-entity embedding approach can significantly improve (McNemar’s test, p <0.05) the effectiveness of sensitivity classification, compared to classification approaches that leverage relation embedding approaches from the literature. (0.426 F1 vs 0.413 F1)

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Post-Editing Extractive Summaries by Definiteness Prediction
Jad Kabbara | Jackie Chi Kit Cheung

Extractive summarization has been the mainstay of automatic summarization for decades. Despite all the progress, extractive summarizers still suffer from shortcomings including coreference issues arising from extracting sentences away from their original context in the source document. This affects the coherence and readability of extractive summaries. In this work, we propose a lightweight post-editing step for extractive summaries that centers around a single linguistic decision: the definiteness of noun phrases. We conduct human evaluation studies that show that human expert judges substantially prefer the output of our proposed system over the original summaries. Moreover, based on an automatic evaluation study, we provide evidence for our system’s ability to generate linguistic decisions that lead to improved extractive summaries. We also draw insights about how the automatic system is exploiting some local cues related to the writing style of the main article texts or summary texts to make the decisions, rather than reasoning about the contexts pragmatically.

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Leveraging Pretrained Models for Automatic Summarization of Doctor-Patient Conversations
Longxiang Zhang | Renato Negrinho | Arindam Ghosh | Vasudevan Jagannathan | Hamid Reza Hassanzadeh | Thomas Schaaf | Matthew R. Gormley

Fine-tuning pretrained models for automatically summarizing doctor-patient conversation transcripts presents many challenges: limited training data, significant domain shift, long and noisy transcripts, and high target summary variability. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using pretrained transformer models for automatically summarizing doctor-patient conversations directly from transcripts. We show that fluent and adequate summaries can be generated with limited training data by fine-tuning BART on a specially constructed dataset. The resulting models greatly surpass the performance of an average human annotator and the quality of previous published work for the task. We evaluate multiple methods for handling long conversations, comparing them to the obvious baseline of truncating the conversation to fit the pretrained model length limit. We introduce a multistage approach that tackles the task by learning two fine-tuned models: one for summarizing conversation chunks into partial summaries, followed by one for rewriting the collection of partial summaries into a complete summary. Using a carefully chosen fine-tuning dataset, this method is shown to be effective at handling longer conversations, improving the quality of generated summaries. We conduct both an automatic evaluation (through ROUGE and two concept-based metrics focusing on medical findings) and a human evaluation (through qualitative examples from literature, assessing hallucination, generalization, fluency, and general quality of the generated summaries).

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Distilling Knowledge for Empathy Detection
Mahshid Hosseini | Cornelia Caragea

Empathy is the link between self and others. Detecting and understanding empathy is a key element for improving human-machine interaction. However, annotating data for detecting empathy at a large scale is a challenging task. This paper employs multi-task training with knowledge distillation to incorporate knowledge from available resources (emotion and sentiment) to detect empathy from the natural language in different domains. This approach yields better results on an existing news-related empathy dataset compared to strong baselines. In addition, we build a new dataset for empathy prediction with fine-grained empathy direction, seeking or providing empathy, from Twitter. We release our dataset for research purposes.

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Adapting Entities across Languages and Cultures
Denis Peskov | Viktor Hangya | Jordan Boyd-Graber | Alexander Fraser

How would you explain Bill Gates to a German? He is associated with founding a company in the United States, so perhaps the German founder Carl Benz could stand in for Gates in those contexts. This type of translation is called adaptation in the translation community. Until now, this task has not been done computationally. Automatic adaptation could be used in natural language processing for machine translation and indirectly for generating new question answering datasets and education. We propose two automatic methods and compare them to human results for this novel NLP task. First, a structured knowledge base adapts named entities using their shared properties. Second, vector-arithmetic and orthogonal embedding mappings methods identify better candidates, but at the expense of interpretable features. We evaluate our methods through a new dataset of human adaptations.

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ODIST: Open World Classification via Distributionally Shifted Instances
Lei Shu | Yassine Benajiba | Saab Mansour | Yi Zhang

In this work, we address the open-world classification problem with a method called ODIST, open world classification via distributionally shifted instances. This novel and straightforward method can create out-of-domain instances from the in-domain training instances with the help of a pre-trained generative language model. Experimental results show that ODIST performs better than state-of-the-art decision boundary finding method.

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LAMAD: A Linguistic Attentional Model for Arabic Text Diacritization
Raeed Al-Sabri | Jianliang Gao

In Arabic Language, diacritics are used to specify meanings as well as pronunciations. However, diacritics are often omitted from written texts, which increases the number of possible meanings and pronunciations. This leads to an ambiguous text and makes the computational process on undiacritized text more difficult. In this paper, we propose a Linguistic Attentional Model for Arabic text Diacritization (LAMAD). In LAMAD, a new linguistic feature representation is presented, which utilizes both word and character contextual features. Then, a linguistic attention mechanism is proposed to capture the important linguistic features. In addition, we explore the impact of the linguistic features extracted from the text on Arabic text diacritization (ATD) by introducing them to the linguistic attention mechanism. The extensive experimental results on three datasets with different sizes illustrate that LAMAD outperforms the existing state-of-the-art models.

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Sequence-to-Lattice Models for Fast Translation
Yuntian Deng | Alexander Rush

Non-autoregressive machine translation (NAT) approaches enable fast generation by utilizing parallelizable generative processes. The remaining bottleneck in these models is their decoder layers; unfortunately unlike in autoregressive models (Kasai et al., 2020), removing decoder layers from NAT models significantly degrades accuracy. This work proposes a sequence-to-lattice model that replaces the decoder with a search lattice. Our approach first constructs a candidate lattice using efficient lookup operations, generates lattice scores from a deep encoder, and finally finds the best path using dynamic programming. Experiments on three machine translation datasets show that our method is faster than past non-autoregressive generation approaches, and more accurate than naively reducing the number of decoder layers.

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Towards Realistic Single-Task Continuous Learning Research for NER
Justin Payan | Yuval Merhav | He Xie | Satyapriya Krishna | Anil Ramakrishna | Mukund Sridhar | Rahul Gupta

There is an increasing interest in continuous learning (CL), as data privacy is becoming a priority for real-world machine learning applications. Meanwhile, there is still a lack of academic NLP benchmarks that are applicable for realistic CL settings, which is a major challenge for the advancement of the field. In this paper we discuss some of the unrealistic data characteristics of public datasets, study the challenges of realistic single-task continuous learning as well as the effectiveness of data rehearsal as a way to mitigate accuracy loss. We construct a CL NER dataset from an existing publicly available dataset and release it along with the code to the research community.

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Retrieval Augmentation Reduces Hallucination in Conversation
Kurt Shuster | Spencer Poff | Moya Chen | Douwe Kiela | Jason Weston

Despite showing increasingly human-like conversational abilities, state-of-the-art dialogue models often suffer from factual incorrectness and hallucination of knowledge (Roller et al., 2020). In this work we explore the use of neural-retrieval-in-the-loop architectures - recently shown to be effective in open-domain QA (Lewis et al., 2020b; Izacard and Grave, 2020) - for knowledge-grounded dialogue, a task that is arguably more challenging as it requires querying based on complex multi-turn dialogue context and generating conversationally coherent responses. We study various types of architectures with multiple components - retrievers, rankers, and encoder-decoders - with the goal of maximizing knowledgeability while retaining conversational ability. We demonstrate that our best models obtain state-of-the-art performance on two knowledge-grounded conversational tasks. The models exhibit open-domain conversational capabilities, generalize effectively to scenarios not within the training data, and, as verified by human evaluations, substantially reduce the well-known problem of knowledge hallucination in state-of-the-art chatbots.

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Towards Automatic Bias Detection in Knowledge Graphs
Daphna Keidar | Mian Zhong | Ce Zhang | Yash Raj Shrestha | Bibek Paudel

With the recent surge in social applications relying on knowledge graphs, the need for techniques to ensure fairness in KG based methods is becoming increasingly evident. Previous works have demonstrated that KGs are prone to various social biases, and have proposed multiple methods for debiasing them. However, in such studies, the focus has been on debiasing techniques, while the relations to be debiased are specified manually by the user. As manual specification is itself susceptible to human cognitive bias, there is a need for a system capable of quantifying and exposing biases, that can support more informed decisions on what to debias. To address this gap in the literature, we describe a framework for identifying biases present in knowledge graph embeddings, based on numerical bias metrics. We illustrate the framework with three different bias measures on the task of profession prediction, and it can be flexibly extended to further bias definitions and applications. The relations flagged as biased can then be handed to decision makers for judgement upon subsequent debiasing.

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Searching for More Efficient Dynamic Programs
Tim Vieira | Ryan Cotterell | Jason Eisner

Computational models of human language often involve combinatorial problems. For instance, a probabilistic parser may marginalize over exponentially many trees to make predictions. Algorithms for such problems often employ dynamic programming and are not always unique. Finding one with optimal asymptotic runtime can be unintuitive, time-consuming, and error-prone. Our work aims to automate this laborious process. Given an initial correct declarative program, we search for a sequence of semantics-preserving transformations to improve its running time as much as possible. To this end, we describe a set of program transformations, a simple metric for assessing the efficiency of a transformed program, and a heuristic search procedure to improve this metric. We show that in practice, automated search—like the mental search performed by human programmers—can find substantial improvements to the initial program. Empirically, we show that many speed-ups described in the NLP literature could have been discovered automatically by our system.

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Revisiting Robust Neural Machine Translation: A Transformer Case Study
Peyman Passban | Puneeth Saladi | Qun Liu

Transformers have brought a remarkable improvement in the performance of neural machine translation (NMT) systems but they could be surprisingly vulnerable to noise. In this work, we try to investigate how noise breaks Transformers and if there exist solutions to deal with such issues. There is a large body of work in the NMT literature on analyzing the behavior of conventional models for the problem of noise but Transformers are relatively understudied in this context. Motivated by this, we introduce a novel data-driven technique called Target Augmented Fine-tuning (TAFT) to incorporate noise during training. This idea is comparable to the well-known fine-tuning strategy. Moreover, we propose two other novel extensions to the original Transformer: Controlled Denoising (CD) and Dual-Channel Decoding (DCD), that modify the neural architecture as well as the training process to handle noise. One important characteristic of our techniques is that they only impact the training phase and do not impose any overhead at inference time. We evaluated our techniques to translate the English–German pair in both directions and observed that our models have a higher tolerance to noise. More specifically, they perform with no deterioration where up to 10% of entire test words are infected by noise.

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Can NLI Models Verify QA Systems’ Predictions?
Jifan Chen | Eunsol Choi | Greg Durrett

To build robust question answering systems, we need the ability to verify whether answers to questions are truly correct, not just “good enough” in the context of imperfect QA datasets. We explore the use of natural language inference (NLI) as a way to achieve this goal, as NLI inherently requires the premise (document context) to contain all necessary information to support the hypothesis (proposed answer to the question). We leverage large pre-trained models and recent prior datasets to construct powerful question conversion and decontextualization modules, which can reformulate QA instances as premise-hypothesis pairs with very high reliability. Then, by combining standard NLI datasets with NLI examples automatically derived from QA training data, we can train NLI models to evaluate QA models’ proposed answers. We show that our approach improves the confidence estimation of a QA model across different domains, evaluated in a selective QA setting. Careful manual analysis over the predictions of our NLI model shows that it can further identify cases where the QA model produces the right answer for the wrong reason, i.e., when the answer sentence cannot address all aspects of the question.

