Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2024

Kevin Duh, Helena Gomez, Steven Bethard (Editors)

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Mexico City, Mexico
Association for Computational Linguistics
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Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2024
Kevin Duh | Helena Gomez | Steven Bethard

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Structured Pruning for Large Language Models Using Coupled Components Elimination and Minor Fine-tuning
Honghe Zhang | XiaolongShi XiaolongShi | Jingwei Sun | Guangzhong Sun

Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated powerful capabilities in natural language processing, yet their vast number of parameters poses challenges for deployment and inference efficiency. Structured model pruning emerges as a viable approach to reduce model size and accelerate inference, without requiring specialized operators and libraries for deployment. However, structured pruning often severely weakens the model’s capability.Despite repetitive fine-tuning can restore the capability to a certain extent, it impairs LLMs’ utility as versatile problem solvers.To address this issue, we propose a novel structured pruning algorithm tailored for LLMs. It derives the importance of different components, namely rows and columns in parameter matrices, based on intermediate data dependencies. Then it removes coupled components across different layers simultaneously and preserves dependency relationships within remaining parameters, avoiding significant performance degradation. The pruned model requires only few epochs of fine-tuning to restore its performance, ensuring the model’s ability to generalize.Empirical evaluations on LLaMA, Vicuna, and ChatGLM3 demonstrate our algorithm’s efficacy, yielding 20% parameter reduction while retaining at least 94.4% of original performance metrics.

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Weight-Inherited Distillation for Task-Agnostic BERT Compression
Taiqiang Wu | Cheng Hou | Shanshan Lao | Jiayi Li | Ngai Wong | Zhe Zhao | Yujiu Yang

Knowledge Distillation (KD) is a predominant approach for BERT compression.Previous KD-based methods focus on designing extra alignment losses for the student model to mimic the behavior of the teacher model.These methods transfer the knowledge in an indirect way.In this paper, we propose a novel Weight-Inherited Distillation (WID), which directly transfers knowledge from the teacher.WID does not require any additional alignment loss and trains a compact student by inheriting the weights, showing a new perspective of knowledge distillation.Specifically, we design the row compactors and column compactors as mappings and then compress the weights via structural re-parameterization.Experimental results on the GLUE and SQuAD benchmarks show that WID outperforms previous state-of-the-art KD-based baselines.Further analysis indicates that WID can also learn the attention patterns from the teacher model without any alignment loss on attention distributions.The code is available at

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Ignore Me But Don’t Replace Me: Utilizing Non-Linguistic Elements for Pretraining on the Cybersecurity Domain
Eugene Jang | Jian Cui | Dayeon Yim | Youngjin Jin | Jin-Woo Chung | Seungwon Shin | Yongjae Lee

Cybersecurity information is often technically complex and relayed through unstructured text, making automation of cyber threat intelligence highly challenging. For such text domains that involve high levels of expertise, pretraining on in-domain corpora has been a popular method for language models to obtain domain expertise. However, cybersecurity texts often contain non-linguistic elements (such as URLs and hash values) that could be unsuitable with the established pretraining methodologies. Previous work in other domains have removed or filtered such text as noise, but the effectiveness of these methods have not been investigated, especially in the cybersecurity domain. We experiment with different pretraining methodologies to account for non-linguistic elements (NLEs) and evaluate their effectiveness through downstream tasks and probing tasks. Our proposed strategy, a combination of selective MLM and jointly training NLE token classification, outperforms the commonly taken approach of replacing NLEs. We use our domain-customized methodology to train CyBERTuned, a cybersecurity domain language model that outperforms other cybersecurity PLMs on most tasks.

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Extremely efficient online query encoding for dense retrieval
Nachshon Cohen | Yaron Fairstein | Guy Kushilevitz

Existing dense retrieval systems utilize the same model architecture for encoding both the passages and the queries, even though queries are much shorter and simpler than passages. This leads to high latency of the query encoding, which is performed online and therefore might impact user experience. We show that combining a standard large passage encoder with a small efficient query encoder can provide significant latency drops with only a small decrease in quality. We offer a pretraining and training solution for multiple small query encoder architectures. Using a small transformer architecture we are able to decrease latency by up to ∼12×, while MRR@10 on the MS MARCO dev set only decreases from 38.2 to 36.2. If this solution does not reach the desired latency requirements, we propose an efficient RNN as the query encoder, which processes the query prefix incrementally and only infers the last word after the query is issued. This shortens latency by ∼38× with only a minor drop in quality, reaching 35.5 MRR@10 score.

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DIVKNOWQA: Assessing the Reasoning Ability of LLMs via Open-Domain Question Answering over Knowledge Base and Text
Wenting Zhao | Ye Liu | Tong Niu | Yao Wan | Philip Yu | Shafiq Joty | Yingbo Zhou | Semih Yavuz

Large Language Models (LLMs) have exhibited impressive generation capabilities, but they suffer from hallucinations when solely relying on their internal knowledge, especially when answering questions that require less commonly known information. Retrievalaugmented LLMs have emerged as a potential solution to ground LLMs in external knowledge. Nonetheless, recent approaches have primarily emphasized retrieval from unstructured text corpora, owing to its seamless integration into prompts. When using structured data such as knowledge graphs, most methods simplify it into natural text, neglecting the underlying structures. Moreover, a significant gap in the current landscape is the absence of a realistic benchmark for evaluating the effectiveness of grounding LLMs on heterogeneous knowledge sources (e.g., knowledge base and text). To fill this gap, we have curated a comprehensive dataset that poses two unique challenges: (1) Two-hop multi-source questions that require retrieving information from both open-domain structured and unstructured knowledge sources; retrieving information from structured knowledge sources is a critical component in correctly answering the questions. (2) Generation of symbolic queries (e.g., SPARQL for Wikidata) is a key requirement, which adds another layer of challenge. Our dataset is created using a combination of automatic generation through predefined reasoning chains and human annotation. We also introduce a novel approach that leverages multiple retrieval tools, including text passage retrieval and symbolic language-assisted retrieval. Our model outperforms previous approaches by a significant margin, demonstrating its effectiveness in addressing the above-mentioned reasoning challenges.

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SpeedE: Euclidean Geometric Knowledge Graph Embedding Strikes Back
Aleksandar Pavlović | Emanuel Sallinger

Geometric knowledge graph embedding models (gKGEs) have shown great potential for knowledge graph completion (KGC), i.e., automatically predicting missing triples. However, contemporary gKGEs require high embedding dimensionalities or complex embedding spaces for good KGC performance, drastically limiting their space and time efficiency. Facing these challenges, we propose SpeedE, a lightweight Euclidean gKGE that (1) provides strong inference capabilities, (2) is competitive with state-of-the-art gKGEs, even significantly outperforming them on YAGO3-10 and WN18RR, and (3) dramatically increases their efficiency, in particular, needing solely a fifth of the training time and a fourth of the parameters of the state-of-the-art ExpressivE model on WN18RR to reach the same KGC performance.

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Language Guided Exploration for RL Agents in Text Environments
Hitesh Golchha | Sahil Yerawar | Dhruvesh Patel | Soham Dan | Keerthiram Murugesan

Real-world sequential decision making is characterized by sparse rewards and large decision spaces, posing significant difficulty for experiential learning systems like tabula rasa reinforcement learning (RL) agents. Large Language Models (LLMs), with a wealth of world knowledge, can help RL agents learn quickly and adapt to distribution shifts. In this work, we introduce Language Guided Exploration (LGE) framework, which uses a pre-trained language model (called GUIDE ) to provide decision-level guidance to an RL agent (called EXPLORER ). We observe that on ScienceWorld (Wang et al., 2022), a challenging text environment, LGE outperforms vanilla RL agents significantly and also outperforms other sophisticated methods like Behaviour Cloning and Text Decision Transformer.

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GPT-who: An Information Density-based Machine-Generated Text Detector
Saranya Venkatraman | Adaku Uchendu | Dongwon Lee

The Uniform Information Density (UID) principle posits that humans prefer to spread information evenly during language production. We examine if this UID principle can help capture differences between Large Language Models (LLMs)-generated and human-generated texts. We propose GPT-who, the first psycholinguistically-inspired domain-agnostic statistical detector. This detector employs UID-based featuresto model the unique statistical signature of each LLM and human author for accurate detection. We evaluate our method using 4 large-scale benchmark datasets and find that GPT-who outperforms state-of-the-art detectors (both statistical- & non-statistical) such as GLTR, GPTZero, DetectGPT, OpenAI detector, and ZeroGPT by over 20% across domains.In addition to better performance, it is computationally inexpensive and utilizes an interpretable representation of text articles. We find that GPT-who can distinguish texts generated by very sophisticated LLMs, even when the overlying text is indiscernible.UID-based measures for all datasets and code are available at

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DEED: Dynamic Early Exit on Decoder for Accelerating Encoder-Decoder Transformer Models
Peng Tang | Pengkai Zhu | Tian Li | Srikar Appalaraju | Vijay Mahadevan | R. Manmatha

Encoder-decoder transformer models have achieved great success on various vision-language (VL) and language tasks, but they suffer from high inference latency. Typically, the decoder takes up most of the latency because of the auto-regressive decoding. To accelerate the inference, we propose an approach of performing Dynamic Early Exit on Decoder (DEED). We build a multi-exit encoder-decoder transformer model which is trained with deep supervision so that each of its decoder layers is capable of generating plausible predictions. In addition, we leverage simple yet practical techniques, including shared generation head and adaptation modules, to keep accuracy when exiting at shallow decoder layers. Based on the multi-exit model, we perform step-level dynamic early exit during inference, where the model may decide to use fewer decoder layers based on its confidence of the current layer at each individual decoding step. Considering different number of decoder layers may be used at different decoding steps, we compute deeper-layer decoder features of previous decoding steps just-in-time, which ensures the features from different decoding steps are semantically aligned. We evaluate our approach with three state-of-the-art encoder-decoder transformer models on various VL and language tasks. We show our approach can reduce overall inference latency by 20%-74% with comparable or even higher accuracy compared to baselines.

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Attention Alignment and Flexible Positional Embeddings Improve Transformer Length Extrapolation
Ta-Chung Chi | Ting-Han Fan | Alexander Rudnicky

An ideal length-extrapolatable Transformer language model can handle sequences longer than the training length without any fine-tuning. Such long-context utilization capability relies heavily on a flexible positional embedding design. Upon investigating the flexibility of existing large pre-trained Transformer language models, we find that the T5 family deserves a closer look, as its positional embeddings capture rich and flexible attention patterns. However, T5 suffers from the dispersed attention issue: the longer the input sequence, the flatter the attention distribution. To alleviate the issue, we propose two attention alignment strategies via temperature scaling. Our findings show improvement on the long-context utilization capability of T5 on language modeling, retrieval, multi-document question answering, and code completion tasks without any fine-tuning. This suggests that a flexible positional embedding design and attention alignment can go a long way toward Transformer length extrapolation. The code is released at:

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Automatic Pair Construction for Contrastive Post-training
Canwen Xu | Corby Rosset | Ethan Chau | Luciano Corro | Shweti Mahajan | Julian McAuley | Jennifer Neville | Ahmed Awadallah | Nikhil Rao

Alignment serves as an important step to steer large language models (LLMs) towards human preferences. In this paper, we propose an automatic way to construct contrastive data for LLM, using preference pairs from multiple models of varying strengths (e.g., InstructGPT, ChatGPT and GPT-4). We compare the contrastive techniques of SLiC and DPO to SFT baselines and find that DPO provides a step-function improvement even after continuing SFT saturates. We also explore a data curriculum learning scheme for contrastive post-training, which starts by learning from “easier” pairs and transitioning to “harder” ones, which further improves alignment. Finally, we scale up our experiments to train with more data and larger models like Orca. Remarkably, our automatic contrastive post-training further improves the performance of Orca, already a state-of-the-art instruction learning model tuned with GPT-4 outputs, to outperform ChatGPT.

