Proceedings of The Seventh Workshop on Social Media Mining for Health Applications, Workshop & Shared Task

Graciela Gonzalez-Hernandez, Davy Weissenbacher (Editors)

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Gyeongju, Republic of Korea
Association for Computational Linguistics
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Proceedings of The Seventh Workshop on Social Media Mining for Health Applications, Workshop & Shared Task
Graciela Gonzalez-Hernandez | Davy Weissenbacher

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RACAI@SMM4H’22: Tweets Disease Mention Detection Using a Neural Lateral Inhibitory Mechanism
Andrei-Marius Avram | Vasile Pais | Maria Mitrofan

This paper presents our system employed for the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 competition Task 10 - SocialDisNER. The goal of the task was to improve the detection of diseases in tweets. Because the tweets were in Spanish, we approached this problem using a system that relies on a pre-trained multilingual model and is fine-tuned using the recently introduced lateral inhibition layer. We further experimented on this task by employing a conditional random field on top of the system and using a voting-based ensemble that contains various architectures. The evaluation results outlined that our best performing model obtained 83.7% F1-strict on the validation set and 82.1% F1-strict on the test set.

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PingAnTech at SMM4H task1: Multiple pre-trained model approaches for Adverse Drug Reactions
Xi Liu | Han Zhou | Chang Su

This paper describes the solution for the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 Shared Task. We participated in Task1a., Task1b. and Task1c. To solve the problem of the presence of Twitter data, we used a pre-trained language model. We used training strategies that involved: adversarial training, head layer weighted fusion, etc., to improve the performance of the model. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our designed system. For task 1a, the system achieved an F1 score of 0.68; for task 1b Overlapping F1 score of 0.65 and a Strict F1 score of 0.49. Task 1c yields Overlapping F1 and Strict F1 scores of 0.36 and 0.30, respectively.

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dezzai@SMM4H’22: Tasks 5 & 10 - Hybrid models everywhere
Miguel Ortega-Martín | Alfonso Ardoiz | Oscar Garcia | Jorge Álvarez | Adrián Alonso

This paper presents our approaches to SMM4H’22 task 5 - Classification of tweets of self-reported COVID-19 symptoms in Spanish, and task 10 - Detection of disease mentions in tweets – SocialDisNER (in Spanish). We have presented hybrid systems that combine Deep Learning techniques with linguistic rules and medical ontologies, which have allowed us to achieve outstanding results in both tasks.

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zydhjh4593@SMM4H’22: A Generic Pre-trained BERT-based Framework for Social Media Health Text Classification
Chenghao Huang | Xiaolu Chen | Yuxi Chen | Yutong Wu | Weimin Yuan | Yan Wang | Yanru Zhang

This paper describes our proposed framework for the 10 text classification tasks of Task 1a, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, in the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022. According to the pre-trained BERT-based models, various techniques, including regularized dropout, focal loss, exponential moving average, 5-fold cross-validation, ensemble prediction, and pseudo-labeling, are applied for further formulating and improving the generalization performance of our framework. In the evaluation, the proposed framework achieves the 1st place in Task 3a with a 7% higher F1-score than the median, and obtains a 4% higher averaged F1-score than the median in all participating tasks except Task 1a.

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MANTIS at SMM4H’2022: Pre-Trained Language Models Meet a Suite of Psycholinguistic Features for the Detection of Self-Reported Chronic Stress
Sourabh Zanwar | Daniel Wiechmann | Yu Qiao | Elma Kerz

This paper describes our submission to Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 Shared Task 8, aimed at detecting self-reported chronic stress on Twitter. Our approach leverages a pre-trained transformer model (RoBERTa) in combination with a Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM) network trained on a diverse set of psycholinguistic features. We handle the class imbalance issue in the training dataset by augmenting it by another dataset used for stress classification in social media.

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NLP-CIC-WFU at SocialDisNER: Disease Mention Extraction in Spanish Tweets Using Transfer Learning and Search by Propagation
Antonio Tamayo | Alexander Gelbukh | Diego Burgos

Named entity recognition (e.g., disease mention extraction) is one of the most relevant tasks for data mining in the medical field. Although it is a well-known challenge, the bulk of the efforts to tackle this task have been made using clinical texts commonly written in English. In this work, we present our contribution to the SocialDisNER competition, which consists of a transfer learning approach to extracting disease mentions in a corpus from Twitter written in Spanish. We fine-tuned a model based on mBERT and applied post-processing using regular expressions to propagate the entities identified by the model and enhance disease mention extraction. Our system achieved a competitive strict F1 of 0.851 on the testing data set.

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yiriyou@SMM4H’22: Stance and Premise Classification in Domain Specific Tweets with Dual-View Attention Neural Networks
Huabin Yang | Zhongjian Zhang | Yanru Zhang

The paper introduces the methodology proposed for the shared Task 2 of the Social Media Mining for Health Application (SMM4H) in 2022. Task 2 consists of two subtasks: Stance Detection and Premise Classification, named Subtask 2a and Subtask 2b, respectively. Our proposed system is based on dual-view attention neural networks and achieves an F1 score of 0.618 for Subtask 2a (0.068 more than the median) and an F1 score of 0.630 for Subtask 2b (0.017 less than the median). Further experiments show that the domain-specific pre-trained model, cross-validation, and pseudo-label techniques contribute to the improvement of system performance.