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Parameter-Efficient Domain Knowledge Integration from Multiple Sources for Biomedical Pre-trained Language Models
Qiuhao Lu | Dejing Dou | Thien Huu Nguyen

Domain-specific pre-trained language models (PLMs) have achieved great success over various downstream tasks in different domains. However, existing domain-specific PLMs mostly rely on self-supervised learning over large amounts of domain text, without explicitly integrating domain-specific knowledge, which can be essential in many domains. Moreover, in knowledge-sensitive areas such as the biomedical domain, knowledge is stored in multiple sources and formats, and existing biomedical PLMs either neglect them or utilize them in a limited manner. In this work, we introduce an architecture to integrate domain knowledge from diverse sources into PLMs in a parameter-efficient way. More specifically, we propose to encode domain knowledge via adapters, which are small bottleneck feed-forward networks inserted between intermediate transformer layers in PLMs. These knowledge adapters are pre-trained for individual domain knowledge sources and integrated via an attention-based knowledge controller to enrich PLMs. Taking the biomedical domain as a case study, we explore three knowledge-specific adapters for PLMs based on the UMLS Metathesaurus graph, the Wikipedia articles for diseases, and the semantic grouping information for biomedical concepts. Extensive experiments on different biomedical NLP tasks and datasets demonstrate the benefits of the proposed architecture and the knowledge-specific adapters across multiple PLMs.

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Uncovering Implicit Gender Bias in Narratives through Commonsense Inference
Tenghao Huang | Faeze Brahman | Vered Shwartz | Snigdha Chaturvedi

Pre-trained language models learn socially harmful biases from their training corpora, and may repeat these biases when used for generation. We study gender biases associated with the protagonist in model-generated stories. Such biases may be expressed either explicitly (“women can’t park”) or implicitly (e.g. an unsolicited male character guides her into a parking space). We focus on implicit biases, and use a commonsense reasoning engine to uncover them. Specifically, we infer and analyze the protagonist’s motivations, attributes, mental states, and implications on others. Our findings regarding implicit biases are in line with prior work that studied explicit biases, for example showing that female characters’ portrayal is centered around appearance, while male figures’ focus on intellect.

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Contrastive Document Representation Learning with Graph Attention Networks
Peng Xu | Xinchi Chen | Xiaofei Ma | Zhiheng Huang | Bing Xiang

Recent progress in pretrained Transformer-based language models has shown great success in learning contextual representation of text. However, due to the quadratic self-attention complexity, most of the pretrained Transformers models can only handle relatively short text. It is still a challenge when it comes to modeling very long documents. In this work, we propose to use a graph attention network on top of the available pretrained Transformers model to learn document embeddings. This graph attention network allows us to leverage the high-level semantic structure of the document. In addition, based on our graph document model, we design a simple contrastive learning strategy to pretrain our models on a large amount of unlabeled corpus. Empirically, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches in document classification and document retrieval tasks.

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Convex Aggregation for Opinion Summarization
Hayate Iso | Xiaolan Wang | Yoshihiko Suhara | Stefanos Angelidis | Wang-Chiew Tan

Recent advances in text autoencoders have significantly improved the quality of the latent space, which enables models to generate grammatical and consistent text from aggregated latent vectors. As a successful application of this property, unsupervised opinion summarization models generate a summary by decoding the aggregated latent vectors of inputs. More specifically, they perform the aggregation via simple average. However, little is known about how the vector aggregation step affects the generation quality. In this study, we revisit the commonly used simple average approach by examining the latent space and generated summaries. We found that text autoencoders tend to generate overly generic summaries from simply averaged latent vectors due to an unexpected L2-norm shrinkage in the aggregated latent vectors, which we refer to as summary vector degeneration. To overcome this issue, we develop a framework Coop, which searches input combinations for the latent vector aggregation using input-output word overlap. Experimental results show that Coop successfully alleviates the summary vector degeneration issue and establishes new state-of-the-art performance on two opinion summarization benchmarks. Code is available at

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Using Optimal Transport as Alignment Objective for fine-tuning Multilingual Contextualized Embeddings
Sawsan Alqahtani | Garima Lalwani | Yi Zhang | Salvatore Romeo | Saab Mansour

Recent studies have proposed different methods to improve multilingual word representations in contextualized settings including techniques that align between source and target embedding spaces. For contextualized embeddings, alignment becomes more complex as we additionally take context into consideration. In this work, we propose using Optimal Transport (OT) as an alignment objective during fine-tuning to further improve multilingual contextualized representations for downstream cross-lingual transfer. This approach does not require word-alignment pairs prior to fine-tuning that may lead to sub-optimal matching and instead learns the word alignments within context in an unsupervised manner. It also allows different types of mappings due to soft matching between source and target sentences. We benchmark our proposed method on two tasks (XNLI and XQuAD) and achieve improvements over baselines as well as competitive results compared to similar recent works.

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Uncertainty-Aware Machine Translation Evaluation
Taisiya Glushkova | Chrysoula Zerva | Ricardo Rei | André F. T. Martins

Several neural-based metrics have been recently proposed to evaluate machine translation quality. However, all of them resort to point estimates, which provide limited information at segment level. This is made worse as they are trained on noisy, biased and scarce human judgements, often resulting in unreliable quality predictions. In this paper, we introduce uncertainty-aware MT evaluation and analyze the trustworthiness of the predicted quality. We combine the COMET framework with two uncertainty estimation methods, Monte Carlo dropout and deep ensembles, to obtain quality scores along with confidence intervals. We compare the performance of our uncertainty-aware MT evaluation methods across multiple language pairs from the QT21 dataset and the WMT20 metrics task, augmented with MQM annotations. We experiment with varying numbers of references and further discuss the usefulness of uncertainty-aware quality estimation (without references) to flag possibly critical translation mistakes.

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Neural Unification for Logic Reasoning over Natural Language
Gabriele Picco | Thanh Lam Hoang | Marco Luca Sbodio | Vanessa Lopez

Automated Theorem Proving (ATP) deals with the development of computer programs being able to show that some conjectures (queries) are a logical consequence of a set of axioms (facts and rules). There exists several successful ATPs where conjectures and axioms are formally provided (e.g. formalised as First Order Logic formulas). Recent approaches, such as Clark et al., have proposed transformer-based architectures for deriving conjectures given axioms expressed in natural language (English). The conjecture is verified through a binary text classifier, where the transformers model is trained to predict the truth value of a conjecture given the axioms. The RuleTaker approach of Clark et al. achieves appealing results both in terms of accuracy and in the ability to generalize, showing that when the model is trained with deep enough queries (at least 3 inference steps), the transformers are able to correctly answer the majority of queries (97.6%) that require up to 5 inference steps. In this work we propose a new architecture, namely the Neural Unifier, and a relative training procedure, which achieves state-of-the-art results in term of generalisation, showing that mimicking a well-known inference procedure, the backward chaining, it is possible to answer deep queries even when the model is trained only on shallow ones. The approach is demonstrated in experiments using a diverse set of benchmark data and the source code is released to the research community for reproducibility.

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From None to Severe: Predicting Severity in Movie Scripts
Yigeng Zhang | Mahsa Shafaei | Fabio Gonzalez | Thamar Solorio

In this paper, we introduce the task of predicting severity of age-restricted aspects of movie content based solely on the dialogue script. We first investigate categorizing the ordinal severity of movies on 5 aspects: Sex, Violence, Profanity, Substance consumption, and Frightening scenes. The problem is handled using a siamese network-based multitask framework which concurrently improves the interpretability of the predictions. The experimental results show that our method outperforms the previous state-of-the-art model and provides useful information to interpret model predictions. The proposed dataset and source code are publicly available at our GitHub repository.

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Benchmarking Meta-embeddings: What Works and What Does Not
Iker García-Ferrero | Rodrigo Agerri | German Rigau

In the last few years, several methods have been proposed to build meta-embeddings. The general aim was to obtain new representations integrating complementary knowledge from different source pre-trained embeddings thereby improving their overall quality. However, previous meta-embeddings have been evaluated using a variety of methods and datasets, which makes it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions regarding the merits of each approach. In this paper we propose a unified common framework, including both intrinsic and extrinsic tasks, for a fair and objective meta-embeddings evaluation. Furthermore, we present a new method to generate meta-embeddings, outperforming previous work on a large number of intrinsic evaluation benchmarks. Our evaluation framework also allows us to conclude that previous extrinsic evaluations of meta-embeddings have been overestimated.

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A Plug-and-Play Method for Controlled Text Generation
Damian Pascual | Beni Egressy | Clara Meister | Ryan Cotterell | Roger Wattenhofer

Large pre-trained language models have repeatedly shown their ability to produce fluent text. Yet even when starting from a prompt, generation can continue in many plausible directions. Current decoding methods with the goal of controlling generation, e.g., to ensure specific words are included, either require additional models or fine-tuning, or work poorly when the task at hand is semantically unconstrained, e.g., story generation. In this work, we present a plug-and-play decoding method for controlled language generation that is so simple and intuitive, it can be described in a single sentence: given a topic or keyword, we add a shift to the probability distribution over our vocabulary towards semantically similar words. We show how annealing this distribution can be used to impose hard constraints on language generation, something no other plug-and-play method is currently able to do with SOTA language generators. Despite the simplicity of this approach, we see it works incredibly well in practice: decoding from GPT-2 leads to diverse and fluent sentences while guaranteeing the appearance of given guide words. We perform two user studies, revealing that (1) our method outperforms competing methods in human evaluations; and (2) forcing the guide words to appear in the generated text has no impact on the fluency of the generated text.

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A Corpus-based Syntactic Analysis of Two-termed Unlike Coordination
Julie Kallini | Christiane Fellbaum

Coordination is a phenomenon of language that conjoins two or more terms or phrases using a coordinating conjunction. Although coordination has been explored extensively in the linguistics literature, the rules and constraints that govern its structure are still largely elusive and widely debated amongst linguists. This paper presents a study of two-termed unlike coordinations in particular, where the two conjuncts of the coordination phrase form valid constituents but have distinct categories. We conducted a syntactic analysis of the phrasal categories that can be conjoined in such unlike coordinations through a computational corpus-based approach, utilizing the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) as the main data source, as well as the Penn Treebank (PTB). The results show that the two conjuncts within unlike coordinations display different properties based on their position, supporting an antisymmetric view of the structure of coordination. This research provides new data and perspectives through the use of statistical techniques that can help shape future theories and models of coordination.

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Weakly Supervised Contrastive Learning for Chest X-Ray Report Generation
An Yan | Zexue He | Xing Lu | Jiang Du | Eric Chang | Amilcare Gentili | Julian McAuley | Chun-Nan Hsu

Radiology report generation aims at generating descriptive text from radiology images automatically, which may present an opportunity to improve radiology reporting and interpretation. A typical setting consists of training encoder-decoder models on image-report pairs with a cross entropy loss, which struggles to generate informative sentences for clinical diagnoses since normal findings dominate the datasets. To tackle this challenge and encourage more clinically-accurate text outputs, we propose a novel weakly supervised contrastive loss for medical report generation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method benefits from contrasting target reports with incorrect but semantically-close ones. It outperforms previous work on both clinical correctness and text generation metrics for two public benchmarks.