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Self-Checker: Plug-and-Play Modules for Fact-Checking with Large Language Models
Miaoran Li | Baolin Peng | Michel Galley | Jianfeng Gao | Zhu Zhang

Fact-checking is an essential task in NLP that is commonly utilized to validate the factual accuracy of a piece of text. Previous approaches mainly involve the resource-intensive process of fine-tuning pre-trained language models on specific datasets. In addition, there is a notable gap in datasets that focus on fact-checking texts generated by large language models (LLMs). In this paper, we introduce Self-Checker, a plug-and-play framework that harnesses LLMs for efficient and rapid fact-checking in a few-shot manner. We also present the BingCheck dataset, specifically designed for fact-checking texts generated by LLMs. Empirical results demonstrate the potential of Self-Checker in the use of LLMs for fact-checking. Compared to state-of-the-art fine-tuned models, there is still significant room for improvement, indicating that adopting LLMs could be a promising direction for future fact-checking research.

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Low-resource neural machine translation with morphological modeling
Antoine Nzeyimana

Morphological modeling in neural machine translation (NMT) is a promising approach to achieving open-vocabulary machine translation for morphologically-rich languages. However, existing methods such as sub-word tokenization and character-based models are limited to the surface forms of the words. In this work, we propose a framework-solution for modeling complex morphology in low-resource settings. A two-tier transformer architecture is chosen to encode morphological information at the inputs. At the target-side output, a multi-task multi-label training scheme coupled with a beam search-based decoder are found to improve machine translation performance. An attention augmentation scheme to the transformer model is proposed in a generic form to allow integration of pre-trained language models and also facilitate modeling of word order relationships between the source and target languages. Several data augmentation techniques are evaluated and shown to increase translation performance in low-resource settings. We evaluate our proposed solution on Kinyarwanda English translation using public-domain parallel text. Our final models achieve competitive performance in relation to large multi-lingual models. We hope that our results will motivate more use of explicit morphological information and the proposed model and data augmentations in low-resource NMT.

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Self-Cleaning: Improving a Named Entity Recognizer Trained on Noisy Data with a Few Clean Instances
Zhendong Chu | Ruiyi Zhang | Tong Yu | Rajiv Jain | Vlad Morariu | Jiuxiang Gu | Ani Nenkova

To achieve state-of-the-art performance, one still needs to train NER models on large-scale, high-quality annotated data, an asset that is both costly and time-intensive to accumulate. In contrast, real-world applications often resort to massive low-quality labeled data through non-expert annotators via crowdsourcing and external knowledge bases via distant supervision as a cost-effective alternative. However, these annotation methods result in noisy labels, which in turn lead to a notable decline in performance. Hence, we propose to denoise the noisy NER data with guidance from a small set of clean instances. Along with the main NER model we train a discriminator model and use its outputs to recalibrate the sample weights. The discriminator is capable of detecting both span and category errors with different discriminative prompts. Results on public crowdsourcing and distant supervision datasets show that the proposed method can consistently improve performance with a small guidance set.

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VLUE: A New Benchmark and Multi-task Knowledge Transfer Learning for Vietnamese Natural Language Understanding
Phong Do | Son Tran | Phu Hoang | Kiet Nguyen | Ngan Nguyen

The success of Natural Language Understanding (NLU) benchmarks in various languages, such as GLUE for English, CLUE for Chinese, KLUE for Korean, and IndoNLU for Indonesian, has facilitated the evaluation of new NLU models across a wide range of tasks. To establish a standardized set of benchmarks for Vietnamese NLU, we introduce the first Vietnamese Language Understanding Evaluation (VLUE) benchmark. The VLUE benchmark encompasses five datasets covering different NLU tasks, including text classification, span extraction, and natural language understanding. To provide an insightful overview of the current state of Vietnamese NLU, we then evaluate seven state-of-the-art pre-trained models, including both multilingual and Vietnamese monolingual models, on our proposed VLUE benchmark. Furthermore, we present CafeBERT, a new state-of-the-art pre-trained model that achieves superior results across all tasks in the VLUE benchmark. Our model combines the proficiency of a multilingual pre-trained model with Vietnamese linguistic knowledge. CafeBERT is developed based on the XLM-RoBERTa model, with an additional pretraining step utilizing a significant amount of Vietnamese textual data to enhance its adaptation to the Vietnamese language. For the purpose of future research, CafeBERT is made publicly available for research purposes.

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LETI: Learning to Generate from Textual Interactions
Xingyao Wang | Hao Peng | Reyhaneh Jabbarvand | Heng Ji

Fine-tuning pre-trained language models (LMs) is essential for enhancing their capabilities.Existing techniques commonly fine-tune on input-output pairs (e.g., instruction tuning) or with numerical rewards that gauge the output quality (e.g., RLHF). We explore LMs’ potential to **le**arn from **t**extual **i**nteractions (**LETI**) that not only check their correctness with *binary labels* but also pinpoint and explain errors in their outputs through *textual feedback*.Our focus is the code generation task, where the model produces code based on natural language instructions. This setting invites a natural and scalable way to acquire textual feedback: the error messages and stack traces from code execution using a Python interpreter. LETI iteratively fine-tunes the model, using the LM objective, on a concatenation of natural language instructions, LM-generated programs, and textual feedback. Prepended to this fine-tuning text, a binary reward token is used to differentiate correct and buggy solutions.LETI requires *no* ground-truth outputs for training and even outperforms a fine-tuned baseline that does. LETI not only improves the performance of LMs on a code generation dataset MBPP, but also generalizes to other datasets. Trained on MBPP, it achieves comparable or better performance than the base LMs on unseen problems in HumanEval. Furthermore, compared to binary feedback, we observe that textual feedback leads to improved generation quality and sample efficiency, achieving the same performance with fewer than half of the gradient steps.LETI is equally applicable in natural language tasks when they can be formulated as code generation, which we empirically verified on event argument extraction.

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Bilateral Masking with prompt for Knowledge Graph Completion
Yonghui Kong | Cunhang Fan | Yujie Chen | Shuai Zhang | Zhao Lv | Jianhua Tao

The pre-trained language model (PLM) has achieved significant success in the field of knowledge graph completion (KGC) by effectively modeling entity and relation descriptions. In recent studies, the research in this field has been categorized into methods based on word matching and sentence matching, with the former significantly lags behind. However, there is a critical issue in word matching methods, which is that these methods fail to obtain satisfactory single embedding representations for entities.To address this issue and enhance entity representation, we propose the Bilateral Masking with prompt for Knowledge Graph Completion (BMKGC) approach.Our methodology employs prompts to narrow the distance between the predicted entity and the known entity. Additionally, the BMKGC model incorporates a bi-encoder architecture, enabling simultaneous predictions at both the head and tail. Furthermore, we propose a straightforward technique to augment positive samples, mitigating the problem of degree bias present in knowledge graphs and thereby improving the model’s robustness. Experimental results conclusively demonstrate that BMKGC achieves state-of-the-art performance on the WN18RR dataset.

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MiLe Loss: a New Loss for Mitigating the Bias of Learning Difficulties in Generative Language Models
Zhenpeng Su | Zijia Lin | Baixue Baixue | Hui Chen | Songlin Hu | Wei Zhou | Guiguang Ding | Xing W

Generative language models are usually pre-trained on large text corpus via predicting the next token (i.e., sub-word/word/phrase) given the previous ones. Recent works have demonstrated the impressive performance of large generative language models on downstream tasks. However, existing generative language models generally neglect an inherent challenge in text corpus during training, i.e., the imbalance between frequent tokens and infrequent ones. It can lead a language model to be dominated by common and easy-to-learn tokens, thereby overlooking the infrequent and difficult-to-learn ones. To alleviate that, we propose a **MiLe Loss** function for **mi**tigating the bias of **le**arning difficulties with tokens. During training, it can dynamically assess the learning difficulty of a to-be-learned token, according to the information entropy of the corresponding predicted probability distribution over the vocabulary. Then it scales the training loss adaptively, trying to lead the model to focus more on the difficult-to-learn tokens. On the Pile dataset, we train generative language models at different scales of 468M, 1.2B, and 6.7B parameters. Experiments reveal that models incorporating the proposed MiLe Loss can gain consistent performance improvement on downstream benchmarks.

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GOLD: Geometry Problem Solver with Natural Language Description
Jiaxin Zhang | Yashar Moshfeghi

Addressing the challenge of automated geometry math problem-solving in artificial intelligence (AI) involves understanding multi-modal information and mathematics. blackCurrent methods struggle with accurately interpreting geometry diagrams, which hinders effective problem-solving. To tackle this issue, we present the Geometry problem sOlver with natural Language Description (GOLD) model. GOLD enhances the extraction of geometric relations by separately processing symbols and geometric primitives within the diagram. Subsequently, it converts the extracted relations into natural language descriptions, efficiently utilizing large language models to solve geometry math problems. Experiments show that the GOLD model outperforms the Geoformer model, the previous best method on the UniGeo dataset, by achieving accuracy improvements of 12.7% and 42.1% in calculation and proving subsets. Additionally, it surpasses the former best model on the PGPS9K and Geometry3K datasets, PGPSNet, by obtaining accuracy enhancements of 1.8% and 3.2%, respectively.

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RoDia: A New Dataset for Romanian Dialect Identification from Speech
Rotaru Codruț | Nicolae Ristea | Radu Ionescu

We introduce RoDia, the first dataset for Romanian dialect identification from speech. The RoDia dataset includes a varied compilation of speech samples from five distinct regions of Romania, covering both urban and rural environments, totaling 2 hours of manually annotated speech data. Along with our dataset, we introduce a set of competitive models to be used as baselines for future research. The top scoring model achieves a macro F1 score of 59.83% and a micro F1 score of 62.08%, indicating that the task is challenging. We thus believe that RoDia is a valuable resource that will stimulate research aiming to address the challenges of Romanian dialect identification. We release our dataset at

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Examining Modularity in Multilingual LMs via Language-Specialized Subnetworks
Rochelle Choenni | Ekaterina Shutova | Dan Garrette

Recent work has proposed explicitly inducing language-wise modularity in multilingual LMs via sparse fine-tuning (SFT) on per-language subnetworks as a means of better guiding cross-lingual sharing. In this paper, we investigate (1) the degree to which language-wise modularity *naturally* arises within models with no special modularity interventions, and (2) how cross-lingual sharing and interference differ between such models and those with explicit SFT-guided subnetwork modularity. In order to do so, we use XLM-R as our multilingual LM. Moreover, to quantify language specialization and cross-lingual interaction, we use a Training Data Attribution method that estimates the degree to which a model’s predictions are influenced by in-language or cross-language training examples. Our results show that language-specialized subnetworks do naturally arise, and that SFT, rather than always increasing modularity, can decrease language specialization of subnetworks in favor of more cross-lingual sharing.

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Reverse Chain: A Generic-Rule for LLMs to Master Multi-API Planning
Yinger Zhang | Hui Cai | Xierui Song | Yicheng Chen | Rui Sun | Jing Zheng

While enabling large language models to implement function calling (known as APIs) can greatly enhance the performance of Large Language Models (LLMs), function calling is still a challenging task due to the complicated relations between different APIs, especially in a context-learning setting without fine-tuning. This paper introduces “Reverse Chain”, a controllable, target-driven approach designed to empower LLMs with the capability to operate external APIs only via prompts. Recognizing that most LLMs have limited tool-use capabilities, Reverse Chain limits LLMs to executing simple tasks, e.g., API Selection and Argument Completion. Furthermore, to manage a controllable multi-function calling, Reverse Chain adopts a generic rule-based on a backward reasoning process. This rule determines when to do API selection or Argument completion. To evaluate the multi-tool-use capability of LLMs, we have released a compositional multi-tool task dataset, available at Extensive numerical experiments validate the remarkable proficiency of Reverse Chain in managing multiple API calls.