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SINAI@SMM4H’22: Transformers for biomedical social media text mining in Spanish
Mariia Chizhikova | Pilar López-Úbeda | Manuel C. Díaz-Galiano | L. Alfonso Ureña-López | M. Teresa Martín-Valdivia

This paper covers participation of the SINAI team in Tasks 5 and 10 of the Social Media Mining for Health (#SSM4H) workshop at COLING-2022. These tasks focus on leveraging Twitter posts written in Spanish for healthcare research. The objective of Task 5 was to classify tweets reporting COVID-19 symptoms, while Task 10 required identifying disease mentions in Twitter posts. The presented systems explore large RoBERTa language models pre-trained on Twitter data in the case of tweet classification task and general-domain data for the disease recognition task. We also present a text pre-processing methodology implemented in both systems and describe an initial weakly-supervised fine-tuning phase alongside with a submission post-processing procedure designed for Task 10. The systems obtained 0.84 F1-score on the Task 5 and 0.77 F1-score on Task 10.

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BOUN-TABI@SMM4H’22: Text-to-Text Adverse Drug Event Extraction with Data Balancing and Prompting
Gökçe Uludoğan | Zeynep Yirmibeşoğlu

This paper describes models developed for the Social Media Mining for Health 2022 Shared Task. We participated in two subtasks: classification of English tweets reporting adverse drug events (ADE) (Task 1a) and extraction of ADE spans in such tweets (Task 1b). We developed two separate systems based on the T5 model, viewing these tasks as sequence-to-sequence problems. To address the class imbalance, we made use of data balancing via over- and undersampling on both tasks. For the ADE extraction task, we explored prompting to further benefit from the T5 model and its formulation. Additionally, we built an ensemble model, utilizing both balanced and prompted models. The proposed models outperformed the current state-of-the-art, with an F1 score of 0.655 on ADE classification and a Partial F1 score of 0.527 on ADE extraction.

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uestcc@SMM4H’22: RoBERTa based Adverse Drug Events Classification on Tweets
Chunchen Wei | Ran Bi | Yanru Zhang

This is a description of our participation in the ADE Mining in English Tweets shared task, organized by the Social Media Mining for Health SMM4H 2022 workshop. We participate in the subtask a of shared Task 1, and the paper introduces the system we developed for solving the task. The task requires classifying the given tweets by whether they mention the Adverse Drug Effects. We utilize RoBERTa model and apply several methods during training and finetuning period. We also try to improve the performance of our system by preprocessing the dataset but improve the precision only. The results of our system on test set are 0.601 in F1- score, 0.705 in precision, and 0.524 in recall.

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Zhegu@SMM4H-2022: The Pre-training Tweet & Claim Matching Makes Your Prediction Better
Pan He | Chen YuZe | Yanru Zhang

SMM4H-2022 (CITATION) Task 2 is to detect whether containing premise in the tweets of users about COVID-19 on the social medias or their stances for the claims. In this paper, we propose Tweet Claim Matching (TCM), which is a new pre-training task constructed by the tweets and claims similarly to Next Sentence Prediction (NSP). We first continue to pre-train the standard pre-trained language models on the labelled dataset and then fine-tune them for obtaining better performance. Compared with the solid baseline (CITATION), we achieve the absolute improvement of 7.9% in Task 2a and obtain the SOTA results.

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MaNLP@SMM4H’22: BERT for Classification of Twitter Posts
Keshav Kapur | Rajitha Harikrishnan | Sanjay Singh

The reported work is our straightforward approach for the shared task “Classification of tweets self-reporting age” organized by the “Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H)” workshop. This literature describes the approach that was used to build a binary classification system, that classifies the tweets related to birthday posts into two classes namely, exact age(positive class) and non-exact age(negative class). We made two submissions with variations in the preprocessing of text which yielded F1 scores of 0.80 and 0.81 when evaluated by the organizers.

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John_Snow_Labs@SMM4H’22: Social Media Mining for Health (#SMM4H) with Spark NLP
Veysel Kocaman | Cabir Celik | Damla Gurbaz | Gursev Pirge | Bunyamin Polat | Halil Saglamlar | Meryem Vildan Sarikaya | Gokhan Turer | David Talby

Social media has become a major source of information for healthcare professionals but due to the growing volume of data in unstructured format, analyzing these resources accurately has become a challenge. In this study, we trained health related NER and classification models on different datasets published within the Social Media Mining for Health Applications (#SMM4H 2022) workshop. Transformer based Bert for Token Classification and Bert for Sequence Classification algorithms as well as vanilla NER and text classification algorithms from Spark NLP library were utilized during this study without changing the underlying DL architecture. The trained models are available within a production-grade code base as part of the Spark NLP library; can scale up for training and inference in any Spark cluster; has GPU support and libraries for popular programming languages such as Python, R, Scala and Java.