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NUANCED: Natural Utterance Annotation for Nuanced Conversation with Estimated Distributions
Zhiyu Chen | Honglei Liu | Hu Xu | Seungwhan Moon | Hao Zhou | Bing Liu

Existing conversational systems are mostly agent-centric, which assumes the user utterances will closely follow the system ontology. However, in real-world scenarios, it is highly desirable that users can speak freely and naturally. In this work, we attempt to build a user-centric dialogue system for conversational recommendation. As there is no clean mapping for a user’s free form utterance to an ontology, we first model the user preferences as estimated distributions over the system ontology and map the user’s utterances to such distributions. Learning such a mapping poses new challenges on reasoning over various types of knowledge, ranging from factoid knowledge, commonsense knowledge to the users’ own situations. To this end, we build a new dataset named NUANCED that focuses on such realistic settings, with 5.1k dialogues, 26k turns of high-quality user responses. We conduct experiments, showing both the usefulness and challenges of our problem setting. We believe NUANCED can serve as a valuable resource to push existing research from the agent-centric system to the user-centric system. The code and data are publicly available.

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Table-based Fact Verification With Salience-aware Learning
Fei Wang | Kexuan Sun | Jay Pujara | Pedro Szekely | Muhao Chen

Tables provide valuable knowledge that can be used to verify textual statements. While a number of works have considered table-based fact verification, direct alignments of tabular data with tokens in textual statements are rarely available. Moreover, training a generalized fact verification model requires abundant labeled training data. In this paper, we propose a novel system to address these problems. Inspired by counterfactual causality, our system identifies token-level salience in the statement with probing-based salience estimation. Salience estimation allows enhanced learning of fact verification from two perspectives. From one perspective, our system conducts masked salient token prediction to enhance the model for alignment and reasoning between the table and the statement. From the other perspective, our system applies salience-aware data augmentation to generate a more diverse set of training instances by replacing non-salient terms. Experimental results on TabFact show the effective improvement by the proposed salience-aware learning techniques, leading to the new SOTA performance on the benchmark.

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Detecting Frames in News Headlines and Lead Images in U.S. Gun Violence Coverage
Isidora Tourni | Lei Guo | Taufiq Husada Daryanto | Fabian Zhafransyah | Edward Edberg Halim | Mona Jalal | Boqi Chen | Sha Lai | Hengchang Hu | Margrit Betke | Prakash Ishwar | Derry Tanti Wijaya

News media structure their reporting of events or issues using certain perspectives. When describing an incident involving gun violence, for example, some journalists may focus on mental health or gun regulation, while others may emphasize the discussion of gun rights. Such perspectives are called “frames” in communication research.We study, for the first time, the value of combining lead images and their contextual information with text to identify the frame of a given news article. We observe that using multiple modes of information(article- and image-derived features) improves prediction of news frames over any single mode of information when the images are relevant to the frames of the headlines.We also observe that frame image relevance is related to the ease of conveying frames via images, which we call frame concreteness. Additionally, we release the first multimodal news framing dataset related to gun violence in the U.S., curated and annotated by communication researchers. The dataset will allow researchers to further examine the use of multiple information modalities for studying media framing.

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Multi-task Learning to Enable Location Mention Identification in the Early Hours of a Crisis Event
Sarthak Khanal | Doina Caragea

Training a robust and reliable deep learning model requires a large amount of data. In the crisis domain, building deep learning models to identify actionable information from the huge influx of data posted by eyewitnesses of crisis events on social media, in a time-critical manner, is central for fast response and relief operations. However, building a large, annotated dataset to train deep learning models is not always feasible in a crisis situation. In this paper, we investigate a multi-task learning approach to concurrently leverage available annotated data for several related tasks from the crisis domain to improve the performance on a main task with limited annotated data. Specifically, we focus on using multi-task learning to improve the performance on the task of identifying location mentions in crisis tweets.

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Graph-Based Decoding for Task Oriented Semantic Parsing
Jeremy Cole | Nanjiang Jiang | Panupong Pasupat | Luheng He | Peter Shaw

The dominant paradigm for semantic parsing in recent years is to formulate parsing as a sequence-to-sequence task, generating predictions with auto-regressive sequence decoders. In this work, we explore an alternative paradigm. We formulate semantic parsing as a dependency parsing task, applying graph-based decoding techniques developed for syntactic parsing. We compare various decoding techniques given the same pre-trained Transformer encoder on the TOP dataset, including settings where training data is limited or contains only partially-annotated examples. We find that our graph-based approach is competitive with sequence decoders on the standard setting, and offers significant improvements in data efficiency and settings where partially-annotated data is available.

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Expected Validation Performance and Estimation of a Random Variable’s Maximum
Jesse Dodge | Suchin Gururangan | Dallas Card | Roy Schwartz | Noah A. Smith

Research in NLP is often supported by experimental results, and improved reporting of such results can lead to better understanding and more reproducible science. In this paper we analyze three statistical estimators for expected validation performance, a tool used for reporting performance (e.g., accuracy) as a function of computational budget (e.g., number of hyperparameter tuning experiments). Where previous work analyzing such estimators focused on the bias, we also examine the variance and mean squared error (MSE). In both synthetic and realistic scenarios, we evaluate three estimators and find the unbiased estimator has the highest variance, and the estimator with the smallest variance has the largest bias; the estimator with the smallest MSE strikes a balance between bias and variance, displaying a classic bias-variance tradeoff. We use expected validation performance to compare between different models, and analyze how frequently each estimator leads to drawing incorrect conclusions about which of two models performs best. We find that the two biased estimators lead to the fewest incorrect conclusions, which hints at the importance of minimizing variance and MSE.

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How May I Help You? Using Neural Text Simplification to Improve Downstream NLP Tasks
Hoang Van | Zheng Tang | Mihai Surdeanu

The general goal of text simplification (TS) is to reduce text complexity for human consumption. In this paper, we investigate another potential use of neural TS: assisting machines performing natural language processing (NLP) tasks. We evaluate the use of neural TS in two ways: simplifying input texts at prediction time and augmenting data to provide machines with additional information during training. We demonstrate that the latter scenario provides positive effects on machine performance on two separate datasets. In particular, the latter use of TS improves the performances of LSTM (1.82–1.98%) and SpanBERT (0.7–1.3%) extractors on TACRED, a complex, large-scale, real-world relation extraction task. Further, the same setting yields improvements of up to 0.65% matched and 0.62% mismatched accuracies for a BERT text classifier on MNLI, a practical natural language inference dataset.

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Subformer: Exploring Weight Sharing for Parameter Efficiency in Generative Transformers
Machel Reid | Edison Marrese-Taylor | Yutaka Matsuo

Transformers have shown improved performance when compared to previous architectures for sequence processing such as RNNs. Despite their sizeable performance gains, as recently suggested, the model is computationally expensive to train and with a high parameter budget. In light of this, we explore parameter-sharing methods in Transformers with a specific focus on generative models. We perform an analysis of different parameter sharing/reduction methods and develop the Subformer. Our model combines sandwich-style parameter sharing, which overcomes naive cross-layer parameter sharing in generative models, and self-attentive embedding factorization (SAFE). Experiments on machine translation, abstractive summarization and language modeling show that the Subformer can outperform the Transformer even when using significantly fewer parameters.

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Leveraging Information Bottleneck for Scientific Document Summarization
Jiaxin Ju | Ming Liu | Huan Yee Koh | Yuan Jin | Lan Du | Shirui Pan

This paper presents an unsupervised extractive approach to summarize scientific long documents based on the Information Bottleneck principle. Inspired by previous work which uses the Information Bottleneck principle for sentence compression, we extend it to document level summarization with two separate steps. In the first step, we use signal(s) as queries to retrieve the key content from the source document. Then, a pre-trained language model conducts further sentence search and edit to return the final extracted summaries. Importantly, our work can be flexibly extended to a multi-view framework by different signals. Automatic evaluation on three scientific document datasets verifies the effectiveness of the proposed framework. The further human evaluation suggests that the extracted summaries cover more content aspects than previous systems.

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Reconsidering the Past: Optimizing Hidden States in Language Models
Davis Yoshida | Kevin Gimpel

We present Hidden-State Optimization (HSO), a gradient-based method for improving the performance of transformer language models at inference time. Similar to dynamic evaluation (Krause et al., 2018), HSO computes the gradient of the log-probability the language model assigns to an evaluation text, but uses it to update the cached hidden states rather than the model parameters. We test HSO with pretrained Transformer-XL and GPT-2 language models, finding improvement on the WikiText-103 and PG-19 datasets in terms of perplexity, especially when evaluating a model outside of its training distribution. We also demonstrate downstream applicability by showing gains in the recently developed prompt-based few-shot evaluation setting, again with no extra parameters or training data.

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Attend, Memorize and Generate: Towards Faithful Table-to-Text Generation in Few Shots
Wenting Zhao | Ye Liu | Yao Wan | Philip Yu

Few-shot table-to-text generation is a task of composing fluent and faithful sentences to convey table content using limited data. Despite many efforts having been made towards generating impressive fluent sentences by fine-tuning powerful pre-trained language models, the faithfulness of generated content still needs to be improved. To this end, this paper proposes a novel approach Attend, Memorize and Generate (called AMG), inspired by the text generation process of humans. In particular, AMG (1) attends over the multi-granularity of context using a novel strategy based on table slot level and traditional token-by-token level attention to exploit both the table structure and natural linguistic information; (2) dynamically memorizes the table slot allocation states; and (3) generates faithful sentences according to both the context and memory allocation states. Comprehensive experiments with human evaluation on three domains (i.e., humans, songs, and books) of the Wiki dataset show that our model can generate higher qualified texts when compared with several state-of-the-art baselines, in both fluency and faithfulness.

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ARCH: Efficient Adversarial Regularized Training with Caching
Simiao Zuo | Chen Liang | Haoming Jiang | Pengcheng He | Xiaodong Liu | Jianfeng Gao | Weizhu Chen | Tuo Zhao

Adversarial regularization can improve model generalization in many natural language processing tasks. However, conventional approaches are computationally expensive since they need to generate a perturbation for each sample in each epoch. We propose a new adversarial regularization method ARCH (adversarial regularization with caching), where perturbations are generated and cached once every several epochs. As caching all the perturbations imposes memory usage concerns, we adopt a K-nearest neighbors-based strategy to tackle this issue. The strategy only requires caching a small amount of perturbations, without introducing additional training time. We evaluate our proposed method on a set of neural machine translation and natural language understanding tasks. We observe that ARCH significantly eases the computational burden (saves up to 70% of computational time in comparison with conventional approaches). More surprisingly, by reducing the variance of stochastic gradients, ARCH produces a notably better (in most of the tasks) or comparable model generalization. Our code is publicly available.

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Probing Commonsense Explanation in Dialogue Response Generation
Pei Zhou | Pegah Jandaghi | Hyundong Cho | Bill Yuchen Lin | Jay Pujara | Xiang Ren

Humans use commonsense reasoning (CSR) implicitly to produce natural and coherent responses in conversations. Aiming to close the gap between current response generation (RG) models and human communication abilities, we want to understand why RG models respond as they do by probing RG model’s understanding of commonsense reasoning that elicits proper responses. We formalize the problem by framing commonsense as a latent variable in the RG task and using explanations for responses as textual form of commonsense. We collect 6k annotated explanations justifying responses from four dialogue datasets and ask humans to verify them and propose two probing settings to evaluate RG models’ CSR capabilities. Probing results show that models fail to capture the logical relations between commonsense explanations and responses and fine-tuning on in-domain data and increasing model sizes do not lead to understanding of CSR for RG. We hope our study motivates more research in making RG models emulate the human reasoning process in pursuit of smooth human-AI communication.