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Incorporating Exponential Smoothing into MLP: a Simple but Effective Sequence Model
JiqunChu JiqunChu | Zuoquan Lin

Modeling long-range dependencies in sequential data is a crucial step in sequence learning. A recently developed model, the Structured State Space (S4), demonstrated significant effectiveness in modeling long-range sequences. However, It is unclear whether the success of S4 can be attributed to its intricate parameterization and HiPPO initialization or simply due to State Space Models (SSMs). To further investigate the potential of the deep SSMs, we start with exponential smoothing (ETS), a simple SSM, and propose a stacked architecture by directly incorporating it into an element-wise MLP. We augment simple ETS with additional parameters and complex field to reduce the inductive bias. Despite increasing less than 1% of parameters of element-wise MLP, our models achieve comparable results to S4 on the LRA benchmark.

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OpenFMNav: Towards Open-Set Zero-Shot Object Navigation via Vision-Language Foundation Models
Yuxuan Kuang | Hai Lin | Meng Jiang

Object navigation (ObjectNav) requires an agent to navigate through unseen environments to find queried objects. Many previous methods attempted to solve this task by relying on supervised or reinforcement learning, where they are trained on limited household datasets with close-set objects. However, two key challenges are unsolved: understanding free-form natural language instructions that demand open-set objects, and generalizing to new environments in a zero-shot manner. Aiming to solve the two challenges, in this paper, we propose **OpenFMNav**, an **Open**-set **F**oundation **M**odel based framework for zero-shot object **Nav**igation. We first unleash the reasoning abilities of large language models (LLMs) to extract proposed objects from natural language instructions that meet the user’s demand. We then leverage the generalizability of large vision language models (VLMs) to actively discover and detect candidate objects from the scene, building a *Versatile Semantic Score Map (VSSM)*. Then, by conducting common sense reasoning on *VSSM*, our method can perform effective language-guided exploration and exploitation of the scene and finally reach the goal. By leveraging the reasoning and generalizing abilities of foundation models, our method can understand free-form human instructions and perform effective open-set zero-shot navigation in diverse environments. Extensive experiments on the HM3D ObjectNav benchmark show that our method surpasses all the strong baselines on all metrics, proving our method’s effectiveness. Furthermore, we perform real robot demonstrations to validate our method’s open-set-ness and generalizability to real-world environments.

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Comparing Two Model Designs for Clinical Note Generation; Is an LLM a Useful Evaluator of Consistency?
Nathan Brake | Thomas Schaaf

Following an interaction with a patient, physicians are responsible for the submission of clinical documentation, often organized as a SOAP note. A clinical note is not simply a summary of the conversation but requires the use of appropriate medical terminology. The relevant information can then be extracted and organized according to the structure of the SOAP note. In this paper we analyze two different approaches to generate the different sections of a SOAP note based on the audio recording of the conversation, and specifically examine them in terms of note consistency. The first approach generates the sections independently, while the second method generates them all together. In this work we make use of PEGASUS-X Transformer models and observe that both methods lead to similar ROUGE values (less than 1% difference) and have no difference in terms of the Factuality metric. We perform a human evaluation to measure aspects of consistency and demonstrate that LLMs like Llama2 can be used to perform the same tasks with roughly the same agreement as the human annotators. Between the Llama2 analysis and the human reviewers we observe a Cohen Kappa inter-rater reliability of 0.79, 1.00, and 0.32 for consistency of age, gender, and body part injury, respectively. With this we demonstrate the usefulness of leveraging an LLM to measure quality indicators that can be identified by humans but are not currently captured by automatic metrics. This allows scaling evaluation to larger data sets, and we find that clinical note consistency improves by generating each new section conditioned on the output of all previously generated sections.

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VOLTA: Improving Generative Diversity by Variational Mutual Information Maximizing Autoencoder
Yueen Ma | DaFeng Chi | Jingjing Li | Kai Song | Yuzheng Zhuang | Irwin King

The natural language generation domain has witnessed great success thanks to Transformer models. Although they have achieved state-of-the-art generative quality, they often neglect generative diversity. Prior attempts to tackle this issue suffer from either low model capacity or over-complicated architectures. Some recent methods employ the VAE framework to enhance diversity, but their latent variables fully depend on the input context, restricting exploration of the latent space. In this paper, we introduce VOLTA, a framework that elevates generative diversity by bridging Transformer with VAE via a more effective cross-attention-based connection, departing from conventional embedding concatenation or summation. Additionally, we propose integrating InfoGAN-style latent codes to enable input-independent variability, further diversifying the generation. Moreover, our framework accommodates discrete inputs alongside its existing support for continuous inputs. We perform comprehensive experiments with two types of Transformers on six datasets from three different NLG tasks to show that our approach can significantly improve generative diversity while maintaining generative quality.

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EcoSpeak: Cost-Efficient Bias Mitigation for Partially Cross-Lingual Speaker Verification
Divya Sharma

Linguistic bias is a critical problem concerning the diversity, equity, and inclusiveness of Natural Language Processing tools. The severity of this problem intensifies in security systems, such as speaker verification, where fairness is paramount. Speaker verification systems are biometric systems that determine whether two speech recordings are of the same speaker. Such user-centric systems should be inclusive to bilingual speakers. However, Deep neural network models are linguistically biased. Linguistic bias can be full or partial. Partially cross-lingual bias occurs when one test trial pair recording is in the training set’s language, and the other is in an unseen target language. Such linguistic mismatch influences the speaker verification model’s decision, dissuading bilingual speakers from using the system. Domain adaptation can mitigate this problem. However, adapting to each existing language is expensive. This paper explores cost-efficient bias mitigation techniques for partially cross-lingual speaker verification. We study the behavior of five baselines in five partially cross-lingual scenarios. Using our baseline behavioral insights, we propose EcoSpeak, a low-cost solution to partially cross-lingual speaker verification. EcoSpeak incorporates contrastive linguistic (CL) attention. CL attention utilizes linguistic differences in trial pairs to emphasize relevant speaker verification embedding parts. Experimental results demonstrate EcoSpeak’s robustness to partially cross-lingual testing.

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Leveraging Contextual Information for Effective Entity Salience Detection
Rajarshi Bhowmik | Marco Ponza | Atharva Tendle | Anant Gupta | Rebecca Jiang | Xingyu Lu | Qian Zhao | Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro

In text documents such as news articles, the content and key events usually revolve around a subset of all the entities mentioned in a document. These entities, often deemed as salient entities, provide useful cues of the aboutness of a document to a reader. Identifying the salience of entities was found helpful in several downstream applications such as search, ranking, and entity-centric summarization, among others. Prior work on salient entity detection mainly focused on machine learning models that require heavy feature engineering. We show that fine-tuning medium-sized language models with a cross-encoder style architecture yields substantial performance gains over feature engineering approaches. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive benchmarking of four publicly available datasets using models representative of the medium-sized pre-trained language model family. Additionally, we show that zero-shot prompting of instruction-tuned language models yields inferior results, indicating the task’s uniqueness and complexity.

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LLM-as-a-Coauthor: Can Mixed Human-Written and Machine-Generated Text Be Detected?
Qihui Zhang | Chujie Gao | Dongping Chen | Yue Huang | Yixin Huang | Zhenyang Sun | Shilin Zhang | Weiye Li | Zhengyan Fu | Yao Wan | Lichao Sun

With the rapid development and widespread application of Large Language Models (LLMs), the use of Machine-Generated Text (MGT) has become increasingly common, bringing with it potential risks, especially in terms of quality and integrity in fields like news, education, and science. Current research mainly focuses on purely MGT detection, without adequately addressing mixed scenarios including AI-revised Human-Written Text (HWT) or human-revised MGT. To tackle this challenge, we define mixtext, a form of mixed text involving both AI and human-generated content. Then we introduce MixSet, the first dataset dedicated to studying these mixtext scenarios. Leveraging MixSet, we executed comprehensive experiments to assess the efficacy of prevalent MGT detectors in handling mixtext situations, evaluating their performance in terms of effectiveness, robustness, and generalization. Our findings reveal that existing detectors struggle to identify mixtext, particularly in dealing with subtle modifications and style adaptability. This research underscores the urgent need for more fine-grain detectors tailored for mixtext, offering valuable insights for future research. Code and Models are available at

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A (More) Realistic Evaluation Setup for Generalisation of Community Models on Malicious Content Detection
Ivo Verhoeven | Pushkar Mishra | Rahel Beloch | Helen Yannakoudakis | Ekaterina Shutova

Community models for malicious content detection, which take into account the context from a social graph alongside the content itself, have shown remarkable performance on benchmark datasets. Yet, misinformation and hate speech continue to propagate on social media networks. This mismatch can be partially attributed to the limitations of current evaluation setups that neglect the rapid evolution of online content and the underlying social graph. In this paper, we propose a novel evaluation setup for model generalisation based on our few-shot subgraph sampling approach. This setup tests for generalisation through few labelled examples in local explorations of a larger graph, emulating more realistic application settings. We show this to be a challenging inductive setup, wherein strong performance on the training graph is not indicative of performance on unseen tasks, domains, or graph structures. Lastly, we show that graph meta-learners trained with our proposed few-shot subgraph sampling outperform standard community models in the inductive setup.

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Citation: A Key to Building Responsible and Accountable Large Language Models
Jie Huang | Kevin Chang

Large Language Models (LLMs) bring transformative benefits alongside unique challenges, including intellectual property (IP) and ethical concerns. This position paper explores a novel angle to mitigate these risks, drawing parallels between LLMs and established web systems. We identify “citation”—the acknowledgement or reference to a source or evidence—as a crucial yet missing component in LLMs. Incorporating citation could enhance content transparency and verifiability, thereby confronting the IP and ethical issues in the deployment of LLMs. We further propose that a comprehensive citation mechanism for LLMs should account for both non-parametric and parametric content. Despite the complexity of implementing such a citation mechanism, along with the potential pitfalls, we advocate for its development. Building on this foundation, we outline several research problems in this area, aiming to guide future explorations towards building more responsible and accountable LLMs.

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Graph-Induced Syntactic-Semantic Spaces in Transformer-Based Variational AutoEncoders
Yingji Zhang | Marco Valentino | Danilo Carvalho | Ian Pratt-Hartmann | Andre Freitas

The injection of syntactic information in Variational AutoEncoders (VAEs) can result in an overall improvement of performances and generalisation. An effective strategy to achieve such a goal is to separate the encoding of distributional semantic features and syntactic structures into heterogeneous latent spaces via multi-task learning or dual encoder architectures. However, existing works employing such techniques are limited to LSTM-based VAEs. This work investigates latent space separation methods for structural syntactic injection in Transformer-based VAE architectures (i.e., Optimus) through the integration of graph-based models. Our empirical evaluation reveals that the proposed end-to-end VAE architecture can improve theoverall organisation of the latent space, alleviating the information loss occurring in standard VAE setups, and resulting in enhanced performances on language modelling and downstream generation tasks.

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Narrowing the Gap between Zero- and Few-shot Machine Translation by Matching Styles
Weiting Tan | Haoran Xu | Lingfeng Shen | Shuyue Stella Li | Kenton Murray | Philipp Koehn | Benjamin Van Durme | Yunmo Chen

Large language models trained primarily in a monolingual setting have demonstrated their ability to generalize to machine translation using zero- and few-shot examples with in-context learning. However, even though zero-shot translations are relatively good, there remains a discernible gap comparing their performance with the few-shot setting. In this paper, we investigate the factors contributing to this gap and find that this gap can largely be closed (for about 70%) by matching the writing styles of the target corpus. Additionally, we explore potential approaches to enhance zero-shot baselines without the need for parallel demonstration examples, providing valuable insights into how these methods contribute to improving translation metrics.