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READ-BioMed@SocialDisNER: Adaptation of an Annotation System to Spanish Tweets
Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Karin Verspoor

We describe the work of the READ-BioMed team for the preparation of a submission to the SocialDisNER Disease Named Entity Recognition (NER) Task (Task 10) in 2022. We had developed a system for named entity recognition for identifying biomedical concepts in English MEDLINE citations and Spanish clinical text for the LivingNER 2022 challenge. Minimal adaptation of our system was required to perform named entity recognition in the Spanish tweets in the SocialDisNER task, given the availability of Spanish pre-trained language models and the SocialDisNER training data. Minor additions included treatment of emojis and entities in hashtags and Twitter account names.

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PLN CMM at SocialDisNER: Improving Detection of Disease Mentions in Tweets by Using Document-Level Features
Matias Rojas | Jose Barros | Kinan Martin | Mauricio Araneda-Hernandez | Jocelyn Dunstan

This paper describes our approaches used to solve the SocialDisNER task, which belongs to the Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H) shared task. This task aims to identify disease mentions in tweets written in Spanish. The proposed model is an architecture based on the FLERT approach. It consists of fine-tuning a language model that creates an input representation of a sentence based on its neighboring sentences, thus obtaining the document-level context. The best result was obtained using an ensemble of six language models using the FLERT approach. The system achieved an F1 score of 0.862, significantly surpassing the average performance among competitor models of 0.680 on the test partition.

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CLaCLab at SocialDisNER: Using Medical Gazetteers for Named-Entity Recognition of Disease Mentions in Spanish Tweets
Harsh Verma | Parsa Bagherzadeh | Sabine Bergler

This paper summarizes the CLaC submission for SMM4H 2022 Task 10 which concerns the recognition of diseases mentioned in Spanish tweets. Before classifying each token, we encode each token with a transformer encoder using features from Multilingual RoBERTa Large, UMLS gazetteer, and DISTEMIST gazetteer, among others. We obtain a strict F1 score of 0.869, with competition mean of 0.675, standard deviation of 0.245, and median of 0.761.

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CIC NLP at SMM4H 2022: a BERT-based approach for classification of social media forum posts
Atnafu Lambebo Tonja | Olumide Ebenezer Ojo | Mohammed Arif Khan | Abdul Gafar Manuel Meque | Olga Kolesnikova | Grigori Sidorov | Alexander Gelbukh

This paper describes our submissions for the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 shared tasks. We participated in 2 tasks: a) Task 4: Classification of Tweets self-reporting exact age and b) Task 9: Classification of Reddit posts self-reporting exact age. We evaluated the two( BERT and RoBERTa) transformer based models for both tasks. For Task 4 RoBERTa-Large achieved an F1 score of 0.846 on the test set and BERT-Large achieved an F1 score of 0.865 on the test set for Task 9.

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NCUEE-NLP@SMM4H’22: Classification of Self-reported Chronic Stress on Twitter Using Ensemble Pre-trained Transformer Models
Tzu-Mi Lin | Chao-Yi Chen | Yu-Wen Tzeng | Lung-Hao Lee

This study describes our proposed system design for the SMM4H 2022 Task 8. We fine-tune the BERT, RoBERTa, ALBERT, XLNet and ELECTRA transformers and their connecting classifiers. Each transformer model is regarded as a standalone method to detect tweets that self-reported chronic stress. The final output classification result is then combined using the majority voting ensemble mechanism. Experimental results indicate that our approach achieved a best F1-score of 0.73 over the positive class.

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BioInfo@UAVR@SMM4H’22: Classification and Extraction of Adverse Event mentions in Tweets using Transformer Models
Edgar Morais | José Luis Oliveira | Alina Trifan | Olga Fajarda

This paper describes BioInfo@UAVR team’s approach for adressing subtasks 1a and 1b of the Social Media Mining for Health Applications 2022 shared task. These sub-tasks deal with the classification of tweets that contain an Adverse Drug Event mentions and the detection of spans that correspond to those mentions. Our approach relies on transformer-based models, data augmentation, and an external dataset.

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FRE at SocialDisNER: Joint Learning of Language Models for Named Entity Recognition
Kendrick Cetina | Nuria García-Santa

This paper describes our followed methodology for the automatic extraction of disease mentions from tweets in Spanish as part of the SocialDisNER challenge within the 2022 Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H) Shared Task. We followed a Joint Learning ensemble architecture for the fine-tuning of top performing pre-trained language models in biomedical domain for Named Entity Recognition tasks. We used text generation techniques to augment training data. During practice phase of the challenge our approach showed results of 0.87 F1-Score.

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ITAINNOVA at SocialDisNER: A Transformers cocktail for disease identification in social media in Spanish
Rosa Montañés-Salas | Irene López-Bosque | Luis García-Garcés | Rafael del-Hoyo-Alonso

ITAINNOVA participates in SocialDisNER with a hybrid system which combines Transformer-based Language Models (LMs) with a custom-built gazetteer for Approximate String Matching (ASM) and dedicated text processing techniques for the social media domain. Additionally, zero-shot classification capabilities have been explored in order to support different parts of the system. An extensive analysis on the interactions of these components has been accomplished, making the system stand out above the mean performance of all the participating teams.