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NOAHQA: Numerical Reasoning with Interpretable Graph Question Answering Dataset
Qiyuan Zhang | Lei Wang | Sicheng Yu | Shuohang Wang | Yang Wang | Jing Jiang | Ee-Peng Lim

While diverse question answering (QA) datasets have been proposed and contributed significantly to the development of deep learning models for QA tasks, the existing datasets fall short in two aspects. First, we lack QA datasets covering complex questions that involve answers as well as the reasoning processes to get them. As a result, the state-of-the-art QA research on numerical reasoning still focuses on simple calculations and does not provide the mathematical expressions or evidence justifying the answers. Second, the QA community has contributed a lot of effort to improve the interpretability of QA models. However, they fail to explicitly show the reasoning process, such as the evidence order for reasoning and the interactions between different pieces of evidence. To address the above shortcoming, we introduce NOAHQA, a conversational and bilingual QA dataset with questions requiring numerical reasoning with compound mathematical expressions. With NOAHQA, we develop an interpretable reasoning graph as well as the appropriate evaluation metric to measure the answer quality. We evaluate the state-of-the-art QA models trained using existing QA datasets on NOAHQA and show that the best among them can only achieve 55.5 exact match scores, while the human performance is 89.7. We also present a new QA model for generating a reasoning graph where the reasoning graph metric still has a large gap compared with that of humans, eg, 28 scores.

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Textual Time Travel: A Temporally Informed Approach to Theory of Mind
Akshatha Arodi | Jackie Chi Kit Cheung

Natural language processing systems such as dialogue agents should be able to reason about other people’s beliefs, intentions and desires. This capability, called theory of mind (ToM), is crucial, as it allows a model to predict and interpret the needs of users based on their mental states. A recent line of research evaluates the ToM capability of existing memory-augmented neural models through question-answering. These models perform poorly on false belief tasks where beliefs differ from reality, especially when the dataset contains distracting sentences. In this paper, we propose a new temporally informed approach for improving the ToM capability of memory-augmented neural models. Our model incorporates priors about the entities’ minds and tracks their mental states as they evolve over time through an extended passage. It then responds to queries through textual time travel–i.e., by accessing the stored memory of an earlier time step. We evaluate our model on ToM datasets and find that this approach improves performance, particularly by correcting the predicted mental states to match the false belief.

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Detect and Perturb: Neutral Rewriting of Biased and Sensitive Text via Gradient-based Decoding
Zexue He | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Julian McAuley

Written language carries explicit and implicit biases that can distract from meaningful signals. For example, letters of reference may describe male and female candidates differently, or their writing style may indirectly reveal demographic characteristics. At best, such biases distract from the meaningful content of the text; at worst they can lead to unfair outcomes. We investigate the challenge of re-generating input sentences to ‘neutralize’ sensitive attributes while maintaining the semantic meaning of the original text (e.g. is the candidate qualified?). We propose a gradient-based rewriting framework, Detect and Perturb to Neutralize (DEPEN), that first detects sensitive components and masks them for regeneration, then perturbs the generation model at decoding time under a neutralizing constraint that pushes the (predicted) distribution of sensitive attributes towards a uniform distribution. Our experiments in two different scenarios show that DEPEN can regenerate fluent alternatives that are neutral in the sensitive attribute while maintaining the semantics of other attributes.

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HyperExpan: Taxonomy Expansion with Hyperbolic Representation Learning
Mingyu Derek Ma | Muhao Chen | Te-Lin Wu | Nanyun Peng

Taxonomies are valuable resources for many applications, but the limited coverage due to the expensive manual curation process hinders their general applicability. Prior works attempt to automatically expand existing taxonomies to improve their coverage by learning concept embeddings in Euclidean space, while taxonomies, inherently hierarchical, more naturally align with the geometric properties of a hyperbolic space. In this paper, we present HyperExpan, a taxonomy expansion algorithm that seeks to preserve the structure of a taxonomy in a more expressive hyperbolic embedding space and learn to represent concepts and their relations with a Hyperbolic Graph Neural Network (HGNN). Specifically, HyperExpan leverages position embeddings to exploit the structure of the existing taxonomies, and characterizes the concept profile information to support the inference on new concepts that are unseen during training. Experiments show that our proposed HyperExpan outperforms baseline models with representation learning in a Euclidean feature space and achieves state-of-the-art performance on the taxonomy expansion benchmarks.

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Want To Reduce Labeling Cost? GPT-3 Can Help
Shuohang Wang | Yang Liu | Yichong Xu | Chenguang Zhu | Michael Zeng

Data annotation is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process for many NLP tasks. Although there exist various methods to produce pseudo data labels, they are often task-specific and require a decent amount of labeled data to start with. Recently, the immense language model GPT-3 with 170 billion parameters has achieved tremendous improvement across many few-shot learning tasks. In this paper, we explore ways to leverage GPT-3 as a low-cost data labeler to train other models. We find that to make the downstream model achieve the same performance on a variety of NLU and NLG tasks, it costs 50% to 96% less to use labels from GPT-3 than using labels from humans. Furthermore, we propose a novel framework of combining pseudo labels from GPT-3 with human labels, which leads to even better performance. These results present a cost-effective data labeling methodology that is generalizable to many practical applications.

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Written Justifications are Key to Aggregate Crowdsourced Forecasts
Saketh Kotamraju | Eduardo Blanco

This paper demonstrates that aggregating crowdsourced forecasts benefits from modeling the written justifications provided by forecasters. Our experiments show that the majority and weighted vote baselines are competitive, and that the written justifications are beneficial to call a question throughout its life except in the last quarter. We also conduct an error analysis shedding light into the characteristics that make a justification unreliable.

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Cleaning Dirty Books: Post-OCR Processing for Previously Scanned Texts
Allen Kim | Charuta Pethe | Naoya Inoue | Steve Skiena

Substantial amounts of work are required to clean large collections of digitized books for NLP analysis, both because of the presence of errors in the scanned text and the presence of duplicate volumes in the corpora. In this paper, we consider the issue of deduplication in the presence of optical character recognition (OCR) errors. We present methods to handle these errors, evaluated on a collection of 19,347 texts from the Project Gutenberg dataset and 96,635 texts from the HathiTrust Library. We demonstrate that improvements in language models now enable the detection and correction of OCR errors without consideration of the scanning image itself. The inconsistencies found by aligning pairs of scans of the same underlying work provides training data to build models for detecting and correcting errors. We identify the canonical version for each of 17,136 repeatedly-scanned books from 58,808 scans. Finally, we investigate methods to detect and correct errors in single-copy texts. We show that on average, our method corrects over six times as many errors as it introduces. We also provide interesting analysis on the relation between scanning quality and other factors such as location and publication year.

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Bag of Tricks for Optimizing Transformer Efficiency
Ye Lin | Yanyang Li | Tong Xiao | Jingbo Zhu

Improving Transformer efficiency has become increasingly attractive recently. A wide range of methods has been proposed, e.g., pruning, quantization, new architectures and etc. But these methods are either sophisticated in implementation or dependent on hardware. In this paper, we show that the efficiency of Transformer can be improved by combining some simple and hardware-agnostic methods, including tuning hyper-parameters, better design choices and training strategies. On the WMT news translation tasks, we improve the inference efficiency of a strong Transformer system by 3.80x on CPU and 2.52x on GPU.

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Non-Parametric Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Neural Machine Translation
Xin Zheng | Zhirui Zhang | Shujian Huang | Boxing Chen | Jun Xie | Weihua Luo | Jiajun Chen

Recently, kNN-MT (Khandelwal et al., 2020) has shown the promising capability of directly incorporating the pre-trained neural machine translation (NMT) model with domain-specific token-level k-nearest-neighbor (kNN) retrieval to achieve domain adaptation without retraining. Despite being conceptually attractive, it heavily relies on high-quality in-domain parallel corpora, limiting its capability on unsupervised domain adaptation, where in-domain parallel corpora are scarce or nonexistent. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that directly uses in-domain monolingual sentences in the target language to construct an effective datastore for k-nearest-neighbor retrieval. To this end, we first introduce an autoencoder task based on the target language, and then insert lightweight adapters into the original NMT model to map the token-level representation of this task to the ideal representation of the translation task. Experiments on multi-domain datasets demonstrate that our proposed approach significantly improves the translation accuracy with target-side monolingual data, while achieving comparable performance with back-translation. Our implementation is open-sourced at https://github. com/zhengxxn/UDA-KNN.

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The Topic Confusion Task: A Novel Evaluation Scenario for Authorship Attribution
Malik Altakrori | Jackie Chi Kit Cheung | Benjamin C. M. Fung

Authorship attribution is the problem of identifying the most plausible author of an anonymous text from a set of candidate authors. Researchers have investigated same-topic and cross-topic scenarios of authorship attribution, which differ according to whether new, unseen topics are used in the testing phase. However, neither scenario allows us to explain whether errors are caused by failure to capture authorship writing style or by the topic shift. Motivated by this, we propose the topic confusion task where we switch the author-topic configuration between the training and testing sets. This setup allows us to investigate two types of errors: one caused by the topic shift and one caused by the features’ inability to capture the writing styles. We show that stylometric features with part-of-speech tags are the least susceptible to topic variations. We further show that combining them with other features leads to significantly lower topic confusion and higher attribution accuracy. Finally, we show that pretrained language models such as BERT and RoBERTa perform poorly on this task and are surpassed by simple features such as word-level n-gram.

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Micromodels for Efficient, Explainable, and Reusable Systems: A Case Study on Mental Health
Andrew Lee | Jonathan K. Kummerfeld | Larry An | Rada Mihalcea

Many statistical models have high accuracy on test benchmarks, but are not explainable, struggle in low-resource scenarios, cannot be reused for multiple tasks, and cannot easily integrate domain expertise. These factors limit their use, particularly in settings such as mental health, where it is difficult to annotate datasets and model outputs have significant impact. We introduce a micromodel architecture to address these challenges. Our approach allows researchers to build interpretable representations that embed domain knowledge and provide explanations throughout the model’s decision process. We demonstrate the idea on multiple mental health tasks: depression classification, PTSD classification, and suicidal risk assessment. Our systems consistently produce strong results, even in low-resource scenarios, and are more interpretable than alternative methods.

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Discovering Explanatory Sentences in Legal Case Decisions Using Pre-trained Language Models
Jaromir Savelka | Kevin Ashley

Legal texts routinely use concepts that are difficult to understand. Lawyers elaborate on the meaning of such concepts by, among other things, carefully investigating how they have been used in the past. Finding text snippets that mention a particular concept in a useful way is tedious, time-consuming, and hence expensive. We assembled a data set of 26,959 sentences, coming from legal case decisions, and labeled them in terms of their usefulness for explaining selected legal concepts. Using the dataset we study the effectiveness of transformer models pre-trained on large language corpora to detect which of the sentences are useful. In light of models’ predictions, we analyze various linguistic properties of the explanatory sentences as well as their relationship to the legal concept that needs to be explained. We show that the transformer-based models are capable of learning surprisingly sophisticated features and outperform the prior approaches to the task.