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Which Modality should I use - Text, Motif, or Image? : Understanding Graphs with Large Language Models
Debarati Das | Ishaan Gupta | Jaideep Srivastava | Dongyeop Kang

Our research integrates graph data with Large Language Models (LLMs), which, despite their advancements in various fields using large text corpora, face limitations in encoding entire graphs due to context size constraints. This paper introduces a new approach to encoding a graph with diverse modalities, such as text, image, and motif, coupled with prompts to approximate a graph’s global connectivity, thereby enhancing LLMs’ efficiency in processing complex graph structures. The study also presents GraphTMI, a novel benchmark for evaluating LLMs in graph structure analysis, focusing on homophily, motif presence, and graph difficulty. Key findings indicate that the image modality, especially with vision-language models like GPT-4V, is superior to text in balancing token limits and preserving essential information and comes close to prior graph neural net (GNN) encoders. Furthermore, the research assesses how various factors affect the performance of each encoding modality and outlines the existing challenges and potential future developments for LLMs in graph understanding and reasoning tasks. Our code and data are publicly available on our project page -

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On-the-Fly Fusion of Large Language Models and Machine Translation
Hieu Hoang | Huda Khayrallah | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt

We propose on-the-fly ensembling of a neural machine translation (NMT) model with a large language model (LLM), prompted on the same task and input. Through experiments on 4 language directions with varying data amounts, we find that a slightly weaker-at-translation LLM can improve translations of a NMT model, and such an ensemble can produce better translations than ensembling two stronger NMT models.We demonstrate that our ensemble method can be combined with various techniques from LLM prompting, such as in context learning and translation context.

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READ: Improving Relation Extraction from an ADversarial Perspective
Dawei Li | William Hogan | Jingbo Shang

Recent works in relation extraction (RE) have achieved promising benchmark accuracy; however, our adversarial attack experiments show that these works excessively rely on entities, making their generalization capability questionable. To address this issue, we propose an adversarial training method specifically designed for RE. Our approach introduces both sequence- and token-level perturbations to the sample and uses a separate perturbation vocabulary to improve the search for entity and context perturbations.Furthermore, we introduce a probabilistic strategy for leaving clean tokens in the context during adversarial training. This strategy enables a larger attack budget for entities and coaxes the model to leverage relational patterns embedded in the context. Extensive experiments show that compared to various adversarial training methods, our method significantly improves both the accuracy and robustness of the model. Additionally, experiments on different data availability settings highlight the effectiveness of our method in low-resource scenarios.We also perform in-depth analyses of our proposed method and provide further hints.We will release our code at

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REQUAL-LM: Reliability and Equity through Aggregation in Large Language Models
Sana Ebrahimi | Nima Shahbazi | Abolfazl Asudeh

The extensive scope of large language models (LLMs) across various domains underscores the critical importance of responsibility in their application, beyond natural language processing. In particular, the randomized nature of LLMs, coupled with inherent biases and historical stereotypes in data, raises critical concerns regarding reliability and equity. Addressing these challenges are necessary before using LLMs for applications with societal impact. Towards addressing this gap, we introduce REQUAL-LM, a novel method for finding reliable and equitable LLM outputs through aggregation. Specifically, we develop a Montecarlo method based on repeated sampling to find a reliable output close to the mean of the underlying distribution of possible outputs. We formally define the terms such as reliability and bias, and design an equity-aware aggregation to minimize harmful bias while finding a highly reliable output. REQUAL-LM does not require specialized hardware, does not impose a significant computing load, and uses LLMs as a blackbox. This design choice enables seamless scalability alongside the rapid advancement of LLM technologies. Our system does not require retraining the LLMs, which makes it deployment ready and easy to adapt. Our comprehensive experiments using various tasks and datasets demonstrate that REQUAL-LM effectively mitigates bias and selects a more equitable response, specifically the outputs that properly represents minority groups.

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Addressing Both Statistical and Causal Gender Fairness in NLP Models
Hannah Chen | Yangfeng Ji | David Evans

Statistical fairness stipulates equivalent outcomes for every protected group, whereas causal fairness prescribes that a model makes the same prediction for an individual regardless of their protected characteristics. Counterfactual data augmentation (CDA) is effective for reducing bias in NLP models, yet models trained with CDA are often evaluated only on metrics that are closely tied to the causal fairness notion; similarly, sampling-based methods designed to promote statistical fairness are rarely evaluated for causal fairness. In this work, we evaluate both statistical and causal debiasing methods for gender bias in NLP models, and find that while such methods are effective at reducing bias as measured by the targeted metric, they do not necessarily improve results on other bias metrics. We demonstrate that combinations of statistical and causal debiasing techniques are able to reduce bias measured through both types of metrics.

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LLM-Rec: Personalized Recommendation via Prompting Large Language Models
Hanjia Lyu | Song Jiang | Hanqing Zeng | Yinglong Xia | Qifan Wang | Si Zhang | Ren Chen | Chris Leung | Jiajie Tang | Jiebo Luo

Text-based recommendation holds a wide range of practical applications due to its versatility, as textual descriptions can represent nearly any type of item. However, directly employing the original item descriptions may not yield optimal recommendation performance due to the lack of comprehensive information to align with user preferences. Recent advances in large language models (LLMs) have showcased their remarkable ability to harness commonsense knowledge and reasoning. In this study, we introduce a novel approach, coined LLM-Rec, which incorporates four distinct prompting strategies of text enrichment for improving personalized text-based recommendations. Our empirical experiments reveal that using LLM-augmented text significantly enhances recommendation quality. Even basic MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron) models achieve comparable or even better results than complex content-based methods. Notably, the success of LLM-Rec lies in its prompting strategies, which effectively tap into the language model’s comprehension of both general and specific item characteristics. This highlights the importance of employing diverse prompts and input augmentation techniques to boost the recommendation effectiveness of LLMs.

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A Robust Semantics-based Watermark for Large Language Model against Paraphrasing
Jie Ren | Han Xu | Yiding Liu | Yingqian Cui | Shuaiqiang Wang | Dawei Yin | Jiliang Tang

Large language models (LLMs) have show their remarkable ability in various natural language tasks. However, there are concerns that LLMs are possible to be used improperly or even illegally. To prevent the malicious usage of LLMs, detecting LLM-generated text becomes crucial in the deployment of LLM applications. Watermarking is an effective strategy to detect the LLM-generated content by encoding a pre-defined secret watermark to facilitate the detection process. However, the majority of existing watermark methods leverage the simple hashes of precedent tokens to partition vocabulary. Such watermarks can be easily eliminated by paraphrase and, correspondingly, the detection effectiveness will be greatly compromised. Thus, to enhance the robustness against paraphrase, we propose a semantics-based watermark framework, SemaMark. It leverages the semantics as an alternative to simple hashes of tokens since the semantic meaning of the sentences will be likely preserved under paraphrase and the watermark can remain robust. Comprehensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of SemaMark under different paraphrases.

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Solving Data-centric Tasks using Large Language Models
Shraddha Barke | Christian Poelitz | Carina Negreanu | Benjamin Zorn | José Cambronero | Andrew Gordon | Vu Le | Elnaz Nouri | Nadia Polikarpova | Advait Sarkar | Brian Slininger | Neil Toronto | Jack Williams

Large language models are rapidly replacing help forums like StackOverflow, and are especially helpful to non-professional programmers and end users. These users are often interested in data-centric tasks, like spreadsheet manipulation and data wrangling, which are hard to solve if the intent is only communicated using a natural-language description, without including data. But how do we decide how much data and which data to include in the prompt?This paper makes two contributions towards answering this question. First, we create a dataset of real-world NL-to-code tasks manipulating tabular data, mined from StackOverflow posts. Second, we introduce a novel cluster-then-select prompting technique, which adds the most representative rows from the input data to the LLM prompt. Our experiments show that LLM performance is indeed sensitive to the amount of data passed in the prompt, and that for tasks with a lot of syntactic variation in the input table,our cluster-then-select technique outperforms a random selection baseline.

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A Novel Paradigm Boosting Translation Capabilities of Large Language Models
Jiaxin Guo | Hao Yang | Zongyao Li | Daimeng Wei | Hengchao Shang | Xiaoyu Chen

This paper presents a study on strategies to enhance the translation capabilities of large language models (LLMs) in the context of machine translation (MT) tasks. The paper proposes a novel paradigm consisting of three stages: Secondary Pre-training using Extensive Monolingual Data, Continual Pre-training with Interlinear Text Format Documents, and Leveraging Source-Language Consistent Instruction for Supervised Fine-Tuning. Previous research on LLMs focused on various strategies for supervised fine-tuning (SFT), but their effectiveness has been limited. While traditional machine translation approaches rely on vast amounts of parallel bilingual data, our paradigm highlights the importance of using smaller sets of high-quality bilingual data. We argue that the focus should be on augmenting LLMs’ cross-lingual alignment abilities during pre-training rather than solely relying on extensive bilingual data during SFT. Experimental results conducted using the Llama2(CITATION)model, particularly on Chinese-Llama2(CITATION) after monolingual augmentation, demonstrate the improved translation capabilities of LLMs. A significant contribution of our approach lies in Stage2: Continual Pre-training with Interlinear Text Format Documents, which requires less than 1B training data, making our method highly efficient. Additionally, in Stage3, we observed that setting instructions consistent with the source language benefits the supervised fine-tuning process. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach surpasses previous work and achieves superior performance compared to models such as NLLB-54B(CITATION) and GPT3.5-text-davinci-003, despite having a significantly smaller parameter count of only 7B or 13B. This achievement establishes our method as a pioneering strategy in the field of machine translation.

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Measuring Social Norms of Large Language Models
Ye Yuan | Kexin Tang | Jianhao Shen | Ming Zhang | Chenguang Wang

We present a new challenge to examine whether large language models understand social norms. In contrast to existing datasets, our dataset requires a fundamental understanding of social norms to solve. Our dataset features the largest set of social norm skills, consisting of 402 skills and 12,383 questions covering a wide set of social norms ranging from opinions and arguments to culture and laws. We design our dataset according to the K-12 curriculum. This enables the direct comparison of the social understanding of large language models to humans, more specifically, elementary students. While prior work generates nearly random accuracy on our benchmark, recent large language models such as GPT3.5-Turbo and LLaMA2-Chat are able to improve the performance significantly, only slightly below human performance. We then propose a multi-agent framework based on large language models to improve the models’ ability to understand social norms. This method further improves large language models to be on par with humans. Given the increasing adoption of large language models in real-world applications, our finding is particularly important and presents a unique direction for future improvements.

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Source-Free Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Question Answering via Prompt-Assisted Self-learning
Maxwell Yin | Boyu Wang | Charles Ling

This work addresses source-free domain adaptation (SFDA) for Question Answering (QA), wherein a model trained on a source domain is adapted to unlabeled target domains without additional source data. Existing SFDA methods only focus on the adaptation phase, overlooking the impact of source domain training on model generalizability. In this paper, we argue that source model training itself is also critical for improving the adaptation performance and stability. To this end, we investigate the role of prompt learning as an effective method to internalize domain-agnostic QA knowledge, which can be integrated into source training. After source training, an interactive self-learning strategy is proposed to further fine tune both model and prompt in the model adaptation phase. This leads to the Prompt-Assisted Self-Adaptive Learning (PASAL), an innovative SFDA approach for QA. Empirical evaluation on four benchmark datasets shows that PASAL surpasses existing methods in managing domain gaps and demonstrates greater stability across various target domains, validating the significance of source domain training for effective domain adaptation.

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Hierarchical Attention Graph for Scientific Document Summarization in Global and Local Level
Chenlong Zhao | Xiwen Zhou | Xiaopeng Xie | Yong Zhang

Scientific document summarization has been a challenging task due to the long structure of the input text. The long input hinders the simultaneous effective modeling of both global high-order relations between sentences and local intra-sentence relations which is the most critical step in extractive summarization. However, existing methods mostly focus on one type of relation, neglecting the simultaneous effective modeling of both relations, which can lead to insufficient learning of semantic representations. In this paper, we propose HAESum, a novel approach utilizing graph neural networks to locally and globally model documents based on their hierarchical discourse structure. First, intra-sentence relations are learned using a local heterogeneous graph. Subsequently, a novel hypergraph self-attention layer is introduced to further enhance the characterization of high-order inter-sentence relations. We validate our approach on two benchmark datasets, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of HAESum and the importance of considering hierarchical structures in modeling long scientific documents.