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mattica@SMM4H’22: Leveraging sentiment for stance & premise joint learning
Oscar Lithgow-Serrano | Joseph Cornelius | Fabio Rinaldi | Ljiljana Dolamic

This paper describes our submissions to the Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H) shared task 2022. Our team (mattica) participated in detecting stances and premises in tweets about health mandates related to COVID-19 (Task 2). Our approach was based on using an in-domain Pretrained Language Model, which we fine-tuned by combining different strategies such as leveraging an additional stance detection dataset through two-stage fine-tuning, joint-learning Stance and Premise detection objectives; and ensembling the sentiment-polarity given by an off-the-shelf fine-tuned model.

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KU_ED at SocialDisNER: Extracting Disease Mentions in Tweets Written in Spanish
Antoine Lain | Wonjin Yoon | Hyunjae Kim | Jaewoo Kang | Ian Simpson

This paper describes our system developed for the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 SocialDisNER task. We used several types of pre-trained language models, which are trained on Spanish biomedical literature or Spanish Tweets. We showed the difference in performance depending on the quality of the tokenization as well as introducing silver standard annotations when training the model. Our model obtained a strict F1 of 80.3% on the test set, which is an improvement of +12.8% F1 (24.6 std) over the average results across all submissions to the SocialDisNER challenge.

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CHAAI@SMM4H’22: RoBERTa, GPT-2 and Sampling - An interesting concoction
Christopher Palmer | Sedigheh Khademi Habibabadi | Muhammad Javed | Gerardo Luis Dimaguila | Jim Buttery

This paper describes the approaches to the SMM4H 2022 Shared Tasks that were taken by our team for tasks 1 and 6. Task 6 was the “Classification of tweets which indicate self-reported COVID-19 vaccination status (in English)”. The best test F1 score was 0.82 using a CT-BERT model, which exceeded the median test F1 score of 0.77, and was close to the 0.83 F1 score of the SMM4H baseline model. Task 1 was described as the “Classification, detection and normalization of Adverse Events (AE) mentions in tweets (in English)”. We undertook task 1a, and with a RoBERTa-base model achieved an F1 Score of 0.61 on test data, which exceeded the mean test F1 for the task of 0.56.

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IAI @ SocialDisNER : Catch me if you can! Capturing complex disease mentions in tweets
Aman Sinha | Cristina Garcia Holgado | Marianne Clausel | Matthieu Constant

Biomedical NER is an active research area today. Despite the availability of state-of-the-art models for standard NER tasks, their performance degrades on biomedical data due to OOV entities and the challenges encountered in specialized domains. We use Flair-NER framework to investigate the effectiveness of various contextual and static embeddings for NER on Spanish tweets, in particular, to capture complex disease mentions.

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UCCNLP@SMM4H’22:Label distribution aware long-tailed learning with post-hoc posterior calibration applied to text classification
Paul Trust | Provia Kadusabe | Ahmed Zahran | Rosane Minghim | Kizito Omala

The paper describes our submissions for the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) workshop 2022 shared tasks. We participated in 2 tasks: (1) classification of adverse drug events (ADE) mentions in english tweets (Task-1a) and (2) classification of self-reported intimate partner violence (IPV) on twitter (Task 7). We proposed an approach that uses RoBERTa (A Robustly Optimized BERT Pretraining Approach) fine-tuned with a label distribution-aware margin loss function and post-hoc posterior calibration for robust inference against class imbalance. We achieved a 4% and 1 % increase in performance on IPV and ADE respectively when compared with the traditional fine-tuning strategy with unweighted cross-entropy loss.

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HaleLab_NITK@SMM4H’22: Adaptive Learning Model for Effective Detection, Extraction and Normalization of Adverse Drug Events from Social Media Data
Reshma Unnikrishnan | Sowmya Kamath S | Ananthanarayana V. S.

This paper describes the techniques designed for detecting, extracting and normalizing adverse events from social data as part of the submission for the Shared task, Task 1-SMM4H’22. We present an adaptive learner mechanism for the foundation model to identify Adverse Drug Event (ADE) tweets. For the detected ADE tweets, a pipeline consisting of a pre-trained question-answering model followed by a fuzzy matching algorithm was leveraged for the span extraction and normalization tasks. The proposed method performed well at detecting ADE tweets, scoring an above-average F1 of 0.567 and 0.172 overlapping F1 for ADE normalization. The model’s performance for the ADE extraction task was lower, with an overlapping F1 of 0.435.

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Yet@SMM4H’22: Improved BERT-based classification models with Rdrop and PolyLoss
Yan Zhuang | Yanru Zhang

This paper describes our approach for 11 classification tasks (Task1a, Task2a, Task2b, Task3a, Task3b, Task4, Task5, Task6, Task7, Task8 and Task9) from Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 Shared Tasks. We developed a classification model that incorporated Rdrop to augment data and avoid overfitting, Poly Loss and Focal Loss to alleviate sample imbalance, and pseudo labels to improve model performance. The results of our submissions are over or equal to the median scores in almost all tasks. In addition, our model achieved the highest score in Task4, with a higher 7.8% and 5.3% F1-score than the median scores in Task2b and Task3a respectively.