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FCM: A Fine-grained Comparison Model for Multi-turn Dialogue Reasoning
Xu Wang | Hainan Zhang | Shuai Zhao | Yanyan Zou | Hongshen Chen | Zhuoye Ding | Bo Cheng | Yanyan Lan

Despite the success of neural dialogue systems in achieving high performance on the leader-board, they cannot meet users’ requirements in practice, due to their poor reasoning skills. The underlying reason is that most neural dialogue models only capture the syntactic and semantic information, but fail to model the logical consistency between the dialogue history and the generated response. Recently, a new multi-turn dialogue reasoning task has been proposed, to facilitate dialogue reasoning research. However, this task is challenging, because there are only slight differences between the illogical response and the dialogue history. How to effectively solve this challenge is still worth exploring. This paper proposes a Fine-grained Comparison Model (FCM) to tackle this problem. Inspired by human’s behavior in reading comprehension, a comparison mechanism is proposed to focus on the fine-grained differences in the representation of each response candidate. Specifically, each candidate representation is compared with the whole history to obtain a history consistency representation. Furthermore, the consistency signals between each candidate and the speaker’s own history are considered to drive a model prefer a candidate that is logically consistent with the speaker’s history logic. Finally, the above consistency representations are employed to output a ranking list of the candidate responses for multi-turn dialogue reasoning. Experimental results on two public dialogue datasets show that our method obtains higher ranking scores than the baseline models.

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Reference-based Weak Supervision for Answer Sentence Selection using Web Data
Vivek Krishnamurthy | Thuy Vu | Alessandro Moschitti

Answer Sentence Selection (AS2) models are core components of efficient retrieval-based Question Answering (QA) systems. We present the Reference-based Weak Supervision (RWS), a fully automatic large-scale data pipeline that harvests high-quality weakly- supervised answer sentences from Web data, only requiring a question-reference pair as input. We evaluated the quality of the RWS-derived data by training TANDA models, which are the state of the art for AS2. Our results show that the data consistently bolsters TANDA on three different datasets. In particular, we set the new state of the art for AS2 to P@1=90.1%, and MAP=92.9%, on WikiQA. We record similar performance gains of RWS on a much larger dataset named Web-based Question Answering (WQA).

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A Deep Decomposable Model for Disentangling Syntax and Semantics in Sentence Representation
Dingcheng Li | Hongliang Fei | Shaogang Ren | Ping Li

Recently, disentanglement based on a generative adversarial network or a variational autoencoder has significantly advanced the performance of diverse applications in CV and NLP domains. Nevertheless, those models still work on coarse levels in the disentanglement of closely related properties, such as syntax and semantics in human languages. This paper introduces a deep decomposable model based on VAE to disentangle syntax and semantics by using total correlation penalties on KL divergences. Notably, we decompose the KL divergence term of the original VAE so that the generated latent variables can be separated in a more clear-cut and interpretable way. Experiments on benchmark datasets show that our proposed model can significantly improve the disentanglement quality between syntactic and semantic representations for semantic similarity tasks and syntactic similarity tasks.

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Improved Word Sense Disambiguation with Enhanced Sense Representations
Yang Song | Xin Cai Ong | Hwee Tou Ng | Qian Lin

Current state-of-the-art supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) systems (such as GlossBERT and bi-encoder model) yield surprisingly good results by purely leveraging pre-trained language models and short dictionary definitions (or glosses) of the different word senses. While concise and intuitive, the sense gloss is just one of many ways to provide information about word senses. In this paper, we focus on enhancing the sense representations via incorporating synonyms, example phrases or sentences showing usage of word senses, and sense gloss of hypernyms. We show that incorporating such additional information boosts the performance on WSD. With the proposed enhancements, our system achieves an F1 score of 82.0% on the standard benchmark test dataset of the English all-words WSD task, surpassing all previous published scores on this benchmark dataset.

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Rethinking Zero-shot Neural Machine Translation: From a Perspective of Latent Variables
Weizhi Wang | Zhirui Zhang | Yichao Du | Boxing Chen | Jun Xie | Weihua Luo

Zero-shot translation, directly translating between language pairs unseen in training, is a promising capability of multilingual neural machine translation (NMT). However, it usually suffers from capturing spurious correlations between the output language and language invariant semantics due to the maximum likelihood training objective, leading to poor transfer performance on zero-shot translation. In this paper, we introduce a denoising autoencoder objective based on pivot language into traditional training objective to improve the translation accuracy on zero-shot directions. The theoretical analysis from the perspective of latent variables shows that our approach actually implicitly maximizes the probability distributions for zero-shot directions. On two benchmark machine translation datasets, we demonstrate that the proposed method is able to effectively eliminate the spurious correlations and significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods with a remarkable performance. Our code is available at

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FastCorrect 2: Fast Error Correction on Multiple Candidates for Automatic Speech Recognition
Yichong Leng | Xu Tan | Rui Wang | Linchen Zhu | Jin Xu | Wenjie Liu | Linquan Liu | Xiang-Yang Li | Tao Qin | Edward Lin | Tie-Yan Liu

Error correction is widely used in automatic speech recognition (ASR) to post-process the generated sentence, and can further reduce the word error rate (WER). Although multiple candidates are generated by an ASR system through beam search, current error correction approaches can only correct one sentence at a time, failing to leverage the voting effect from multiple candidates to better detect and correct error tokens. In this work, we propose FastCorrect 2, an error correction model that takes multiple ASR candidates as input for better correction accuracy. FastCorrect 2 adopts non-autoregressive generation for fast inference, which consists of an encoder that processes multiple source sentences and a decoder that generates the target sentence in parallel from the adjusted source sentence, where the adjustment is based on the predicted duration of each source token. However, there are some issues when handling multiple source sentences. First, it is non-trivial to leverage the voting effect from multiple source sentences since they usually vary in length. Thus, we propose a novel alignment algorithm to maximize the degree of token alignment among multiple sentences in terms of token and pronunciation similarity. Second, the decoder can only take one adjusted source sentence as input, while there are multiple source sentences. Thus, we develop a candidate predictor to detect the most suitable candidate for the decoder. Experiments on our inhouse dataset and AISHELL-1 show that FastCorrect 2 can further reduce the WER over the previous correction model with single candidate by 3.2% and 2.6%, demonstrating the effectiveness of leveraging multiple candidates in ASR error correction. FastCorrect 2 achieves better performance than the cascaded re-scoring and correction pipeline and can serve as a unified post-processing module for ASR.

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Task-Oriented Clustering for Dialogues
Chenxu Lv | Hengtong Lu | Shuyu Lei | Huixing Jiang | Wei Wu | Caixia Yuan | Xiaojie Wang

A reliable clustering algorithm for task-oriented dialogues can help developer analysis and define dialogue tasks efficiently. It is challenging to directly apply prior normal text clustering algorithms for task-oriented dialogues, due to the inherent differences between them, such as coreference, omission and diversity expression. In this paper, we propose a Dialogue Task Clustering Network model for task-oriented clustering. The proposed model combines context-aware utterance representations and cross-dialogue utterance cluster representations for task-oriented dialogues clustering. An iterative end-to-end training strategy is utilized for dialogue clustering and representation learning jointly. Experiments on three public datasets show that our model significantly outperform strong baselines in all metrics.

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Mitigating Data Poisoning in Text Classification with Differential Privacy
Chang Xu | Jun Wang | Francisco Guzmán | Benjamin Rubinstein | Trevor Cohn

NLP models are vulnerable to data poisoning attacks. One type of attack can plant a backdoor in a model by injecting poisoned examples in training, causing the victim model to misclassify test instances which include a specific pattern. Although defences exist to counter these attacks, they are specific to an attack type or pattern. In this paper, we propose a generic defence mechanism by making the training process robust to poisoning attacks through gradient shaping methods, based on differentially private training. We show that our method is highly effective in mitigating, or even eliminating, poisoning attacks on text classification, with only a small cost in predictive accuracy.

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Does Vision-and-Language Pretraining Improve Lexical Grounding?
Tian Yun | Chen Sun | Ellie Pavlick

Linguistic representations derived from text alone have been criticized for their lack of grounding, i.e., connecting words to their meanings in the physical world. Vision-and- Language (VL) models, trained jointly on text and image or video data, have been offered as a response to such criticisms. However, while VL pretraining has shown success on multimodal tasks such as visual question answering, it is not yet known how the internal linguistic representations themselves compare to their text-only counterparts. This paper compares the semantic representations learned via VL vs. text-only pretraining for two recent VL models using a suite of analyses (clustering, probing, and performance on a commonsense question answering task) in a language-only setting. We find that the multimodal models fail to significantly outperform the text-only variants, suggesting that future work is required if multimodal pretraining is to be pursued as a means of improving NLP in general.

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Character-based PCFG Induction for Modeling the Syntactic Acquisition of Morphologically Rich Languages
Lifeng Jin | Byung-Doh Oh | William Schuler

Unsupervised PCFG induction models, which build syntactic structures from raw text, can be used to evaluate the extent to which syntactic knowledge can be acquired from distributional information alone. However, many state-of-the-art PCFG induction models are word-based, meaning that they cannot directly inspect functional affixes, which may provide crucial information for syntactic acquisition in child learners. This work first introduces a neural PCFG induction model that allows a clean ablation of the influence of subword information in grammar induction. Experiments on child-directed speech demonstrate first that the incorporation of subword information results in more accurate grammars with categories that word-based induction models have difficulty finding, and second that this effect is amplified in morphologically richer languages that rely on functional affixes to express grammatical relations. A subsequent evaluation on multilingual treebanks shows that the model with subword information achieves state-of-the-art results on many languages, further supporting a distributional model of syntactic acquisition.

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Block-wise Word Embedding Compression Revisited: Better Weighting and Structuring
Jong-Ryul Lee | Yong-Ju Lee | Yong-Hyuk Moon

Word embedding is essential for neural network models for various natural language processing tasks. Since the word embedding usually has a considerable size, in order to deploy a neural network model having it on edge devices, it should be effectively compressed. There was a study for proposing a block-wise low-rank approximation method for word embedding, called GroupReduce. Even if their structure is effective, the properties behind the concept of the block-wise word embedding compression were not sufficiently explored. Motivated by this, we improve GroupReduce in terms of word weighting and structuring. For word weighting, we propose a simple yet effective method inspired by the term frequency-inverse document frequency method and a novel differentiable method. Based on them, we construct a discriminative word embedding compression algorithm. In the experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm more effectively finds word weights than competitors in most cases. In addition, we show that the proposed algorithm can act like a framework through successful cooperation with quantization.

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Switch Point biased Self-Training: Re-purposing Pretrained Models for Code-Switching
Parul Chopra | Sai Krishna Rallabandi | Alan W Black | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu

Code-switching (CS), a ubiquitous phenomenon due to the ease of communication it offers in multilingual communities still remains an understudied problem in language processing. The primary reasons behind this are: (1) minimal efforts in leveraging large pretrained multilingual models, and (2) the lack of annotated data. The distinguishing case of low performance of multilingual models in CS is the intra-sentence mixing of languages leading to switch points. We first benchmark two sequence labeling tasks – POS and NER on 4 different language pairs with a suite of pretrained models to identify the problems and select the best performing char-BERT model among them (addressing (1)). We then propose a self training method to repurpose the existing pretrained models using a switch-point bias by leveraging unannotated data (addressing (2)). We finally demonstrate that our approach performs well on both tasks by reducing the gap between the switch point performance while retaining the overall performance on two distinct language pairs in both the tasks. We plan to release our models and the code for all our experiments.