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LEEETs-Dial: Linguistic Entrainment in End-to-End Task-oriented Dialogue systems
Nalin Kumar | Ondrej Dusek

Linguistic entrainment, or alignment, represents a phenomenon where linguistic patterns employed by conversational participants converge to one another. While entrainment has been shown to produce a more natural user experience, most dialogue systems do not have any provisions for it. In this work, we introduce methods for achieving dialogue entrainment in a GPT-2-based end-to-end task-oriented dialogue system through the utilization of shared vocabulary. We experiment with training instance weighting, entrainment-specific loss, and additional conditioning to generate responses that align with the user. We demonstrate that all three approaches produce significantly better entrainment than the base, non-entrainment-optimized model, as confirmed by both automated and manual evaluation metrics.

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Efficient Dependency Tree Sampling Without Replacement
Bogdan Dobre

In the context of computational models of dependency syntax, most dependency treebanks have the restriction that any valid dependency tree must have exactly one edge coming out of the root node in addition to respecting the spanning tree constraints. Many algorithms for dependency tree sampling were recently proposed, both for sampling with and without replacement.In this paper we propose a new algorithm called Wilson Reject SWOR for the case of sampling without replacement by adapting the Wilson Reject algorithm originally created for sampling with replacement and combining it with a Trie data structure. Experimental results indicate the efficiency of our approach in the scenario of sampling without replacement from dependency graphs with random weights.

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Towards Better Generalization in Open-Domain Question Answering by Mitigating Context Memorization
Zixuan Zhang | Revanth Gangi Reddy | Kevin Small | Tong Zhang | Heng Ji

Open-domain Question Answering (OpenQA) aims at answering factual questions with an external large-scale knowledge corpus. However, real-world knowledge is not static; it updates and evolves continually. Such a dynamic characteristic of knowledge poses a vital challenge for these models, as the trained models need to constantly adapt to the latest information to make sure that the answers remain accurate. In addition, it is still unclear how well an OpenQA model can transfer to completely new knowledge domains. In this paper, we investigate the generalization performance of a retrieval-augmented QA model in two specific scenarios: 1) adapting to updated versions of the same knowledge corpus; 2) switching to completely different knowledge domains. We observe that the generalization challenges of OpenQA models stem from the reader’s over-reliance on memorizing the knowledge from the external corpus, which hinders the model from generalizing to a new knowledge corpus. We introduce Corpus-Invariant Tuning (CIT), a simple but effective training strategy, to mitigate the knowledge over-memorization by controlling the likelihood of retrieved contexts during training. Extensive experimental results on multiple OpenQA benchmarks show that CIT achieves significantly better generalizability without compromising the model’s performance in its original corpus and domain.

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GEE! Grammar Error Explanation with Large Language Models
Yixiao Song | Kalpesh Krishna | Rajesh Bhatt | Kevin Gimpel | Mohit Iyyer

Existing grammatical error correction tools do not provide natural language explanations of the errors that they correct in user-written text. However, such explanations are essential for helping users learn the language by gaining a deeper understanding of its grammatical rules (DeKeyser, 2003; Ellis et al., 2006).To address this gap, we propose the task of grammar error explanation, where a system needs to provide one-sentence explanations for each grammatical error in a pair of erroneous and corrected sentences. The task is not easily solved by prompting LLMs: we find that, using one-shot prompting, GPT-4 only explains 40.6% of the errors and does not even attempt to explain 39.8% of the errors.Since LLMs struggle to identify grammar errors, we develop a two-step pipeline that leverages fine-tuned and prompted large language models to perform structured atomic token edit extraction, followed by prompting GPT-4 to explain each edit. We evaluate our pipeline on German, Chinese, and English grammar error correction data. Our atomic edit extraction achieves an F1 of 0.93 on German, 0.91 on Chinese, and 0.891 on English. Human evaluation of generated explanations reveals that 93.9% of German errors, 96.4% of Chinese errors, and 92.20% of English errors are correctly detected and explained. To encourage further research, we open-source our data and code.

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AdaRefiner: Refining Decisions of Language Models with Adaptive Feedback
Wanpeng Zhang | Zongqing Lu

Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated significant success across various domains. However, their application in complex decision-making tasks frequently necessitates intricate prompt engineering or fine-tuning, leading to challenges in unseen downstream tasks and heavy demands on computational resources. Meanwhile, Reinforcement Learning (RL) has been recognized as effective in decision-making problems but struggles in environments with sparse rewards, such as open-world games. To overcome these challenges, we introduce AdaRefiner, a novel framework designed to enhance the synergy between LLMs and RL feedback. The key component of AdaRefiner is a lightweight Adapter Language Model (LM), which automatically refines task comprehension based on feedback from RL agents. This method mitigates the need for intricate prompt engineering and intensive LLM fine-tuning while maintaining the LLMs’ generalization abilities and enhancing their decision-making capabilities in downstream tasks. Empirical evaluations of AdaRefiner on 22 diverse tasks within the open-world game Crafter have demonstrated its superior effectiveness, especially in guiding agents towards higher-level and common-sense skills. Our work makes contributions to the automatic self-refinement of LLMs with RL feedback, offering a more adaptable and efficient solution for complex decision-making problems. The code is available at

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DivTOD: Unleashing the Power of LLMs for Diversifying Task-Oriented Dialogue Representations
Weihao Zeng | Dayuan Fu | Keqing He | Yejie Wang | Yukai Xu | Weiran Xu

Language models pre-trained on general text have achieved impressive results in diverse fields. Yet, the distinct linguistic characteristics of task-oriented dialogues (TOD) compared to general text limit the practical utility of existing language models. Current task-oriented dialogue pre-training methods overlook the one-to-many property of conversations, where multiple responses can be appropriate given the same conversation context.In this paper, we propose a novel dialogue pre-training model called DivTOD, which collaborates with LLMs to learn diverse task-oriented dialogue representations. DivTOD guides LLMs in transferring diverse knowledge to smaller models while removing domain knowledge that contradicts task-oriented dialogues. Experiments show that our model outperforms strong TOD baselines on various downstream dialogue tasks and learns the intrinsic diversity of task-oriented dialogues.

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Teaching a Multilingual Large Language Model to Understand Multilingual Speech via Multi-Instructional Training
Pavel Denisov | Thang Vu

Recent advancements in language modeling have led to the emergenceof Large Language Models (LLMs) capable ofvarious natural language processing tasks.Despite their success in text-based tasks, applying LLMs to the speech domainremains limited and challenging. This paper presents BLOOMZMMS, a novel modelthat integrates a multilingual LLM with a multilingual speech encoder,aiming to harness the capabilities of LLMs for speech recognition and beyond.Utilizing a multi-instructional training approach, we demonstrate the transferabilityof linguistic knowledge from the text to the speech modality.Our experiments, conducted on 1900 hours of transcribed data from 139 languages,establish that a multilingual speech representation can be effectivelylearned and aligned with a multilingual LLM. While this learned representationinitially shows limitations in task generalization, we address this issue bygenerating synthetic targets in a multi-instructional style.Our zero-shot evaluation results confirm the robustness of our approach acrossmultiple tasks, including speech translation and multilingual spoken languageunderstanding, thereby opening new avenues for applying LLMs in the speech domain.

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CLEANEVAL: Clean Evaluation on Contaminated Large Language Models
Wenhong Zhu | Hongkun Hao | Zhiwei He | Yun-Ze Song | Jiao Yueyang | Yumeng Zhang | Hanxu Hu | Yiran Wei | Rui Wang | Hongyuan Lu

We are currently in an era of fierce competition among various large language models (LLMs), continuously pushing the boundaries of benchmark performance. However, genuinely assessing the capabilities of these LLMs has become a challenging and critical issue due to potential data contamination. In this paper, we propose a novel and valuable method, Clean-Eval, which mitigates the issue of data contamination and evaluates the LLMs more cleanly. Clean-Eval employs a neural-based model to paraphrase and back-translate the contaminated data into a candidate set, generating expressions with the same meaning but in different surface forms. A semantic detector is then used to filter those generated low-quality samples to narrow down this candidate set. Candidates with moderate BLEURT scores against the original samples are selected as the final evaluation set. According to human assessment, this set is almost semantically equivalent to the original contamination set but expressed differently. We conduct experiments on 20 existing benchmarks across diverse tasks, and results demonstrate that Clean-Eval substantially restores the actual evaluation results on contaminated LLMs under both few-shot learning and fine-tuning scenarios.

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R-BASS : Relevance-aided Block-wise Adaptation for Speech Summarization
Roshan Sharma | Ruchira Sharma | Hira Dhamyal | Rita Singh | Bhiksha Raj

End-to-end speech summarization on long recordings is challenging because of the high computational cost. Block-wise Adaptation for Speech Summarization (BASS) summarizes arbitrarily long sequences by sequentially processing abutting chunks of audio. Despite the benefits of BASS, it has higher compute time due to sequential processing of all blocks, regardless of whether they are relevant to the final summary. In this paper, we propose R-BASS, a new relevance-aware block-wise adaptation method. First, we introduce two approaches to automatically estimate block relevance based on lexical and semantic similarity between the block-level transcript and the summary. Experiments on the How2 dataset show that using ground truth relevance during inference improves efficiency by 63.9 % by dropping irrelevant blocks. Finally, we incorporate relevance scores into training using a novel relevance loss and relevance predictor, and the proposed R-BASS model makes it possible to drop 86.3 % of the blocks while retaining comparable performance, resulting in a 2.2x speedup over BASS.

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OVM, Outcome-supervised Value Models for Planning in Mathematical Reasoning
Fei Yu | Anningzhe Gao | Benyou Wang

Large language models (LLMs) often struggle with maintaining accuracy throughout multiple multiple reasoning steps, especially in mathematical reasoning where an error in earlier steps can propagate to subsequent ones and it ultimately leading to an incorrect answer.To reduce error propagation, guided decoding is employed to direct the LM decoding on a step-by-step basis. We argue that in guided decoding, assessing the potential of an incomplete reasoning path can be more advantageous than simply ensuring per-step correctness, as the former approach leads towards a correct final answer. This transforms the task into a value estimation problem in planning.Inspired by the findings that outcome supervision for guided decoding essentially acts as a value model, we propose Outcome-supervised Value Model (OVM) that employs outcome supervision for training a value model, which prioritizes steps that lead to accurate conclusions. Furthermore, the OVM eliminates the need for labor-intensive annotations of step-level correctness, thereby significantly enhancing its scalability. Our experiments on two multi-step mathematical reasoning datasets, GSM8K and Game of 24, demonstrate the superior performance of the OVM model. Notably, in GSM8K, our OVM-7B model achieves state-of-the-art results among LLMs up to 13B parameters; especially it does not utilize GPT-4 or code execution. These findings offer a novel perspective on the role of outcome supervision in training value models for multi-step reasoning tasks and provide theoretical justification for its advantage in value estimation for guided decoding.

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The Whole is Better than the Sum: Using Aggregated Demonstrations in In-Context Learning for Sequential Recommendation
Lei Wang | Ee-Peng Lim

Large language models (LLMs) have shown excellent performance on various NLP tasks. To use LLMs as strong sequential recommenders, we explore the in-context learning approach to sequential recommendation. We investigate the effects of instruction format, task consistency, demonstration selection, and number of demonstrations. As increasing the number of demonstrations in ICL does not improve accuracy despite using a long prompt, we propose a novel method called LLMSRec-Syn that incorporates multiple demonstration users into one aggregated demonstration. Our experiments on three recommendation datasets show that LLMSRec-Syn outperforms state-of-the-art LLM-based sequential recommendation methods. In some cases, LLMSRec-Syn can perform on par with or even better than supervised learning methods. Our code is publicly available at

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Bring Your Own KG: Self-Supervised Program Synthesis for Zero-Shot KGQA
Dhruv Agarwal | Rajarshi Das | Sopan Khosla | Rashmi Gangadharaiah

We present BYOKG, a universal question-answering (QA) system that can operate on any knowledge graph (KG), requires no human-annotated training data, and can be ready to use within a day—attributes that are out-of-scope for current KGQA systems. BYOKG draws inspiration from the remarkable ability of humans to comprehend information present in an unseen KG through exploration—starting at random nodes, inspecting the labels of adjacent nodes and edges, and combining them with their prior world knowledge. Exploration in BYOKG leverages an LLM-backed symbolic agent that generates a diverse set of query-program exemplars, which are then used to ground a retrieval-augmented reasoning procedure to synthesize programs for arbitrary questions. BYOKG is effective over both small- and large-scale graphs, showing dramatic gains in zero-shot QA accuracy of 27.89 and 59.88 F1 on GrailQA and MetaQA, respectively. We further find that performance of BYOKG reliably improves with continued exploration as well as improvements in the base LLM, notably outperforming a state-of-the-art fine-tuned model by 7.08 F1 on a sub-sampled zero-shot split of GrailQA. Lastly, we verify our universality claim by evaluating BYOKG on a domain-specific materials science KG and show that it improves zero-shot performance by 46.33 F1.