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Fraunhofer FKIE @ SMM4H 2022: System Description for Shared Tasks 2, 4 and 9
Daniel Claeser | Samantha Kent

We present our results for the shared tasks 2, 4 and 9 at the SMM4H Workshop at COLING 2022 achieved by succesfully fine-tuning pre-trained language models to the downstream tasks. We identify the occurence of code-switching in the test data for task 2 as a possible source of considerable performance degradation on the test set scores. We successfully exploit structural linguistic similarities in the datasets of tasks 4 and 9 for training on joined datasets, scoring first in task 9 and on par with SOTA in task 4.

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Transformer-based classification of premise in tweets related to COVID-19
Vadim Porvatov | Natalia Semenova

Automation of social network data assessment is one of the classic challenges of natural language processing. During the COVID-19 pandemic, mining people’s stances from their public messages become crucial regarding the understanding of attitude towards health orders. In this paper, authors propose the transformer-based predictive model allowing to effectively classify presence of stance and premise in the Twitter texts.

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Fraunhofer SIT@SMM4H’22: Learning to Predict Stances and Premises in Tweets related to COVID-19 Health Orders Using Generative Models
Raphael Frick | Martin Steinebach

This paper describes the system used to predict stances towards health orders and to detect premises in Tweets as part of the Social Media Mining for Health 2022 (SMM4H) shared task. It takes advantage of GPT-2 to generate new labeled data samples which are used together with pre-labeled and unlabeled data to fine-tune an ensemble of GAN-BERT models. First experiments on the validation set yielded good results, although it also revealed that the proposed architecture is more suited for sentiment analysis. The system achieved a score of 0.4258 for the stance and 0.3581 for the premise detection on the test set.

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UB Health Miners@SMM4H’22: Exploring Pre-processing Techniques To Classify Tweets Using Transformer Based Pipelines.
Roshan Khatri | Sougata Saha | Souvik Das | Rohini Srihari

Here we discuss our implementation of two tasks in the Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H) 2022 shared tasks – classification, detection, and normalization of Adverse Events (AE) mentioned in English tweets (Task 1) and classification of English tweets self-reporting exact age (Task 4). We have explored different methods and models for binary classification, multi-class classification and named entity recognition (NER) for these tasks. We have also processed the provided dataset for noise, imbalance, and creative language expression from data. Using diverse NLP methods we classified tweets for mentions of adverse drug effects (ADEs) and self-reporting the exact age in the tweets. Further, extracted reactions from the tweets and normalized these adverse effects to a standard concept ID in the MedDRA vocabulary.

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CSECU-DSG@SMM4H’22: Transformer based Unified Approach for Classification of Changes in Medication Treatments in Tweets and WebMD Reviews
Afrin Sultana | Nihad Karim Chowdhury | Abu Nowshed Chy

Medications play a vital role in medical treatment as medication non-adherence reduces clinical benefit, results in morbidity, and medication wastage. Self-declared changes in drug treatment and their reasons are automatically extracted from tweets and user reviews, helping to determine the effectiveness of drugs and improve treatment care. SMM4H 2022 Task 3 introduced a shared task focusing on the identification of non-persistent patients from tweets and WebMD reviews. In this paper, we present our participation in this task. We propose a neural approach that integrates the strengths of the transformer model, the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model, and the fully connected layer into a unified architecture. Experimental results demonstrate the competitive performance of our system on test data with 61% F1-score on task 3a and 86% F1-score on task 3b. Our proposed neural approach ranked first in task 3b.

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Innovators @ SMM4H’22: An Ensembles Approach for self-reporting of COVID-19 Vaccination Status Tweets
Mohammad Zohair | Nidhir Bhavsar | Aakash Bhatnagar | Muskaan Singh

With the Surge in COVID-19, the number of social media postings related to the vaccine has grown, specifically tracing the confirmed reports by the users regarding the COVID-19 vaccine dose termed “Vaccine Surveillance.” To mitigate this research problem, we present our novel ensembled approach for self-reporting COVID-19 vaccination status tweets into two labels, namely “Vaccine Chatter” and “Self Report.” We utilize state-of-the-art models, namely BERT, RoBERTa, and XLNet. Our model provides promising results with 0.77, 0.93, and 0.66 as precision, recall, and F1-score (respectively), comparable to the corresponding median scores of 0.77, 0.9, and 0.68 (respec- tively). The model gave an overall accuracy of 93.43. We also present an empirical analysis of the results to present how well the tweet was able to classify and report. We release our code base here

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Innovators@SMM4H’22: An Ensembles Approach for Stance and Premise Classification of COVID-19 Health Mandates Tweets
Vatsal Savaliya | Aakash Bhatnagar | Nidhir Bhavsar | Muskaan Singh