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Influence Tuning: Demoting Spurious Correlations via Instance Attribution and Instance-Driven Updates
Xiaochuang Han | Yulia Tsvetkov

Among the most critical limitations of deep learning NLP models are their lack of interpretability, and their reliance on spurious correlations. Prior work proposed various approaches to interpreting the black-box models to unveil the spurious correlations, but the research was primarily used in human-computer interaction scenarios. It still remains underexplored whether or how such model interpretations can be used to automatically “unlearn” confounding features. In this work, we propose influence tuning—a procedure that leverages model interpretations to update the model parameters towards a plausible interpretation (rather than an interpretation that relies on spurious patterns in the data) in addition to learning to predict the task labels. We show that in a controlled setup, influence tuning can help deconfounding the model from spurious patterns in data, significantly outperforming baseline methods that use adversarial training.

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Learning Task Sampling Policy for Multitask Learning
Dhanasekar Sundararaman | Henry Tsai | Kuang-Huei Lee | Iulia Turc | Lawrence Carin

It has been shown that training multi-task models with auxiliary tasks can improve the target task quality through cross-task transfer. However, the importance of each auxiliary task to the primary task is likely not known a priori. While the importance weights of auxiliary tasks can be manually tuned, it becomes practically infeasible with the number of tasks scaling up. To address this, we propose a search method that automatically assigns importance weights. We formulate it as a reinforcement learning problem and learn a task sampling schedule based on the evaluation accuracy of the multi-task model. Our empirical evaluation on XNLI and GLUE shows that our method outperforms uniform sampling and the corresponding single-task baseline.

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Competing Independent Modules for Knowledge Integration and Optimization
Parsa Bagherzadeh | Sabine Bergler

This paper presents a neural framework of untied independent modules, used here for integrating off the shelf knowledge sources such as language models, lexica, POS information, and dependency relations. Each knowledge source is implemented as an independent component that can interact and share information with other knowledge sources. We report proof of concept experiments for several standard sentiment analysis tasks and show that the knowledge sources interoperate effectively without interference. As a second use-case, we show that the proposed framework is suitable for optimizing BERT-like language models even without the help of external knowledge sources. We cast each Transformer layer as a separate module and demonstrate performance improvements from this explicit integration of the different information encoded at the different Transformer layers .

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An Exploratory Study on Long Dialogue Summarization: What Works and What’s Next
Yusen Zhang | Ansong Ni | Tao Yu | Rui Zhang | Chenguang Zhu | Budhaditya Deb | Asli Celikyilmaz | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Dragomir Radev

Dialogue summarization helps readers capture salient information from long conversations in meetings, interviews, and TV series. However, real-world dialogues pose a great challenge to current summarization models, as the dialogue length typically exceeds the input limits imposed by recent transformer-based pre-trained models, and the interactive nature of dialogues makes relevant information more context-dependent and sparsely distributed than news articles. In this work, we perform a comprehensive study on long dialogue summarization by investigating three strategies to deal with the lengthy input problem and locate relevant information: (1) extended transformer models such as Longformer, (2) retrieve-then-summarize pipeline models with several dialogue utterance retrieval methods, and (3) hierarchical dialogue encoding models such as HMNet. Our experimental results on three long dialogue datasets (QMSum, MediaSum, SummScreen) show that the retrieve-then-summarize pipeline models yield the best performance. We also demonstrate that the summary quality can be further improved with a stronger retrieval model and pretraining on proper external summarization datasets.

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Improving Text Auto-Completion with Next Phrase Prediction
Dong-Ho Lee | Zhiqiang Hu | Roy Ka-Wei Lee

Language models such as GPT-2 have performed well on constructing syntactically sound sentences for text auto-completion tasks. However, such models often require considerable training effort to adapt to specific writing domains (e.g., medical). In this paper, we propose an intermediate training strategy to enhance pre-trained language models’ performance in the text auto-completion task and fastly adapt them to specific domains. Our strategy includes a novel self-supervised training objective called Next Phrase Prediction (NPP), which encourages a language model to complete the partial query with enriched phrases and eventually improve the model’s text auto-completion performance. Preliminary experiments have shown that our approach is able to outperform the baselines in auto-completion for email and academic-writing domains.

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MOMENTA: A Multimodal Framework for Detecting Harmful Memes and Their Targets
Shraman Pramanick | Shivam Sharma | Dimitar Dimitrov | Md. Shad Akhtar | Preslav Nakov | Tanmoy Chakraborty

Internet memes have become powerful means to transmit political, psychological, and socio-cultural ideas. Although memes are typically humorous, recent days have witnessed an escalation of harmful memes used for trolling, cyberbullying, and abuse. Detecting such memes is challenging as they can be highly satirical and cryptic. Moreover, while previous work has focused on specific aspects of memes such as hate speech and propaganda, there has been little work on harm in general. Here, we aim to bridge this gap. In particular, we focus on two tasks: (i)detecting harmful memes, and (ii) identifying the social entities they target. We further extend the recently released HarMeme dataset, which covered COVID-19, with additional memes and a new topic: US politics. To solve these tasks, we propose MOMENTA (MultimOdal framework for detecting harmful MemEs aNd Their tArgets), a novel multimodal deep neural network that uses global and local perspectives to detect harmful memes. MOMENTA systematically analyzes the local and the global perspective of the input meme (in both modalities) and relates it to the background context. MOMENTA is interpretable and generalizable, and our experiments show that it outperforms several strong rivaling approaches.

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NICE: Neural Image Commenting with Empathy
Kezhen Chen | Qiuyuan Huang | Daniel McDuff | Xiang Gao | Hamid Palangi | Jianfeng Wang | Kenneth Forbus | Jianfeng Gao

Emotion and empathy are examples of human qualities lacking in many human-machine interactions. The goal of our work is to generate engaging dialogue grounded in a user-shared image with increased emotion and empathy while minimizing socially inappropriate or offensive outputs. We release the Neural Image Commenting with Empathy (NICE) dataset consisting of almost two million images and the corresponding human-generated comments, a set of human annotations, and baseline performance on a range of models. In-stead of relying on manually labeled emotions, we also use automatically generated linguistic representations as a source of weakly supervised labels. Based on these annotations, we define two different tasks for the NICE dataset. Then, we propose a novel pre-training model - Modeling Affect Generation for Image Comments (MAGIC) - which aims to generate comments for images, conditioned on linguistic representations that capture style and affect, and to help generate more empathetic, emotional, engaging and socially appropriate comments. Using this model we achieve state-of-the-art performance on one of our NICE tasks. The experiments show that the approach can generate more human-like and engaging image comments.

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HAConvGNN: Hierarchical Attention Based Convolutional Graph Neural Network for Code Documentation Generation in Jupyter Notebooks
Xuye Liu | Dakuo Wang | April Wang | Yufang Hou | Lingfei Wu

Jupyter notebook allows data scientists to write machine learning code together with its documentation in cells. In this paper, we propose a new task of code documentation generation (CDG) for computational notebooks. In contrast to the previous CDG tasks which focus on generating documentation for single code snippets, in a computational notebook, one documentation in a markdown cell often corresponds to multiple code cells, and these code cells have an inherent structure. We proposed a new model (HAConvGNN) that uses a hierarchical attention mechanism to consider the relevant code cells and the relevant code tokens information when generating the documentation. Tested on a new corpus constructed from well-documented Kaggle notebooks, we show that our model outperforms other baseline models.

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A multilabel approach to morphosyntactic probing
Naomi Shapiro | Amandalynne Paullada | Shane Steinert-Threlkeld

We propose using a multilabel probing task to assess the morphosyntactic representations of multilingual word embeddings. This tweak on canonical probing makes it easy to explore morphosyntactic representations, both holistically and at the level of individual features (e.g., gender, number, case), and leads more naturally to the study of how language models handle co-occurring features (e.g., agreement phenomena). We demonstrate this task with multilingual BERT (Devlin et al., 2018), training probes for seven typologically diverse languages: Afrikaans, Croatian, Finnish, Hebrew, Korean, Spanish, and Turkish. Through this simple but robust paradigm, we verify that multilingual BERT renders many morphosyntactic features simultaneously extractable. We further evaluate the probes on six held-out languages: Arabic, Chinese, Marathi, Slovenian, Tagalog, and Yoruba. This zero-shot style of probing has the added benefit of revealing which cross-linguistic properties a language model recognizes as being shared by multiple languages.

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Co-Teaching Student-Model through Submission Results of Shared Task
Kouta Nakayama | Shuhei Kurita | Akio Kobayashi | Yukino Baba | Satoshi Sekine

Shared tasks have a long history and have become the mainstream of NLP research. Most of the shared tasks require participants to submit only system outputs and descriptions. It is uncommon for the shared task to request submission of the system itself because of the license issues and implementation differences. Therefore, many systems are abandoned without being used in real applications or contributing to better systems. In this research, we propose a scheme to utilize all those systems which participated in the shared tasks. We use all participated system outputs as task teachers in this scheme and develop a new model as a student aiming to learn the characteristics of each system. We call this scheme “Co-Teaching.” This scheme creates a unified system that performs better than the task’s single best system. It only requires the system outputs, and slightly extra effort is needed for the participants and organizers. We apply this scheme to the “SHINRA2019-JP” shared task, which has nine participants with various output accuracies, confirming that the unified system outperforms the best system. Moreover, the code used in our experiments has been released.

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KLMo: Knowledge Graph Enhanced Pretrained Language Model with Fine-Grained Relationships
Lei He | Suncong Zheng | Tao Yang | Feng Zhang

Interactions between entities in knowledge graph (KG) provide rich knowledge for language representation learning. However, existing knowledge-enhanced pretrained language models (PLMs) only focus on entity information and ignore the fine-grained relationships between entities. In this work, we propose to incorporate KG (including both entities and relations) into the language learning process to obtain KG-enhanced pretrained Language Model, namely KLMo. Specifically, a novel knowledge aggregator is designed to explicitly model the interaction between entity spans in text and all entities and relations in a contextual KG. An relation prediction objective is utilized to incorporate relation information by distant supervision. An entity linking objective is further utilized to link entity spans in text to entities in KG. In this way, the structured knowledge can be effectively integrated into language representations. Experimental results demonstrate that KLMo achieves great improvements on several knowledge-driven tasks, such as entity typing and relation classification, comparing with the state-of-the-art knowledge-enhanced PLMs.

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Do We Know What We Don’t Know? Studying Unanswerable Questions beyond SQuAD 2.0
Elior Sulem | Jamaal Hay | Dan Roth

Understanding when a text snippet does not provide a sought after information is an essential part of natural language utnderstanding. Recent work (SQuAD 2.0; Rajpurkar et al., 2018) has attempted to make some progress in this direction by enriching the SQuAD dataset for the Extractive QA task with unanswerable questions. However, as we show, the performance of a top system trained on SQuAD 2.0 drops considerably in out-of-domain scenarios, limiting its use in practical situations. In order to study this we build an out-of-domain corpus, focusing on simple event-based questions and distinguish between two types of IDK questions: competitive questions, where the context includes an entity of the same type as the expected answer, and simpler, non-competitive questions where there is no entity of the same type in the context. We find that SQuAD 2.0-based models fail even in the case of the simpler questions. We then analyze the similarities and differences between the IDK phenomenon in Extractive QA and the Recognizing Textual Entailments task (RTE; Dagan et al., 2013) and investigate the extent to which the latter can be used to improve the performance.