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GraSAME: Injecting Token-Level Structural Information to Pretrained Language Models via Graph-guided Self-Attention Mechanism
Shuzhou Yuan | Michael Färber

Pretrained Language Models (PLMs) benefit from external knowledge stored in graph structures for various downstream tasks. However, bridging the modality gap between graph structures and text remains a significant challenge. Traditional methods like linearizing graphs for PLMs lose vital graph connectivity, whereas Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) require cumbersome processes for integration into PLMs. In this work, we propose a novel graph-guided self-attention mechanism, GraSAME. GraSAME seamlessly incorporates token-level structural information into PLMs without necessitating additional alignment or concatenation efforts. As an end-to-end, lightweight multimodal module, GraSAME follows a multi-task learning strategy and effectively bridges the gap between graph and textual modalities, facilitating dynamic interactions between GNNs and PLMs. Our experiments on the graph-to-text generation task demonstrate that GraSAME outperforms baseline models and achieves results comparable to state-of-the-art (SOTA) models on WebNLG datasets. Furthermore, compared to SOTA models, GraSAME eliminates the need for extra pre-training tasks to adjust graph inputs and reduces the number of trainable parameters by over 100 million.

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Can Public Large Language Models Help Private Cross-device Federated Learning?
Boxin Wang | Yibo Zhang | Yuan Cao | Bo Li | Hugh McMahan | Sewoong Oh | Zheng Xu | Manzil Zaheer

We study (differentially) private federated learning (FL) of language models. The language models in cross-device FL are relatively small, which can be trained with meaningful formal user-level differential privacy (DP) guarantees when massive parallelism in training is enabled by the participation of a moderate size of users. Recently, public data has been used to improve privacy-utility trade-offs for both large and small language models. In this work, we provide a systematic study of using large-scale public data and LLMs to help differentially private training of on-device FL models, and further improve the privacy-utility tradeoff by techniques of distillation. Moreover, we propose a novel distribution matching algorithm with theoretical grounding to sample public data close to private data distribution, which significantly improves the sample efficiency of (pre-)training on public data. The proposed method is efficient and effective for training private models by taking advantage of public data, especially for customized on-device architectures that do not have ready-touse pre-trained models.

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LangNav: Language as a Perceptual Representation for Navigation
Bowen Pan | Rameswar Panda | SouYoung Jin | Rogerio Feris | Aude Oliva | Phillip Isola | Yoon Kim

We explore the use of language as a perceptual representation for vision-and-language navigation (VLN), with a focus on low-data settings. Our approach uses off-the-shelf vision systems for image captioning and object detection to convert an agent’s egocentric panoramic view at each time step into natural language descriptions. We then finetune a pretrained language model to select an action, based on the current view and the trajectory history, that would best fulfill the navigation instructions. In contrast to the standard setup which adapts a pretrained language model to work directly with continuous visual features from pretrained vision models, our approach instead uses (discrete) language as the perceptual representation. We explore several use cases of our language-based navigation (LangNav) approach on the R2R VLN benchmark: generating synthetic trajectories from a prompted language model (GPT-4) with which to finetune a smaller language model; domain transfer where we transfer a policy learned on one simulated environment (ALFRED) to another (more realistic) environment (R2R); and combining both vision- and language-based representations for VLN. Our approach is found to improve upon baselines that rely on visual features in settings where only a few expert trajectories (10-100) are available, demonstrating the potential of language as a perceptual representation for navigation.

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Planning and Editing What You Retrieve for Enhanced Tool Learning
Tenghao Huang | Dongwon Jung | Vaibhav Kumar | Mohammad Kachuee | Xiang Li | Puyang Xu | Muhao Chen

Recent advancements in integrating external tools with Large Language Models (LLMs) have opened new frontiers, with applications in mathematical reasoning, code generators, and smart assistants. However, existing methods, relying on simple one-time retrieval strategies, fall short on effectively and accurately shortlisting relevant tools. This paper introduces a novel PLUTO (Planning, Learning, and Understanding for TOols) approach, encompassing “Plan-and-Retrieve (P&R)” and “Edit-and-Ground (E&G)” paradigms. The P&R paradigm consists of a neural retrieval module for shortlisting relevant tools and an LLM-based query planner that decomposes complex queries into actionable tasks, enhancing the effectiveness of tool utilization. The E&G paradigm utilizes LLMs to enrich tool descriptions based on user scenarios, bridging the gap between user queries and tool functionalities. Experiment results demonstrate that these paradigms significantly improve the recall and NDCG in tool retrieval tasks, significantly surpassing current state-of-the-art models.

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Chart-based Reasoning: Transferring Capabilities from LLMs to VLMs
Victor Carbune | Hassan Mansoor | Fangyu Liu | Rahul Aralikatte | Gilles Baechler | Jindong Chen | Abhanshu Sharma

Vision-language models (VLMs) are achieving increasingly strong performance on multimodal tasks. However, reasoning capabilities remain limited particularly for smaller VLMs, while those of large-language models (LLMs) have seen numerous improvements. We pro-pose a technique to transfer capabilities from LLMs to VLMs. On the recently introduced ChartQA, our method obtains state-of-the-artperformance when applied on the PaLI3-5B VLM by Chen et al. (2023c), while also enabling much better performance on PlotQA and FigureQA.We first improve the chart representation by continuing the pre-training stage using an improved version of the chart-to-table translation task by Liu et al. (2023a). We then propose constructing a 20x larger dataset than the original training set. To improve general reasoning capabilities and improve numerical operations, we synthesize reasoning traces using the table representation of charts. Lastly, our model is fine-tuned using the multitask loss introduced by Hsieh et al. (2023).Our variant ChartPaLI-5B outperforms even 10x larger models such as PaLIX-55B without using an upstream OCR system, while keeping inference time constant compared to the PaLI3-5B baseline. When rationales are further refined with a simple program-of-thought prompt (Chen et al., 2023a), our model outperforms the recently introduced Gemini Ultra and GPT-4V.

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SLiM: Speculative Decoding with Hypothesis Reduction
Chi-Heng Lin | Shikhar Tuli | James Smith | Yen-Chang Hsu | Yilin Shen | Hongxia Jin

Speculative decoding has emerged as a prominent alternative to autoregressive decoding for expediting inference in large language models (LLMs). However, prevailing assumptions often focus solely on latency reduction, neglecting the computational expenses. In this paper, we present Speculate Less, validate More (SLiM), a speculative decoding enhancement to reduce the speculation set while validating more effective tokens. SLiM is designed to mitigate LLMs’ computation costs associated with the token verification by introducing hypothesis reduction based on a fast posterior estimation. It consistently surpasses counterparts lacking cost reduction across a spectrum from CPU to GPU. Our evaluation with diverse conversational datasets shows that SLiM can achieve a substantial 70% reduction in FLOPs while generating more effective predictions on top of prior arts.

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REMATCH: Robust and Efficient Matching of Local Knowledge Graphs to Improve Structural and Semantic Similarity
Zoher Kachwala | Jisun An | Haewoon Kwak | Filippo Menczer

Knowledge graphs play a pivotal role in various applications, such as question-answering and fact-checking. Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) represents text as knowledge graphs. Evaluating the quality of these graphs involves matching them structurally to each other and semantically to the source text. Existing AMR metrics are inefficient and struggle to capture semantic similarity. We also lack a systematic evaluation benchmark for assessing structural similarity between AMR graphs. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a novel AMR similarity metric, rematch, alongside a new evaluation for structural similarity called RARE. Among state-of-the-art metrics, rematch ranks second in structural similarity; and first in semantic similarity by 1–5 percentage points on the STS-B and SICK-R benchmarks. Rematch is also five times faster than the next most efficient metric.

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Modeling the Sacred: Considerations when Using Religious Texts in Natural Language Processing
Ben Hutchinson

This position paper concerns the use of religious texts in Natural Language Processing (NLP), which is of special interest to the Ethics of NLP. Religious texts are expressions of culturally important values, and machine learned models have a propensity to reproduce cultural values encoded in their training data. Furthermore, translations of religious texts are frequently used by NLP researchers when language data is scarce. This repurposes the translations from their original uses and motivations, which often involve attracting new followers. This paper argues that NLP’s use of such texts raises considerations that go beyond model biases, including data provenance, cultural contexts, and their use in proselytism. We argue for more consideration of researcher positionality, and of the perspectives of marginalized linguistic and religious communities.

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Testing the Effect of Code Documentation on Large Language Model Code Understanding
William Macke | Michael Doyle

Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive abilities in recent years with regards to code generation and understanding. However, little work has investigated how documentation and other code properties affect an LLM’s ability to understand and generate code or documentation. We present an empirical analysis of how underlying properties of code or documentation can affect an LLM’s capabilities. We show that providing an LLM with “incorrect” documentation can greatly hinder code understanding, while incomplete or missing documentation does not seem to significantly affect an LLM’s ability to understand code.

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Aligning Large Language Models with Recommendation Knowledge
Yuwei Cao | Nikhil Mehta | Xinyang Yi | Raghunandan Hulikal Keshavan | Lukasz Heldt | Lichan Hong | Ed Chi | Maheswaran Sathiamoorthy

Large language models (LLMs) have recently been used as backbones for recommender systems. However, their performance often lags behind conventional methods in standard tasks like retrieval. We attribute this to a mismatch between LLMs’ knowledge and the knowledge crucial for effective recommendations. While LLMs excel at natural language reasoning, they cannot model complex user-item interactions inherent in recommendation tasks. We propose bridging the knowledge gap and equipping LLMs with recommendation-specific knowledge to address this. Operations such as Masked Item Modeling (MIM) and Bayesian Personalized Ranking (BPR) have found success in conventional recommender systems. Inspired by this, we simulate these operations through natural language to generate auxiliary-task data samples that encode item correlations and user preferences. Fine-tuning LLMs on such auxiliary-task data samples and incorporating more informative recommendation-task data samples facilitates the injection of recommendation-specific knowledge into LLMs. Extensive experiments across retrieval, ranking, and rating prediction tasks on LLMs such as FLAN-T5-Base and FLAN-T5-XL show the effectiveness of our technique in domains such as Amazon Toys & Games, Beauty, and Sports & Outdoors. Notably, our method outperforms conventional and LLM-based baselines, including the current SOTA, by significant margins in retrieval, showcasing its potential for enhancing recommendation quality.

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OFA: A Framework of Initializing Unseen Subword Embeddings for Efficient Large-scale Multilingual Continued Pretraining
Yihong Liu | Peiqin Lin | Mingyang Wang | Hinrich Schuetze

Instead of pretraining multilingual language models from scratch, a more efficient method is to adapt existing pretrained language models (PLMs) to new languages via vocabulary extension and continued pretraining. However, this method usually randomly initializes the embeddings of new subwords and introduces substantially more embedding parameters to the model, thus weakening the efficiency. To address these issues, we propose a novel framework: One For All (OFA), which wisely initializes the embeddings of unseen subwords and thus can adapt a PLM to multiple languages efficiently and effectively. OFA takes advantage of external well-aligned multilingual static word vectors and injects the alignment knowledge into the subword embeddings. In addition, OFA applies matrix factorization and replaces the cumbersome embeddings with two lower-dimensional matrices, which largely reduces the number of parameters. We show OFA accelerates the convergence of continued pretraining, which is environmentally friendly as much fewer carbon footprints are generated. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate OFA can achieve competitive or better performance than default continued pretraining baselines on a wide range of crosslingual downstream tasks. We make our code and models publicly available.