This paper presents our submission for the Shared Task-2 of classification of stance and premise in tweets about health mandates related to COVID-19 at the Social Media Mining for Health 2022. There have been a plethora of tweets about people expressing their opinions on the COVID-19 epidemic since it first emerged. The shared task emphasizes finding the level of cooperation within the mandates for their stance towards the health orders of the pandemic. Overall the shared subjects the participants to propose system’s that can efficiently perform 1) Stance Detection, which focuses on determining the author’s point of view in the text. 2) Premise Classification, which indicates whether or not the text has arguments. Through this paper we propose an orchestration of multiple transformer based encoders to derive the output for stance and premise classification. Our best model achieves a F1 score of 0.771 for Premise Classification and an aggregate macro-F1 score of 0.661 for Stance Detection. We have made our code public here

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AILAB-Udine@SMM4H’22: Limits of Transformers and BERT Ensembles
Beatrice Portelli | Simone Scaboro | Emmanuele Chersoni | Enrico Santus | Giuseppe Serra

This paper describes the models developed by the AILAB-Udine team for the SMM4H’22 Shared Task. We explored the limits of Transformer based models on text classification, entity extraction and entity normalization, tackling Tasks 1, 2, 5, 6 and 10. The main takeaways we got from participating in different tasks are: the overwhelming positive effects of combining different architectures when using ensemble learning, and the great potential of generative models for term normalization.

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AIR-JPMC@SMM4H’22: Classifying Self-Reported Intimate Partner Violence in Tweets with Multiple BERT-based Models
Alec Louis Candidato | Akshat Gupta | Xiaomo Liu | Sameena Shah

This paper presents our submission for the SMM4H 2022-Shared Task on the classification of self-reported intimate partner violence on Twitter (in English). The goal of this task was to accurately determine if the contents of a given tweet demonstrated someone reporting their own experience with intimate partner violence. The submitted system is an ensemble of five RoBERTa models each weighted by their respective F1-scores on the validation data-set. This system performed 13% better than the baseline and was the best performing system overall for this shared task.

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ARGUABLY@SMM4H’22: Classification of Health Related Tweets using Ensemble, Zero-Shot and Fine-Tuned Language Model
Prabsimran Kaur | Guneet Kohli | Jatin Bedi

With the increase in the use of social media, people have become more outspoken and are using platforms like Reddit, Facebook, and Twitter to express their views and share the medical challenges they are facing. This data is a valuable source of medical insight and is often used for healthcare research. This paper describes our participation in Task 1a, 2a, 2b, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 organized by SMM4H 2022. We have proposed two transformer-based approaches to handle the classification tasks. The first approach is fine-tuning single language models. The second approach is ensembling the results of BERT, RoBERTa, and ERNIE 2.0.

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CASIA@SMM4H’22: A Uniform Health Information Mining System for Multilingual Social Media Texts
Jia Fu | Sirui Li | Hui Ming Yuan | Zhucong Li | Zhen Gan | Yubo Chen | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao | Shengping Liu

This paper presents a description of our system in SMM4H-2022, where we participated in task 1a,task 4, and task 6 to task 10. There are three main challenges in SMM4H-2022, namely the domain shift problem, the prediction bias due to category imbalance, and the noise in informal text. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for the classification and named entity recognition tasks to solve the challenges, and it can be applied to both English and Spanish scenarios. The results of our system are higher than the median F1-scores for 7 tasks and significantly exceed the F1-scores for 6 tasks. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our system.

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Edinburgh_UCL_Health@SMM4H’22: From Glove to Flair for handling imbalanced healthcare corpora related to Adverse Drug Events, Change in medication and self-reporting vaccination
Imane Guellil | Jinge Wu | Honghan Wu | Tony Sun | Beatrice Alex

This paper reports on the performance of Edinburgh_UCL_Health’s models in the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 shared tasks. Our team participated in the tasks related to the Identification of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs), the classification of change in medication (change-med) and the classification of self-report of vaccination (self-vaccine). Our best performing models are based on DeepADEMiner (with respective F1= 0.64, 0.62 and 0.39 for ADE identification), on a GloVe model trained on Twitter (with F1=0.11 for the change-med) and finally on a stack embedding including a layer of Glove embedding and two layers of Flair embedding (with F1= 0.77 for self-report).

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KUL@SMM4H’22: Template Augmented Adaptive Pre-training for Tweet Classification
Sumam Francis | Marie-Francine Moens

This paper describes models developed for the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 shared tasks. Our team participated in the first subtask that classifies tweets with Adverse Drug Effect (ADE) mentions. Our best-performing model comprises of a template augmented task adaptive pre-training and further fine-tuning on target task data. Augmentation with random prompt templates increases the amount of task-specific data to generalize the LM to the target task domain. We explore 2 pre-training strategies: Masked language modeling (MLM) and Simple contrastive pre-training (SimSCE) and the impact of adding template augmentations with these pre-training strategies. Our system achieves an F1 score of 0.433 on the test set without using supplementary resources and medical dictionaries.