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Glyph Enhanced Chinese Character Pre-Training for Lexical Sememe Prediction
Boer Lyu | Lu Chen | Kai Yu

Sememes are defined as the atomic units to describe the semantic meaning of concepts. Due to the difficulty of manually annotating sememes and the inconsistency of annotations between experts, the lexical sememe prediction task has been proposed. However, previous methods heavily rely on word or character embeddings, and ignore the fine-grained information. In this paper, we propose a novel pre-training method which is designed to better incorporate the internal information of Chinese character. The Glyph enhanced Chinese Character representation (GCC) is used to assist sememe prediction. We experiment and evaluate our model on HowNet, which is a famous sememe knowledge base. The experimental results show that our method outperforms existing non-external information models.

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Active Learning for Rumor Identification on Social Media
Parsa Farinneya | Mohammad Mahdi Abdollah Pour | Sardar Hamidian | Mona Diab

Social media has emerged as a key channel for seeking information. Online users spend several hours reading, posting, and searching for news on microblogging platforms daily. However, this could act as a double-edged sword especially when not all information online is reliable. Moreover, the inherently unmoderated nature of social media renders identifying unverified information ever more challenging. Most of the existing approaches for rumor tracking are not scalable because of their dependency on a significant amount of labeled data. In this work, we investigate this problem from different angles. We design an Active-Transfer Learning (ATL) strategy to identify rumors with a limited amount of annotated data. We go beyond that and investigate the impact of leveraging various machine learning approaches in addition to different contextual representations. We discuss the impact of multiple classifiers on a limited amount of annotated data followed by an interactive approach to gradually update the models by adding the least certain samples (LCS) from the pool of unlabeled data. Our proposed Active Learning (AL) strategy achieves faster convergence in terms of the F-score while requiring fewer annotated samples (42% of the whole dataset for the best model).

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Cross-Domain Data Integration for Named Entity Disambiguation in Biomedical Text
Maya Varma | Laurel Orr | Sen Wu | Megan Leszczynski | Xiao Ling | Christopher Ré

Named entity disambiguation (NED), which involves mapping textual mentions to structured entities, is particularly challenging in the medical domain due to the presence of rare entities. Existing approaches are limited by the presence of coarse-grained structural resources in biomedical knowledge bases as well as the use of training datasets that provide low coverage over uncommon resources. In this work, we address these issues by proposing a cross-domain data integration method that transfers structural knowledge from a general text knowledge base to the medical domain. We utilize our integration scheme to augment structural resources and generate a large biomedical NED dataset for pretraining. Our pretrained model with injected structural knowledge achieves state-of-the-art performance on two benchmark medical NED datasets: MedMentions and BC5CDR. Furthermore, we improve disambiguation of rare entities by up to 57 accuracy points.

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Self-Training using Rules of Grammar for Few-Shot NLU
Joonghyuk Hahn | Hyunjoon Cheon | Kyuyeol Han | Cheongjae Lee | Junseok Kim | Yo-Sub Han

We tackle the problem of self-training networks for NLU in low-resource environment—few labeled data and lots of unlabeled data. The effectiveness of self-training is a result of increasing the amount of training data while training. Yet it becomes less effective in low-resource settings due to unreliable labels predicted by the teacher model on unlabeled data. Rules of grammar, which describe the grammatical structure of data, have been used in NLU for better explainability. We propose to use rules of grammar in self-training as a more reliable pseudo-labeling mechanism, especially when there are few labeled data. We design an effective algorithm that constructs and expands rules of grammar without human involvement. Then we integrate the constructed rules as a pseudo-labeling mechanism into self-training. There are two possible scenarios regarding data distribution: it is unknown or known in prior to training. We empirically demonstrate that our approach substantially outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in three benchmark datasets for both scenarios.

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Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis in Question Answering Forums
Wenxuan Zhang | Yang Deng | Xin Li | Lidong Bing | Wai Lam

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) typically focuses on extracting aspects and predicting their sentiments on individual sentences such as customer reviews. Recently, another kind of opinion sharing platform, namely question answering (QA) forum, has received increasing popularity, which accumulates a large number of user opinions towards various aspects. This motivates us to investigate the task of ABSA on QA forums (ABSA-QA), aiming to jointly detect the discussed aspects and their sentiment polarities for a given QA pair. Unlike review sentences, a QA pair is composed of two parallel sentences, which requires interaction modeling to align the aspect mentioned in the question and the associated opinion clues in the answer. To this end, we propose a model with a specific design of cross-sentence aspect-opinion interaction modeling to address this task. The proposed method is evaluated on three real-world datasets and the results show that our model outperforms several strong baselines adopted from related state-of-the-art models.

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ForumSum: A Multi-Speaker Conversation Summarization Dataset
Misha Khalman | Yao Zhao | Mohammad Saleh

Abstractive summarization quality had large improvements since recent language pretraining techniques. However, currently there is a lack of datasets for the growing needs of conversation summarization applications. Thus we collected ForumSum, a diverse and high-quality conversation summarization dataset with human written summaries. The conversations in ForumSum dataset are collected from a wide variety of internet forums. To make the dataset easily expandable, we also release the process of dataset creation. Our experiments show that models trained on ForumSum have better zero-shot and few-shot transferability to other datasets than the existing large chat summarization dataset SAMSum. We also show that using a conversational corpus for pre-training improves the quality of the chat summarization model.

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Question Answering over Electronic Devices: A New Benchmark Dataset and a Multi-Task Learning based QA Framework
Abhilash Nandy | Soumya Sharma | Shubham Maddhashiya | Kapil Sachdeva | Pawan Goyal | NIloy Ganguly

Answering questions asked from instructional corpora such as E-manuals, recipe books, etc., has been far less studied than open-domain factoid context-based question answering. This can be primarily attributed to the absence of standard benchmark datasets. In this paper, we meticulously create a large amount of data connected with E-manuals and develop a suitable algorithm to exploit it. We collect E-Manual Corpus, a huge corpus of 307,957 E-manuals, and pretrain RoBERTa on this large corpus. We create various benchmark QA datasets which include question answer pairs curated by experts based upon two E-manuals, real user questions from Community Question Answering Forum pertaining to E-manuals etc. We introduce EMQAP (E-Manual Question Answering Pipeline) that answers questions pertaining to electronics devices. Built upon the pretrained RoBERTa, it harbors a supervised multi-task learning framework which efficiently performs the dual tasks of identifying the section in the E-manual where the answer can be found and the exact answer span within that section. For E-Manual annotated question-answer pairs, we show an improvement of about 40% in ROUGE-L F1 scores over most competitive baseline. We perform a detailed ablation study and establish the versatility of EMQAP across different circumstances. The code and datasets are shared at, and the corresponding project website is

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Comprehensive Punctuation Restoration for English and Polish
Michał Pogoda | Tomasz Walkowiak

Punctuation restoration is a fundamental requirement for the readability of text derived from Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems. Most contemporary solutions are limited to predicting only a few of the most frequently occurring marks, such as periods, commas, and question marks - and only one per word. However, in written language, we deal with a much larger number of punctuation characters (such as parentheses, hyphens, etc.), and their combinations (like parenthesis followed by a dot). Such comprehensive punctuation cannot always be unambiguously reduced to a basic set of the most frequently occurring marks. In this work, we evaluate several methods in the comprehensive punctuation reconstruction task. We conduct experiments on parallel corpora of two different languages, English and Polish - languages with a relatively simple and complex morphology, respectively. We also investigate the influence of building a model on comprehensive punctuation on the quality of the basic punctuation restoration task

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Syntactically Diverse Adversarial Network for Knowledge-Grounded Conversation Generation
Fuwei Cui | Hui Di | Hongjie Ren | Kazushige Ouchi | Ze Liu | Jinan Xu

Generative conversation systems tend to produce meaningless and generic responses, which significantly reduce the user experience. In order to generate informative and diverse responses, recent studies proposed to fuse knowledge to improve informativeness and adopt latent variables to enhance the diversity. However, utilizing latent variables will lead to the inaccuracy of knowledge in the responses, and the dissemination of wrong knowledge will mislead the communicators. To address this problem, we propose a Syntactically Diverse Adversarial Network (SDAN) for knowledge-grounded conversation model. SDAN contains an adversarial hierarchical semantic network to keep the semantic coherence, a knowledge-aware network to attend more related knowledge for improving the informativeness and a syntactic latent variable network to generate syntactically diverse responses. Additionally, in order to increase the controllability of syntax, we adopt adversarial learning to decouple semantic and syntactic representations. Experimental results show that our model can not only generate syntactically diverse and knowledge-accurate responses but also significantly achieve the balance between improving the syntactic diversity and maintaining the knowledge accuracy.

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QACE: Asking Questions to Evaluate an Image Caption
Hwanhee Lee | Thomas Scialom | Seunghyun Yoon | Franck Dernoncourt | Kyomin Jung

In this paper we propose QACE, a new metric based on Question Answering for Caption Evaluation to evaluate image captioning based on Question Generation(QG) and Question Answering(QA) systems. QACE generates questions on the evaluated caption and check its content by asking the questions on either the reference caption or the source image. We first develop QACE_Ref that compares the answers of the evaluated caption to its reference, and report competitive results with the state-of-the-art metrics. To go further, we propose QACE_Img, that asks the questions directly on the image, instead of reference. A Visual-QA system is necessary for QACE_Img. Unfortunately, the standard VQA models are actually framed a classification among only few thousands categories. Instead, we propose Visual-T5, an abstractive VQA system. The resulting metric, QACE_Img is multi-modal, reference-less and explainable. Our experiments show that QACE_Img compares favorably w.r.t. other reference-less metrics.

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Secoco: Self-Correcting Encoding for Neural Machine Translation
Tao Wang | Chengqi Zhao | Mingxuan Wang | Lei Li | Hang Li | Deyi Xiong

This paper presents Self-correcting Encoding (Secoco), a framework that effectively deals with noisy input for robust neural machine translation by introducing self-correcting predictors. Different from previous robust approaches, Secoco enables NMT to explicitly correct noisy inputs and delete specific errors simultaneously with the translation decoding process. Secoco is able to achieve significant improvements over strong baselines on two real-world test sets and a benchmark WMT dataset with good interpretability. We will make our code and dataset publicly available soon.

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Simple or Complex? Complexity-controllable Question Generation with Soft Templates and Deep Mixture of Experts Model
Sheng Bi | Xiya Cheng | Yuan-Fang Li | Lizhen Qu | Shirong Shen | Guilin Qi | Lu Pan | Yinlin Jiang

The ability to generate natural-language questions with controlled complexity levels is highly desirable as it further expands the applicability of question generation. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end neural complexity-controllable question generation model, which incorporates a mixture of experts (MoE) as the selector of soft templates to improve the accuracy of complexity control and the quality of generated questions. The soft templates capture question similarity while avoiding the expensive construction of actual templates. Our method introduces a novel, cross-domain complexity estimator to assess the complexity of a question, taking into account the passage, the question, the answer and their interactions. The experimental results on two benchmark QA datasets demonstrate that our QG model is superior to state-of-the-art methods in both automatic and manual evaluation. Moreover, our complexity estimator is significantly more accurate than the baselines in both in-domain and out-domain settings.