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SELF-EXPERTISE: Knowledge-based Instruction Dataset Augmentation for a Legal Expert Language Model
Minju Kim | Haein Jung | Myoung-Wan Koo

The advent of instruction-tuned large language models (LLMs) has significantly advanced the field of automatic instruction dataset augmentation. However, the method of generating instructions and outputs from inherent knowledge of LLM can unintentionally produce hallucinations — instances of generating factually incorrect or misleading information. To overcome this, we propose SELF-EXPERTISE, automatically generating instruction dataset in the legal domain from a seed dataset. SELF-EXPERTISE extracts knowledge from the outputs of the seed dataset, and generates new instructions, inputs, and outputs. In this way, the proposed method reduces hallucination in automatic instruction augmentation. We trained an SELF-EXPERTISE augmented instruction dataset on the LLaMA-2 7B model to construct Korean legal specialized model, called LxPERT. LxPERT has demonstrated performance surpassing GPT-3.5-turbo in both in-domain and out-of-domain datasets. The SELF-EXPERTISE augmentation pipeline is not only applicable to the legal field but is also expected to be extendable to various domains, potentially advancing domain-specialized LLMs.

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Re-evaluating the Need for Visual Signals in Unsupervised Grammar Induction
Boyi Li | Rodolfo Corona | Karttikeya Mangalam | Catherine Chen | Daniel Flaherty | Serge Belongie | Kilian Weinberger | Jitendra Malik | Trevor Darrell | Dan Klein

Are multimodal inputs necessary for grammar induction? Recent work has shown that multimodal training inputs can improve grammar induction. However, these improvements are based on comparisons to weak text-only baselines that were trained on relatively little textual data. To determine whether multimodal inputs are needed in regimes with large amounts of textual training data, we design a stronger text-only baseline, which we refer to as LC-PCFG. LC-PCFG is a C-PFCG that incorporates embeddings from text-only large language models (LLMs). We use a fixed grammar family to directly compare LC-PCFG to various multimodal grammar induction methods. We compare performance on four benchmark datasets. LC-PCFG provides an up to 17% relative improvement in Corpus-F1 compared to state-of-the-art multimodal grammar induction methods. LC-PCFG is also more computationally efficient, providing an up to 85% reduction in parameter count and 8.8× reduction in training time compared to multimodal approaches. These results suggest that multimodal inputs may not be necessary for grammar induction, and emphasize the importance of strong vision-free baselines for evaluating the benefit of multimodal approaches.

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EDEntail: An Entailment-based Few-shot Text Classification with Extensional Definition
Zixiao Zhu | Junlang Qian | Zijian Feng | Hanzhang Zhou | Kezhi Mao

Few-shot text classification has seen significant advancements, particularly with entailment-based methods, which typically use either class labels or intensional definitions of class labels in hypotheses for label semantics expression. In this paper, we propose EDEntail, a method that employs extensional definition (EDef) of class labels in hypotheses, aiming to express the semantics of class labels more explicitly. To achieve the above goal, we develop an algorithm to gather and select extensional descriptive words of class labels and then order and format them into a sequence to form hypotheses. Our method has been evaluated and compared with state-of-the-art models on five classification datasets. The results demonstrate that our approach surpasses the supervised-learning methods and prompt-based methods under the few-shot setting, which underlines the potential of using an extensional definition of class labels for entailment-based few-shot text classification. Our code is available at

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What Makes Math Word Problems Challenging for LLMs?
Kv Aditya Srivatsa | Ekaterina Kochmar

This paper investigates the question of what makes math word problems (MWPs) in English challenging for large language models (LLMs). We conduct an in-depth analysis of the key linguistic and mathematical characteristics of MWPs. In addition, we train feature-based classifiers to better understand the impact of each feature on the overall difficulty of MWPs for prominent LLMs and investigate whether this helps predict how well LLMs fare against specific categories of MWPs.

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SMILE: Multimodal Dataset for Understanding Laughter in Video with Language Models
Lee Hyun | Kim Sung-Bin | Seungju Han | Youngjae Yu | Tae-Hyun Oh

Despite the recent advances in artificial intelligence, building social intelligence remains a challenge.Among social signals, laughter is one of the distinctive expressions that occurs during social interactions between humans.In this work, we tackle a new challenge for machines to understand the rationale behind laughter in video, Video Laugh Reasoning.We introduce this new task to explain why people laugh in a particular video and a dataset for this task.Our proposed dataset, SMILE, comprises video clips and language descriptions of why people laugh. We propose a baseline by leveraging the reasoning capacity of large language models (LLMs) with textual video representation. Experiments show that our baseline can generate plausible explanations for laughter. We further investigate the scalability of our baseline by probing other video understanding tasks and in-the-wild videos. We release our dataset, code, and model checkpoints on

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T3M: Text Guided 3D Human Motion Synthesis from Speech
Wenshuo Peng | Kaipeng Zhang | Sai Qian Zhang

Speech-driven 3D motion synthesis seeks to create lifelike animations based on human speech, with potential uses in virtual reality, gaming, and the film production. Existing approaches reply solely on speech audio for motion generation, leading to inaccurate and inflexible synthesis results. To mitigate this problem, we introduce a novel text-guided 3D human motion synthesis method, termed T3M. Unlike traditional approaches, T3M allows precise control over motion synthesis via textual input, enhancing the degree of diversity and user customization. The experiment results demonstrate that T3M can greatly outperform the state-of-the-art methods in both quantitative metrics and qualitative evaluations. We have publicly released our code at

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Deja vu: Contrastive Historical Modeling with Prefix-tuning for Temporal Knowledge Graph Reasoning
Miao Peng | Ben Liu | Wenjie Xu | Zihao Jiang | Jiahui Zhu | Min Peng

Temporal Knowledge Graph Reasoning (TKGR) is the task of inferring missing facts for incomplete TKGs in complex scenarios (e.g., transductive and inductive settings), which has been gaining increasing attention. Recently, to mitigate dependence on structured connections in TKGs, text-based methods have been developed to utilize rich linguistic information from entity descriptions. However, suffering from the enormous parameters and inflexibility of pre-trained language models, existing text-based methods struggle to balance the textual knowledge and temporal information with computationally expensive purpose-built training strategies. To tap the potential of text-based models for TKGR in various complex scenarios, we propose ChapTER, a Contrastive historical modeling framework with prefix-tuning for TEmporal Reasoning. ChapTER feeds history-contextualized text into the pseudo-Siamese encoders to strike a textual-temporal balance via contrastive estimation between queries and candidates. By introducing virtual time prefix tokens, it applies a prefix-based tuning method to facilitate the frozen PLM capable for TKGR tasks under different settings. We evaluate ChapTER on four transductive and three few-shot inductive TKGR benchmarks, and experimental results demonstrate that ChapTER achieves superior performance compared to competitive baselines with only 0.17% tuned parameters. We conduct thorough analysis to verify the effectiveness, flexibility and efficiency of ChapTER.

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Explanation Extraction from Hierarchical Classification Frameworks for Long Legal Documents
Nishchal Prasad | Taoufiq Dkaki | Mohand Boughanem

Hierarchical classification frameworks have been widely used to process long sequences, especially in the legal domain for predictions from long legal documents. But being black-box models they are unable to explain their predictions making them less reliable for practical applications, more so in the legal domain. In this work, we develop an extractive explanation algorithm for hierarchical frameworks for long sequences based on the sensitivity of the trained model to its input perturbations. We perturb using occlusion and develop Ob-HEx; an Occlusion-based Hierarchical Explanation-extractor. We adapt Ob-HEx to Hierarchical Transformer models trained on long Indian legal texts. And use Ob-HEx to analyze them and extract their explanations for the ILDC-Expert dataset, achieving a minimum gain of 1 point over the previous benchmark on most of our performance evaluation metrics.

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Low-Rank Adaptation for Multilingual Summarization: An Empirical Study
Chenxi Whitehouse | Fantine Huot | Jasmijn Bastings | Mostafa Dehghani | Chu-Cheng Lin | Mirella Lapata

Although the advancements of pre-trained Large Language Models have significantly accelerated recent progress in NLP, their ever-increasing size poses significant challenges for conventional fine-tuning, especially in memory-intensive tasks. We investigate the potential of Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning, focusing on Low-Rank Adaptation (LoRA), in the domain of multilingual summarization, a task that is both challenging (due to typically long inputs), and relatively unexplored. We conduct an extensive study across different data availability scenarios, including high- and low-data settings, and cross-lingual transfer, leveraging models of different sizes. Our findings reveal that LoRA is competitive with full fine-tuning when trained with high quantities of data, and excels in low-data scenarios and cross-lingual transfer. We also study different strategies for few-shot cross-lingual transfer, finding that continued LoRA tuning outperforms full fine-tuning and the dynamic composition of language-specific LoRA modules.

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A Tree-of-Thoughts to Broaden Multi-step Reasoning across Languages
Leonardo Ranaldi | Giulia Pucci | Federico Ranaldi | Elena Sofia Ruzzetti | Fabio Massimo Zanzotto

Reasoning methods, best exemplified by the well-known Chain-of-Thought (CoT), empower the reasoning abilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) by eliciting them to solve complex tasks in a step-by-step manner. Although they are achieving significant success, the ability to deliver multi-step reasoning remains limited to English because of the imbalance in the distribution of pre-training data, which makes other languages a barrier. In this paper, we propose Cross-lingual Tree-of-Thoughts (Cross-ToT), a method for aligning Cross-lingual CoT reasoning across languages. The proposed method, through a self-consistent cross-lingual prompting mechanism inspired by the Tree-of-Thoughts approach, provides multi-step reasoning paths in different languages that, during the steps, lead to the final solution. Experimental evaluations show that our method significantly outperforms existing prompting methods by reducing the number of interactions and achieving state-of-the-art performance.

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Emergent Abilities in Reduced-Scale Generative Language Models
Sherin Muckatira | Vijeta Deshpande | Vladislav Lialin | Anna Rumshisky

Large language models can solve new tasks without task-specific fine-tuning. This ability, also known as in-context learning (ICL), is considered an emergent ability and is primarily seen in large language models with billions of parameters. This study investigates if such emergent properties are strictly tied to model size or can be demonstrated by smaller models trained on reduced-scale data. To explore this, we simplify pre-training data and pre-train 36 causal language models with parameters varying from 1 million to 165 million parameters. We show that models trained on this simplified pre-training data demonstrate enhanced zero-shot capabilities across various tasks in simplified language, achieving performance comparable to that of pre-trained models six times larger on unrestricted language. This suggests that downscaling the language allows zero-shot learning capabilities to emerge in models with limited size.Additionally, we find that these smaller models pre-trained on simplified data demonstrate a power law relationship between the evaluation loss and the three scaling factors: compute, dataset size, and model size.

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Context Does Matter: Implications for Crowdsourced Evaluation Labels in Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems
Clemencia Siro | Mohammad Aliannejadi | Maarten Rijke

Crowdsourced labels play a crucial role in evaluating task-oriented dialogue systems (TDSs). Obtaining high-quality and consistent ground-truth labels from annotators presents challenges. When evaluating a TDS, annotators must fully comprehend the dialogue before providing judgments. Previous studies suggest using only a portion of the dialogue context in the annotation process. However, the impact of this limitation on label quality remains unexplored. This study investigates the influence of dialogue context on annotation quality, considering the truncated context for relevance and usefulness labeling. We further propose to use large language models ( LLMs) to summarize the dialogue context to provide a rich and short description of the dialogue context and study the impact of doing so on the annotator’s performance. Reducing context leads to more positive ratings. Conversely, providing the entire dialogue context yields higher-quality relevance ratings but introduces ambiguity in usefulness ratings. Using the first user utterance as context leads to consistent ratings, akin to those obtained using the entire dialogue, with significantly reduced annotation effort. Our findings show how task design, particularly the availability of dialogue context, affects the quality and consistency of crowdsourced evaluation labels.