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Enolp musk@SMM4H’22 : Leveraging Pre-trained Language Models for Stance And Premise Classification
Millon Das | Archit Mangrulkar | Ishan Manchanda | Manav Kapadnis | Sohan Patnaik

This paper covers our approaches for the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) Shared Tasks 2a and 2b. Apart from the baseline architectures, we experiment with Parts of Speech (PoS), dependency parsing, and Tf-Idf features. Additionally, we perform contrastive pretraining on our best models using a supervised contrastive loss function. In both the tasks, we outperformed the mean and median scores and ranked first on the validation set. For stance classification, we achieved an F1-score of 0.636 using the CovidTwitterBERT model, while for premise classification, we achieved an F1-score of 0.664 using BART-base model on test dataset.

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AIR-JPMC@SMM4H’22: Identifying Self-Reported Spanish COVID-19 Symptom Tweets Through Multiple-Model Ensembling
Adrian Garcia Hernandez | Leung Wai Liu | Akshat Gupta | Vineeth Ravi | Saheed O. Obitayo | Xiaomo Liu | Sameena Shah

We present our response to Task 5 of the Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H) 2022 competition. We share our approach into classifying whether a tweet in Spanish about COVID-19 symptoms pertain to themselves, others, or not at all. Using a combination of BERT based models, we were able to achieve results that were higher than the median result of the competition.

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AIR-JPMC@SMM4H’22: BERT + Ensembling = Too Cool: Using Multiple BERT Models Together for Various COVID-19 Tweet Identification Tasks
Leung Wai Liu | Akshat Gupta | Saheed Obitayo | Xiaomo Liu | Sameena Shah

This paper presents my submission for Tasks 1 and 2 for the Social Media Mining of Health (SMM4H) 2022 Shared Tasks competition. I first describe the background behind each of these tasks, followed by the descriptions of the various subtasks of Tasks 1 and 2, then present the methodology. Through model ensembling, this methodology was able to achieve higher results than the mean and median of the competition for the classification tasks.

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CAISA@SMM4H’22: Robust Cross-Lingual Detection of Disease Mentions on Social Media with Adversarial Methods
Akbar Karimi | Lucie Flek

We propose adversarial methods for increasing the robustness of disease mention detection on social media. Our method applies adversarial data augmentation on the input and the embedding spaces to the English BioBERT model. We evaluate our method in the SocialDisNER challenge at SMM4H’22 on an annotated dataset of disease mentions in Spanish tweets. We find that both methods outperform a heuristic vocabulary-based baseline by a large margin. Additionally, utilizing the English BioBERT model shows a strong performance and outperforms the data augmentation methods even when applied to the Spanish dataset, which has a large amount of data, while augmentation methods show a significant advantage in a low-data setting.

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OFU@SMM4H’22: Mining Advent Drug Events Using Pretrained Language Models
Omar Adjali | Fréjus A. A. Laleye | Umang Aggarwal

We describe in this paper our proposed systems for the Social Media Mining for Health 2022 shared task 1. In particular, we participated in the three sub-tasks, tasks that aim at extracting and processing Adverse Drug Events. We investigate different transformer-based pretrained models we fine-tuned on each task and proposed some improvement on the task of entity normalization.

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CompLx@SMM4H’22: In-domain pretrained language models for detection of adverse drug reaction mentions in English tweets
Orest Xherija | Hojoon Choi

The paper describes the system that team CompLx developed for sub-task 1a of the Social Media Mining for Health 2022 (#SMM4H) Shared Task. We finetune a RoBERTa model, a pretrained, transformer-based language model, on a provided dataset to classify English tweets for mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), i.e. negative side effects related to medication intake. With only a simple finetuning, our approach achieves competitive results, significantly outperforming the average score across submitted systems. We make the model checkpoints and code publicly available. We also create a web application to provide a user-friendly, readily accessible interface for anyone interested in exploring the model’s capabilities.

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The SocialDisNER shared task on detection of disease mentions in health-relevant content from social media: methods, evaluation, guidelines and corpora
Luis Gasco Sánchez | Darryl Estrada Zavala | Eulàlia Farré-Maduell | Salvador Lima-López | Antonio Miranda-Escalada | Martin Krallinger

There is a pressing need to exploit health-related content from social media, a global source of data where key health information is posted directly by citizens, patients and other healthcare stakeholders. Use cases of disease related social media mining include disease outbreak/surveillance, mental health and pharmacovigilance. Current efforts address the exploitation of social media beyond English. The SocialDisNER task, organized as part of the SMM4H 2022 initiative, has applied the LINKAGE methodology to select and annotate a Gold Standard corpus of 9,500 tweets in Spanish enriched with disease mentions generated by patients and medical professionals. As a complementary resource for teams participating in the SocialDisNER track, we have also created a large-scale corpus of 85,000 tweets, where in addition to disease mentions, other medical entities of relevance (e.g., medications, symptoms and procedures, among others) have been automatically labelled. Using these large-scale datasets, co-mention networks or knowledge graphs were released for each entity pair type. Out of the 47 teams registered for the task, 17 teams uploaded a total of 32 runs. The top-performing team achieved a very competitive 0.891 f-score, with a system trained following a continue pre-training strategy. We anticipate that the corpus and systems resulting from the SocialDisNER track might further foster health related text mining of social media content in Spanish and inspire disease detection strategies in other languages.

