Proceedings of the First Workshop on Multimodal Machine Translation for Low Resource Languages (MMTLRL 2021)

Thoudam Doren Singh, Cristina España i Bonet, Sivaji Bandyopadhyay, Josef van Genabith (Editors)

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Multimodal Machine Translation for Low Resource Languages (MMTLRL 2021)
Thoudam Doren Singh | Cristina España i Bonet | Sivaji Bandyopadhyay | Josef van Genabith

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Models and Tasks for Human-Centered Machine Translation
Marine Carpuat

In this talk, I will describe current research directions in my group that aim to make machine translation (MT) more human-centered. Instead of viewing MT solely as a task that aims to transduce a source sentence into a well-formed target language equivalent, we revisit all steps of the MT research and development lifecycle with the goal of designing MT systems that are able to help people communicate across language barriers. I will present methods to better characterize the parallel training data that powers MT systems, and how the degree of equivalence impacts translation quality. I will introduce models that enable flexible conditional language generation, and will discuss recent work on framing machine translation tasks and evaluation to center human factors.

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Multiple Captions Embellished Multilingual Multi-Modal Neural Machine Translation
Salam Michael Singh | Loitongbam Sanayai Meetei | Thoudam Doren Singh | Sivaji Bandyopadhyay

Neural machine translation based on bilingual text with limited training data suffers from lexical diversity, which lowers the rare word translation accuracy and reduces the generalizability of the translation system. In this work, we utilise the multiple captions from the Multi-30K dataset to increase the lexical diversity aided with the cross-lingual transfer of information among the languages in a multilingual setup. In this multilingual and multimodal setting, the inclusion of the visual features boosts the translation quality by a significant margin. Empirical study affirms that our proposed multimodal approach achieves substantial gain in terms of the automatic score and shows robustness in handling the rare word translation in the pretext of English to/from Hindi and Telugu translation tasks.

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Malta National Language Technology Platform: A vision for enhancing Malta’s official languages using Machine Translation
Keith Cortis | Judie Attard | Donatienne Spiteri

In this paper we introduce a vision towards establishing the Malta National Language Technology Platform; an ongoing effort that aims to provide a basis for enhancing Malta’s official languages, namely Maltese and English, using Machine Translation. This will contribute towards the current niche of Language Technology support for the Maltese low-resource language, across multiple computational linguistics fields, such as speech processing, machine translation, text analysis, and multi-modal resources. The end goals are to remove language barriers, increase accessibility, foster cross-border services, and most importantly to facilitate the preservation of the Maltese language.

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Low Resource Multimodal Neural Machine Translation of English-Hindi in News Domain
Loitongbam Sanayai Meetei | Thoudam Doren Singh | Sivaji Bandyopadhyay

Incorporating multiple input modalities in a machine translation (MT) system is gaining popularity among MT researchers. Unlike the publicly available dataset for Multimodal Machine Translation (MMT) tasks, where the captions are short image descriptions, the news captions provide a more detailed description of the contents of the images. As a result, numerous named entities relating to specific persons, locations, etc., are found. In this paper, we acquire two monolingual news datasets reported in English and Hindi paired with the images to generate a synthetic English-Hindi parallel corpus. The parallel corpus is used to train the English-Hindi Neural Machine Translation (NMT) and an English-Hindi MMT system by incorporating the image feature paired with the corresponding parallel corpus. We also conduct a systematic analysis to evaluate the English-Hindi MT systems with 1) more synthetic data and 2) by adding back-translated data. Our finding shows improvement in terms of BLEU scores for both the NMT (+8.05) and MMT (+11.03) systems.

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Multimodal Simultaneous Machine Translation
Lucia Specia

Simultaneous machine translation (SiMT) aims to translate a continuous input text stream into another language with the lowest latency and highest quality possible. Therefore, translation has to start with an incomplete source text, which is read progressively, creating the need for anticipation. In this talk I will present work where we seek to understand whether the addition of visual information can compensate for the missing source context. We analyse the impact of different multimodal approaches and visual features on state-of-the-art SiMT frameworks, including fixed and dynamic policy approaches using reinforcement learning. Our results show that visual context is helpful and that visually-grounded models based on explicit object region information perform the best. Our qualitative analysis illustrates cases where only the multimodal systems are able to translate correctly from English into gender-marked languages, as well as deal with differences in word order, such as adjective-noun placement between English and French.

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Multimodal Neural Machine Translation System for English to Bengali
Shantipriya Parida | Subhadarshi Panda | Satya Prakash Biswal | Ketan Kotwal | Arghyadeep Sen | Satya Ranjan Dash | Petr Motlicek

Multimodal Machine Translation (MMT) systems utilize additional information from other modalities beyond text to improve the quality of machine translation (MT). The additional modality is typically in the form of images. Despite proven advantages, it is indeed difficult to develop an MMT system for various languages primarily due to the lack of a suitable multimodal dataset. In this work, we develop an MMT for English-> Bengali using a recently published Bengali Visual Genome (BVG) dataset that contains images with associated bilingual textual descriptions. Through a comparative study of the developed MMT system vis-a-vis a Text-to-text translation, we demonstrate that the use of multimodal data not only improves the translation performance improvement in BLEU score of +1.3 on the development set, +3.9 on the evaluation test, and +0.9 on the challenge test set but also helps to resolve ambiguities in the pure text description. As per best of our knowledge, our English-Bengali MMT system is the first attempt in this direction, and thus, can act as a baseline for the subsequent research in MMT for low resource languages.

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Experiences of Adapting Multimodal Machine Translation Techniques for Hindi
Baban Gain | Dibyanayan Bandyopadhyay | Asif Ekbal

Multimodal Neural Machine Translation (MNMT) is an interesting task in natural language processing (NLP) where we use visual modalities along with a source sentence to aid the source to target translation process. Recently, there has been a lot of works in MNMT frameworks to boost the performance of standalone Machine Translation tasks. Most of the prior works in MNMT tried to perform translation between two widely known languages (e.g. English-to-German, English-to-French ). In this paper, We explore the effectiveness of different state-of-the-art MNMT methods, which use various data oriented techniques including multimodal pre-training, for low resource languages. Although the existing methods works well on high resource languages, usability of those methods on low-resource languages is unknown. In this paper, we evaluate the existing methods on Hindi and report our findings.