Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Sentiment Analysis and Linguistic Linked Data

Ilan Kernerman, Sara Carvalho, Carlos A. Iglesias, Rachele Sprugnoli (Editors)

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Marseille, France
European Language Resources Association
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Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Sentiment Analysis and Linguistic Linked Data
Ilan Kernerman | Sara Carvalho | Carlos A. Iglesias | Rachele Sprugnoli

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Invited talk: From Data to Meaning in Representation of Emotions
Anna Fensel

Historically, now we have an unprecedentedly large amount of data available in various systems, and the growth of data volumes is rapid and continuous. The numbers of scientific papers published per year are higher than ever before. While it is desirable to have the context of the users of a social system known and represented in a machine-readable form, capturing this context is notoriously complex (as social context is more difficult to measure with simple sensors, unlike some physical characteristics). This complexity applies especially to the domain of emotions, but also to other context information relevant for social systems and social sciences (for example, in case of experimental study set up in sociology or marketing, detailed user profiles, exact background and experimental settings need to be recorded in a precise manner). Which data and scientific findings get shared, for which purposes, and how? How to address open and closed data, and reproducibility crisis? How to convert Big Data into Smart Data, which is interpretable by both machine and human? And how to make sure that the resulting Smart Data is trustworthy and appropriately handling biases? In my talk, I discuss these questions from the technical perspective, and give examples for relevant solutions implemented with Semantic Web technology, linked data, knowledge graphs and FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) data management. Specifically, I will be discussing experiences with combining machine learning and knowledge graphs for semantic representation of emotions. Further, I will talk about research data infrastructures and tools for social sciences that can facilitate semantic interoperability and bring more meaning with sharing semantic representation of context, such as one about emotions. Such semantic representations and infrastructures can serve as a basis for industrial applications, including recommender systems, personal assistants and chatbots, and also serve to improve research data management in social sciences.

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O-Dang! The Ontology of Dangerous Speech Messages
Marco Antonio Stranisci | Simona Frenda | Mirko Lai | Oscar Araque | Alessandra Teresa Cignarella | Valerio Basile | Cristina Bosco | Viviana Patti

Inside the NLP community there is a considerable amount of language resources created, annotated and released every day with the aim of studying specific linguistic phenomena. Despite a variety of attempts in order to organize such resources has been carried on, a lack of systematic methods and of possible interoperability between resources are still present. Furthermore, when storing linguistic information, still nowadays, the most common practice is the concept of “gold standard”, which is in contrast with recent trends in NLP that aim at stressing the importance of different subjectivities and points of view when training machine learning and deep learning methods. In this paper we present O-Dang!: The Ontology of Dangerous Speech Messages, a systematic and interoperable Knowledge Graph (KG) for the collection of linguistic annotated data. O-Dang! is designed to gather and organize Italian datasets into a structured KG, according to the principles shared within the Linguistic Linked Open Data community. The ontology has also been designed to account a perspectivist approach, since it provides a model for encoding both gold standard and single-annotator labels in the KG. The paper is structured as follows. In Section 1 the motivations of our work are outlined. Section 2 describes the O-Dang! Ontology, that provides a common semantic model for the integration of datasets in the KG. The Ontology Population stage with information about corpora, users, and annotations is presented in Section 3. Finally, in Section 4 an analysis of offensiveness across corpora is provided as a first case study for the resource.

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Movie Rating Prediction using Sentiment Features
João Ramos | Diogo Apóstolo | Hugo Gonçalo Oliveira

We analyze the impact of using sentiment features in the prediction of movie review scores. The effort included the creation of a new lexicon, Expanded OntoSenticNet (EON), by merging OntoSenticNet and SentiWordNet, and experiments were made on the “IMDB movie review” dataset, with the three main approaches for sentiment analysis: lexicon-based, supervised machine learning and hybrids of the previous. Hybrid approaches performed the best, demonstrating the potential of merging knowledge bases and machine learning, but supervised approaches based on review embeddings were not far.

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Evaluating a New Danish Sentiment Resource: the Danish Sentiment Lexicon, DSL
Nina Schneidermann | Bolette Pedersen

In this paper, we evaluate a new sentiment lexicon for Danish, the Danish Sentiment Lexicon (DSL), to gain input regarding how to carry out the final adjustments of the lexicon. A feature of the lexicon that differentiates it from other sentiment resources for Danish is that it is linked to a large number of other Danish lexical resources via the DDO lemma and sense inventory and the LLOD via the Danish wordnet, DanNet. We perform our evaluation on four datasets labeled with sentiments. In addition, we compare the lexicon against two existing benchmarks for Danish: the Afinn and the Sentida resources. We observe that DSL performs mostly comparably to the existing resources, but that more fine-grained explorations need to be done in order to fully exploit its possibilities given its linking properties.

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Correlating Facts and Social Media Trends on Environmental Quantities Leveraging Commonsense Reasoning and Human Sentiments
Brad McNamee | Aparna Varde | Simon Razniewski

As climate change alters the physical world we inhabit, opinions surrounding this hot-button issue continue to fluctuate. This is apparent on social media, particularly Twitter. In this paper, we explore concrete climate change data concerning the Air Quality Index (AQI), and its relationship to tweets. We incorporate commonsense connotations for appeal to the masses. Earlier work focuses primarily on accuracy and performance of sentiment analysis tools / models, much geared towards experts. We present commonsense interpretations of results, such that they are not impervious to the masses. Moreover, our study uses real data on multiple environmental quantities comprising AQI. We address human sentiments gathered from linked data on hashtagged tweets with geolocations. Tweets are analyzed using VADER, subtly entailing commonsense reasoning. Interestingly, correlations between climate change tweets and air quality data vary not only based upon the year, but also the specific environmental quantity. It is hoped that this study will shed light on possible areas to increase awareness of climate change, and methods to address it, by the scientists as well as the common public. In line with Linked Data initiatives, we aim to make this work openly accessible on a network, published with the Creative Commons license.

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Sentiment Analysis of Serbian Old Novels
Ranka Stanković | Miloš Košprdić | Milica Ikonić Nešić | Tijana Radović

In this paper we present first study of Sentiment Analysis (SA) of Serbian novels from the 1840-1920 period. The preparation of sentiment lexicon was based on three existing lexicons: NRC, AFFIN and Bing with additional extensive corrections. The first phase of dataset refinement included filtering the word that are not found in Serbian morphological dictionary and in second automatic POS tagging and lemma were manually corrected. The polarity lexicon was extracted and transformed into ontolex-lemon and published as initial version. The complex inflection system of Serbian language required expansion of sentiment lexicon with inflected forms from Serbian morphological dictionaries. Set of sentences for SA was extracted from 120 novels of Serbian part of ELTeC collection, labelled for polarity and used for several model training. Several approaches for SA are compared, starting with for variation of lexicon based and followed by Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes, Decision Tree, Random Forest, SVN and k-NN. The comparison with models trained on labelled movie reviews dataset indicates that it can not successfully be used for sentiment analysis of sentences in old novels.