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Romanian micro-blogging named entity recognition including health-related entities
Vasile Pais | Verginica Barbu Mititelu | Elena Irimia | Maria Mitrofan | Carol Luca Gasan | Roxana Micu

This paper introduces a manually annotated dataset for named entity recognition (NER) in micro-blogging text for Romanian language. It contains gold annotations for 9 entity classes and expressions: persons, locations, organizations, time expressions, legal references, disorders, chemicals, medical devices and anatomical parts. Furthermore, word embeddings models computed on a larger micro-blogging corpus are made available. Finally, several NER models are trained and their performance is evaluated against the newly introduced corpus.

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The Best of Both Worlds: Combining Engineered Features with Transformers for Improved Mental Health Prediction from Reddit Posts
Sourabh Zanwar | Daniel Wiechmann | Yu Qiao | Elma Kerz

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to the detection of mental health conditions (MHC) based on social media data. In this paper, we aim to improve the state-of-the-art (SoTA) detection of six MHC in Reddit posts in two ways: First, we built models leveraging Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BLSTM) networks trained on in-text distributions of a comprehensive set of psycholinguistic features for more explainable MHC detection as compared to black-box solutions. Second, we combine these BLSTM models with Transformers to improve the prediction accuracy over SoTA models. In addition, we uncover nuanced patterns of linguistic markers characteristic of specific MHC.

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Leveraging Social Media as a Source for Clinical Guidelines: A Demarcation of Experiential Knowledge
Jia-Zhen Michelle Chan | Florian Kunneman | Roser Morante | Lea Lösch | Teun Zuiderent-Jerak

In this paper we present a procedure to extract posts that contain experiential knowledge from Facebook discussions in Dutch, using automated filtering, manual annotations and machine learning. We define guidelines to annotate experiential knowledge and test them on a subset of the data. After several rounds of (re-)annotations, we come to an inter-annotator agreement of K=0.69, which reflects the difficulty of the task. We subsequently discuss inclusion and exclusion criteria to cope with the diversity of manifestations of experiential knowledge relevant to guideline development.

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COVID-19-related Nepali Tweets Classification in a Low Resource Setting
Rabin Adhikari | Safal Thapaliya | Nirajan Basnet | Samip Poudel | Aman Shakya | Bishesh Khanal

Billions of people across the globe have been using social media platforms in their local languages to voice their opinions about the various topics related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Several organizations, including the World Health Organization, have developed automated social media analysis tools that classify COVID-19-related tweets to various topics. However, these tools that help combat the pandemic are limited to very few languages, making several countries unable to take their benefit. While multi-lingual or low-resource language-specific tools are being developed, there is still a need to expand their coverage, such as for the Nepali language. In this paper, we identify the eight most common COVID-19 discussion topics among the Twitter community using the Nepali language, set up an online platform to automatically gather Nepali tweets containing the COVID-19-related keywords, classify the tweets into the eight topics, and visualize the results across the period in a web-based dashboard. We compare the performance of two state-of-the-art multi-lingual language models for Nepali tweet classification, one generic (mBERT) and the other Nepali language family-specific model (MuRIL). Our results show that the models’ relative performance depends on the data size, with MuRIL doing better for a larger dataset. The annotated data, models, and the web-based dashboard are open-sourced at

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SMM4H 2022 Task 2: Dataset for stance and premise detection in tweets about health mandates related to COVID-19
Vera Davydova | Elena Tutubalina

This paper is an organizers’ report of the competition on argument mining systems dealing with English tweets about COVID-19 health mandates. This competition was held within the framework of the SMM4H 2022 shared tasks. During the competition, the participants were offered two subtasks: stance detection and premise classification. We present a manually annotated corpus containing 6,156 short posts from Twitter on three topics related to the COVID-19 pandemic: school closures, stay-at-home orders, and wearing masks. We hope the prepared dataset will support further research on argument mining in the health field.

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Overview of the Seventh Social Media Mining for Health Applications (#SMM4H) Shared Tasks at COLING 2022
Davy Weissenbacher | Juan Banda | Vera Davydova | Darryl Estrada Zavala | Luis Gasco Sánchez | Yao Ge | Yuting Guo | Ari Klein | Martin Krallinger | Mathias Leddin | Arjun Magge | Raul Rodriguez-Esteban | Abeed Sarker | Lucia Schmidt | Elena Tutubalina | Graciela Gonzalez-Hernandez

For the past seven years, the Social Media Mining for Health Applications (#SMM4H) shared tasks have promoted the community-driven development and evaluation of advanced natural language processing systems to detect, extract, and normalize health-related information in public, user-generated content. This seventh iteration consists of ten tasks that include English and Spanish posts on Twitter, Reddit, and WebMD. Interest in the #SMM4H shared tasks continues to grow, with 117 teams that registered and 54 teams that participated in at least one task—a 17.5% and 35% increase in registration and participation, respectively, over the last iteration. This paper provides an overview of the tasks and participants’ systems. The data sets remain available upon request, and new systems can be evaluated through the post-evaluation phase on CodaLab.