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Predicting Anti-Asian Hateful Users on Twitter during COVID-19
Jisun An | Haewoon Kwak | Claire Seungeun Lee | Bogang Jun | Yong-Yeol Ahn

We investigate predictors of anti-Asian hate among Twitter users throughout COVID-19. With the rise of xenophobia and polarization that has accompanied widespread social media usage in many nations, online hate has become a major social issue, attracting many researchers. Here, we apply natural language processing techniques to characterize social media users who began to post anti-Asian hate messages during COVID-19. We compare two user groups—those who posted anti-Asian slurs and those who did not—with respect to a rich set of features measured with data prior to COVID-19 and show that it is possible to predict who later publicly posted anti-Asian slurs. Our analysis of predictive features underlines the potential impact of news media and information sources that report on online hate and calls for further investigation into the role of polarized communication networks and news media.

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Fine-grained Typing of Emerging Entities in Microblogs
Satoshi Akasaki | Naoki Yoshinaga | Masashi Toyoda

Analyzing microblogs where we post what we experience enables us to perform various applications such as social-trend analysis and entity recommendation. To track emerging trends in a variety of areas, we want to categorize information on emerging entities (e.g., Avatar 2) in microblog posts according to their types (e.g., Film). We thus introduce a new entity typing task that assigns a fine-grained type to each emerging entity when a burst of posts containing that entity is first observed in a microblog. The challenge is to perform typing from noisy microblog posts without relying on prior knowledge of the target entity. To tackle this task, we build large-scale Twitter datasets for English and Japanese using time-sensitive distant supervision. We then propose a modular neural typing model that encodes not only the entity and its contexts but also meta information in multiple posts. To type ‘homographic’ emerging entities (e.g., ‘Go’ means an emerging programming language and a classic board game), which contexts are noisy, we devise a context selector that finds related contexts of the target entity. Experiments on the Twitter datasets confirm the effectiveness of our typing model and the context selector.

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Data-Efficient Language Shaped Few-shot Image Classification
Zhenwen Liang | Xiangliang Zhang

Many existing works have demonstrated that language is a helpful guider for image understanding by neural networks. We focus on a language-shaped learning problem in a few-shot setting, i.e., using language to improve few-shot image classification when language descriptions are only available during training. We propose a data-efficient method that can make the best usage of the few-shot images and the language available only in training. Experimental results on dataset ShapeWorld and Birds show that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art baselines in language-shaped few-shot learning area, especially when training data is more severely limited. Therefore, we call our approach data-efficient language-shaped learning (DF-LSL).

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Beyond Glass-Box Features: Uncertainty Quantification Enhanced Quality Estimation for Neural Machine Translation
Ke Wang | Yangbin Shi | Jiayi Wang | Yuqi Zhang | Yu Zhao | Xiaolin Zheng

Quality Estimation (QE) plays an essential role in applications of Machine Translation (MT). Traditionally, a QE system accepts the original source text and translation from a black-box MT system as input. Recently, a few studies indicate that as a by-product of translation, QE benefits from the model and training data’s information of the MT system where the translations come from, and it is called the “glass-box QE”. In this paper, we extend the definition of “glass-box QE” generally to uncertainty quantification with both “black-box” and “glass-box” approaches and design several features deduced from them to blaze a new trial in improving QE’s performance. We propose a framework to fuse the feature engineering of uncertainty quantification into a pre-trained cross-lingual language model to predict the translation quality. Experiment results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performances on the datasets of WMT 2020 QE shared task.

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Fight Fire with Fire: Fine-tuning Hate Detectors using Large Samples of Generated Hate Speech
Tomer Wullach | Amir Adler | Einat Minkov

Automatic hate speech detection is hampered by the scarcity of labeled datasetd, leading to poor generalization. We employ pretrained language models (LMs) to alleviate this data bottleneck. We utilize the GPT LM for generating large amounts of synthetic hate speech sequences from available labeled examples, and leverage the generated data in fine-tuning large pretrained LMs on hate detection. An empirical study using the models of BERT, RoBERTa and ALBERT, shows that this approach improves generalization significantly and consistently within and across data distributions. In fact, we find that generating relevant labeled hate speech sequences is preferable to using out-of-domain, and sometimes also within-domain, human-labeled examples.

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AutoEQA: Auto-Encoding Questions for Extractive Question Answering
Stalin Varanasi | Saadullah Amin | Guenter Neumann

There has been a significant progress in the field of Extractive Question Answering (EQA) in the recent years. However, most of them are reliant on annotations of answer-spans in the corresponding passages. In this work, we address the problem of EQA when no annotations are present for the answer span, i.e., when the dataset contains only questions and corresponding passages. Our method is based on auto-encoding of the question that performs a question answering task during encoding and a question generation task during decoding. We show that our method performs well in a zero-shot setting and can provide an additional loss to boost performance for EQA.

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A Multi-label Multi-hop Relation Detection Model based on Relation-aware Sequence Generation
Linhai Zhang | Deyu Zhou | Chao Lin | Yulan He

Multi-hop relation detection in Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) aims at retrieving the relation path starting from the topic entity to the answer node based on a given question, where the relation path may comprise multiple relations. Most of the existing methods treat it as a single-label learning problem while ignoring the fact that for some complex questions, there exist multiple correct relation paths in knowledge bases. Therefore, in this paper, multi-hop relation detection is considered as a multi-label learning problem. However, performing multi-label multi-hop relation detection is challenging since the numbers of both the labels and the hops are unknown. To tackle this challenge, multi-label multi-hop relation detection is formulated as a sequence generation task. A relation-aware sequence relation generation model is proposed to solve the problem in an end-to-end manner. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for relation detection and KBQA.

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Don’t Discard All the Biased Instances: Investigating a Core Assumption in Dataset Bias Mitigation Techniques
Hossein Amirkhani | Mohammad Taher Pilehvar

Existing techniques for mitigating dataset bias often leverage a biased model to identify biased instances. The role of these biased instances is then reduced during the training of the main model to enhance its robustness to out-of-distribution data. A common core assumption of these techniques is that the main model handles biased instances similarly to the biased model, in that it will resort to biases whenever available. In this paper, we show that this assumption does not hold in general. We carry out a critical investigation on two well-known datasets in the domain, MNLI and FEVER, along with two biased instance detection methods, partial-input and limited-capacity models. Our experiments show that in around a third to a half of instances, the biased model is unable to predict the main model’s behavior, highlighted by the significantly different parts of the input on which they base their decisions. Based on a manual validation, we also show that this estimate is highly in line with human interpretation. Our findings suggest that down-weighting of instances detected by bias detection methods, which is a widely-practiced procedure, is an unnecessary waste of training data. We release our code to facilitate reproducibility and future research.

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Stacked AMR Parsing with Silver Data
Qingrong Xia | Zhenghua Li | Rui Wang | Min Zhang

Lacking sufficient human-annotated data is one main challenge for abstract meaning representation (AMR) parsing. To alleviate this problem, previous works usually make use of silver data or pre-trained language models. In particular, one recent seq-to-seq work directly fine-tunes AMR graph sequences on the encoder-decoder pre-trained language model and achieves new state-of-the-art results, outperforming previous works by a large margin. However, it makes the decoding relatively slower. In this work, we investigate alternative approaches to achieve competitive performance at faster speeds. We propose a simplified AMR parser and a pre-training technique for the effective usage of silver data. We conduct extensive experiments on the widely used AMR2.0 dataset and the results demonstrate that our Transformer-based AMR parser achieves the best performance among the seq2graph-based models. Furthermore, with silver data, our model achieves competitive results with the SOTA model, and the speed is an order of magnitude faster. Detailed analyses are conducted to gain more insights into our proposed model and the effectiveness of the pre-training technique.

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Speculative Sampling in Variational Autoencoders for Dialogue Response Generation
Shoetsu Sato | Naoki Yoshinaga | Masashi Toyoda | Masaru Kitsuregawa

Variational autoencoders have been studied as a promising approach to model one-to-many mappings from context to response in chat response generation. However, they often fail to learn proper mappings. One of the reasons for this failure is the discrepancy between a response and a latent variable sampled from an approximated distribution in training. Inappropriately sampled latent variables hinder models from constructing a modulated latent space. As a result, the models stop handling uncertainty in conversations. To resolve that, we propose speculative sampling of latent variables. Our method chooses the most probable one from redundantly sampled latent variables for tying up the variable with a given response. We confirm the efficacy of our method in response generation with massive dialogue data constructed from Twitter posts.

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Perceived and Intended Sarcasm Detection with Graph Attention Networks
Joan Plepi | Lucie Flek

Existing sarcasm detection systems focus on exploiting linguistic markers, context, or user-level priors. However, social studies suggest that the relationship between the author and the audience can be equally relevant for the sarcasm usage and interpretation. In this work, we propose a framework jointly leveraging (1) a user context from their historical tweets together with (2) the social information from a user’s neighborhood in an interaction graph, to contextualize the interpretation of the post. We distinguish between perceived and self-reported sarcasm identification. We use graph attention networks (GAT) over users and tweets in a conversation thread, combined with various dense user history representations. Apart from achieving state-of-the-art results on the recently published dataset of 19k Twitter users with 30K labeled tweets, adding 10M unlabeled tweets as context, our experiments indicate that the graph network contributes to interpreting the sarcastic intentions of the author more than to predicting the sarcasm perception by others.

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Contrastive Representation Learning for Exemplar-Guided Paraphrase Generation
Haoran Yang | Wai Lam | Piji Li

Exemplar-Guided Paraphrase Generation (EGPG) aims to generate a target sentence which conforms to the style of the given exemplar while encapsulating the content information of the source sentence. In this paper, we propose a new method with the goal of learning a better representation of the style and the content. This method is mainly motivated by the recent success of contrastive learning which has demonstrated its power in unsupervised feature extraction tasks. The idea is to design two contrastive losses with respect to the content and the style by considering two problem characteristics during training. One characteristic is that the target sentence shares the same content with the source sentence, and the second characteristic is that the target sentence shares the same style with the exemplar. These two contrastive losses are incorporated into the general encoder-decoder paradigm. Experiments on two datasets, namely QQP-Pos and ParaNMT, demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed constrastive losses.

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MAD-G: Multilingual Adapter Generation for Efficient Cross-Lingual Transfer
Alan Ansell | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Jonas Pfeiffer | Sebastian Ruder | Goran Glavaš | Ivan Vulić | Anna Korhonen

Adapter modules have emerged as a general parameter-efficient means to specialize a pretrained encoder to new domains. Massively multilingual transformers (MMTs) have particularly benefited from additional training of language-specific adapters. However, this approach is not viable for the vast majority of languages, due to limitations in their corpus size or compute budgets. In this work, we propose MAD-G (Multilingual ADapter Generation), which contextually generates language adapters from language representations based on typological features. In contrast to prior work, our time- and space-efficient MAD-G approach enables (1) sharing of linguistic knowledge across languages and (2) zero-shot inference by generating language adapters for unseen languages. We thoroughly evaluate MAD-G in zero-shot cross-lingual transfer on part-of-speech tagging, dependency parsing, and named entity recognition. While offering (1) improved fine-tuning efficiency (by a factor of around 50 in our experiments), (2) a smaller parameter budget, and (3) increased language coverage, MAD-G remains competitive with more expensive methods for language-specific adapter training across the board. Moreover, it offers substantial benefits for low-resource languages, particularly on the NER task in low-resource African languages. Finally, we demonstrate that MAD-G’s transfer performance can be further improved via: (i) multi-source training, i.e., by generating and combining adapters of multiple languages with available task-specific training data; and (ii) by further fine-tuning generated MAD-G adapters for languages with monolingual data.

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Sustainable Modular Debiasing of Language Models