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Matching Varying-Length Texts via Topic-Informed and Decoupled Sentence Embeddings
Xixi Zhou | Chunbin Gu | Xin Jie | Jiajun Bu | Haishuai Wang

Measuring semantic similarity between texts is a crucial task in natural language processing. While existing semantic text matching focuses on pairs of similar-length sequences, matching texts with non-comparable lengths has broader applications in specific domains, such as comparing professional document summaries and content. Current approaches struggle with text pairs of non-comparable lengths due to truncation issues. To address this, we split texts into natural sentences and decouple sentence representations using supervised contrastive learning (SCL). Meanwhile, we adopt the embedded topic model (ETM) for specific domain data. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model, based on decoupled and topic-informed sentence embeddings, in matching texts of significantly different lengths across three well-studied datasets.

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Instruction Tuning with Human Curriculum
Bruce W Lee | Hyunsoo Cho | Kang Min Yoo

In this work, we (1) introduce Curriculum Instruction Tuning, (2) explore the potential advantages of employing diverse curriculum strategies, and (3) delineate a synthetic instruction-response generation framework that complements our theoretical approach. Distinct from the existing instruction tuning dataset, our generation pipeline is systematically structured to emulate the sequential and orderly characteristic of human learning. Additionally, we describe a methodology for generating instruction-response datasets that extensively span the various stages of human education, from middle school through the graduate level, utilizing educational subject catalogs.Before training, we meticulously organize the instruction data to ensure that questions escalate in difficulty regarding (A) the subject matter and (B) the intricacy of the instructions. The findings of our study reveal that substantial improvements in performance can be achieved through the mere application of curriculum ordering to instruction data—achieving gains of +4.76 on TruthfulQA, +2.98 on MMLU, +2.8 on OpenbookQA, and +1.28 on ARC-hard—compared to random shuffling. This enhancement is achieved without incurring additional computational expenses. Through comprehensive experimentation, we observe that the advantages of our proposed method are consistently evident across nine benchmarks.

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Natural Language-based State Representation in Deep Reinforcement Learning
Md Masudur Rahman | Yexiang Xue

This paper investigates the potential of using natural language descriptions as an alternative to direct image-based observations for learning policies in reinforcement learning. Due to the inherent challenges in managing image-based observations, which include abundant information and irrelevant features, we propose a method that compresses images into a natural language form for state representation. This approach allows better interpretability and leverages the processing capabilities of large-language models. We conducted several experiments involving tasks that required image-based observation. The results demonstrated that policies trained using natural language descriptions of images yield better generalization than those trained directly from images, emphasizing the potential of this approach in practical settings.

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Learning Cross-Architecture Instruction Embeddings for Binary Code Analysis in Low-Resource Architectures
Junzhe Wang | Qiang Zeng | Lannan Luo

Binary code analysis is indispensable for a variety of software security tasks. Applying deep learning to binary code analysis has drawn great attention because of its notable performance. Today, source code is frequently compiled for various Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs). It is thus critical to expand binary analysis capabilities to multiple ISAs. Given a binary analysis task, the scale of available data on different ISAs varies. As a result, the rich datasets (e.g., malware) for certain ISAs, such as x86, lead to a disproportionate focus on these ISAs and a negligence of other ISAs, such as PowerPC, which suffer from the “data scarcity” problem. To address the problem, we propose to learn cross-architecture instruction embeddings (CAIE), where semantically-similar instructions, regardless of their ISAs, have close embeddings in a shared space. Consequently, we can transfer a model trained on a data-rich ISA to another ISA with less available data. We consider four ISAs (x86, ARM, MIPS, and PowerPC) and conduct both intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations (including malware detection and function similarity comparison). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach to generate high-quality CAIE with good transferability.

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ReEval: Automatic Hallucination Evaluation for Retrieval-Augmented Large Language Models via Transferable Adversarial Attacks
Xiaodong Yu | Hao Cheng | Xiaodong Liu | Dan Roth | Jianfeng Gao

Despite remarkable advancements in mitigating hallucinations in large language models (LLMs) by retrieval augmentation, it remains challenging to measure the reliability of LLMs using static question-answering (QA) data. Specifically, given the potential of data contamination (e.g., leading to memorization), good static benchmark performance does not ensure that model can reliably use the provided evidence for responding, which is essential to avoid hallucination when the required knowledge is new or private. Inspired by adversarial machine learning, we investigate the feasibility of automatically perturbing existing static one for dynamic evaluation. Specifically, this paper presents ReEval, an LLM-based framework using prompt chaining to perturb the original evidence for generating new test cases for evaluating the LLMs’ reliability in using new evidence for answering.We implement ReEval using ChatGPT and evaluate the resulting variants of two popular open-domain QA datasets on a collection ofLLMs under various prompting settings. Our generated data is human-readable and useful to trigger hallucination in LLM. Accurate models on static data are observed to produce unsupported answers from the perturbed evidence, with pronounced accuracy drops across LLMs including GPT-4. We find that our adversarial examples are transferable across all considered LLMs. The examples generated by a small model can be used to evaluate a much larger model, making our approach cost-effective.

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An Effective Automated Speaking Assessment Approach to Mitigating Data Scarcity and Imbalanced Distribution
Tien-Hong Lo | Fu-An Chao | Tzu-i Wu | Yao-Ting Sung | Berlin Chen

Automated speaking assessment (ASA) typically involves automatic speech recognition (ASR) and hand-crafted feature extraction from the ASR transcript of a learner’s speech. Recently, self-supervised learning (SSL) has shown stellar performance compared to traditional methods. However, SSL-based ASA systems are faced with at least three data-related challenges: limited annotated data, uneven distribution of learner proficiency levels and non-uniform score intervals between different CEFR proficiency levels. To address these challenges, we explore the use of two novel modeling strategies: metric-based classification and loss re-weighting, leveraging distinct SSL-based embedding features. Extensive experimental results on the ICNALE benchmark dataset suggest that our approach can outperform existing strong baselines by a sizable margin, achieving a significant improvement of more than 10% in CEFR prediction accuracy.

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GPT-Fathom: Benchmarking Large Language Models to Decipher the Evolutionary Path towards GPT-4 and Beyond
Shen Zheng | Yuyu Zhang | Yijie Zhu | Chenguang Xi | Pengyang Gao | Zhou Xun | Kevin Chang

With the rapid advancement of large language models (LLMs), there is a pressing need for a comprehensive evaluation suite to assess their capabilities and limitations. Existing LLM leaderboards often reference scores reported in other papers without consistent settings and prompts, which may inadvertently encourage cherry-picking favored settings and prompts for better results. In this work, we introduce GPT-Fathom, an open-source and reproducible LLM evaluation suite built on top of OpenAI Evals. We systematically evaluate 10+ leading LLMs as well as OpenAI’s legacy models on 20+ curated benchmarks across 7 capability categories, all under aligned settings. Our retrospective study on OpenAI’s earlier models offers valuable insights into the evolutionary path from GPT-3 to GPT-4. Currently, the community is eager to know how GPT-3 progressively improves to GPT-4, including technical details like whether adding code data improves LLM’s reasoning capability, which aspects of LLM capability can be improved by SFT and RLHF, how much is the alignment tax, etc. Our analysis sheds light on many of these questions, aiming to improve the transparency of advanced LLMs.

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Subword Attention and Post-Processing for Rare and Unknown Contextualized Embeddings
Raj Patel | Carlotta Domeniconi

Word representations are an important aspect of Natural Language Processing (NLP). Representations are trained using large corpora, either as independent static embeddings or as part of a deep contextualized model. While word embeddings are useful, they struggle on rare and unknown words. As such, a large body of work has been done on estimating rare and unknown words. However, most of the methods focus on static embeddings, with few models focused on contextualized representations. In this work, we propose SPRUCE, a rare/unknown embedding architecture that focuses on contextualized representations. This architecture uses subword attention and embedding post-processing combined with the contextualized model to produce high quality embeddings. We then demonstrate these techniques lead to improved performance in most intrinsic and downstream tasks.

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UGIF-DataSet: A New Dataset for Cross-lingual, Cross-modal Sequential actions on the UI
Sagar Gubbi Venkatesh | Partha Talukdar | Srini Narayanan

Help documents are supposed to aid smartphone users in resolving queries such as “How to block calls from unknown numbers?”. However, given a query, identifying the right help document, understanding instructions from the document, and using them to resolve the issue at hand is challenging. The user experience may be enhanced by converting the instructions in the help document to a step-by-step tutorial overlaid on the phone UI. Successful execution of this task requires overcoming research challenges in retrieval, parsing, and grounding in the multilingual-multimodal setting. For example, user queries in one language may have to be matched against instructions in another language, which in turn needs to be grounded in a multimodal UI in yet another language. Moreover, there isn’t any relevant dataset for such a task. In order to bridge this gap, we introduce UGIF-DataSet, a multi-lingual, multi-modal UI grounded dataset for step-by-step task completion on the smartphone, containing 4,184 tasks across 8 languages. The instruction steps in UGIF-DataSet are available only in English, so the challenge involves operations in the cross-modal, cross-lingual setting. We compare the performance of different large language models for this task and find that the end-to-end task completion rate drops from 48% in English to 32% for other languages, demonstrating significant overall headroom for improvement. We are hopeful that UGIF-DataSet and our analysis will aid further research on the important problem of sequential task completion in the multilingual and multimodal setting.

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SimSCOOD: Systematic Analysis of Out-of-Distribution Generalization in Fine-tuned Source Code Models
Hossein Hajipour | Ning Yu | Cristian-Alexandru Staicu | Mario Fritz

Large code datasets have become increasingly accessible for pre-training source code models. However, for the fine-tuning phase, obtaining representative training data that fully covers the code distribution for specific downstream tasks remains challenging due to the task-specific nature and limited labeling resources. These lead to out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization issues with unexpected model inference behaviors that have not been systematically studied yet.In this paper, we contribute the first systematic approach that simulates various OOD scenarios along different dimensions of source code data properties and study the fine-tuned model behaviors in such scenarios. We investigate the behaviors of models under different fine-tuning methodologies, including full fine-tuning and Low-Rank Adaptation (LoRA) fine-tuning methods. Our comprehensive analysis, conducted on four state-of-the-art pretrained models and applied to two code generation tasks, exposes multiple failure modes attributed to OOD generalization issues.

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Pruning as a Domain-specific LLM Extractor
Nan Zhang | Yanchi Liu | Xujiang Zhao | Wei Cheng | Runxue Bao | Rui Zhang | Prasenjit Mitra | Haifeng Chen

Large Language Models (LLMs) have exhibited remarkable proficiency across a wide array of NLP tasks. However, the escalation in model size also engenders substantial deployment costs. While few efforts have explored model pruning techniques to reduce the size of LLMs, they mainly center on general or task-specific weights. This leads to suboptimal performance due to lacking specificity on the target domain or generality on different tasks when applied to domain-specific challenges. This work introduces an innovative unstructured dual-pruning methodology, D-Pruner, for domain-specific compression on LLM. It extracts a compressed, domain-specific, and task- agnostic LLM by identifying LLM weights that are pivotal for general capabilities, like linguistic capability and multi-task solving, and domain-specific knowledge. More specifically, we first assess general weight importance by quantifying the error incurred upon their removal with the help of an open-domain calibration dataset. Then, we utilize this general weight importance to refine the training loss, so that it preserves generality when fitting into a specific domain. Moreover, by efficiently approximating weight importance with the refined training loss on a domain-specific calibration dataset, we obtain a pruned model emphasizing generality and specificity. Our comprehensive experiments across various tasks in healthcare and legal domains show the effectiveness of D-Pruner in domain-specific compression. Our code is available at

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LLMRefine: Pinpointing and Refining Large Language Models via Fine-Grained Actionable Feedback
Wenda Xu | Daniel Deutsch | Mara Finkelstein | Juraj Juraska | Biao Zhang | Zhongtao Liu | William Yang Wang | Lei Li | Markus Freitag

Recent large language models (LLM) areleveraging human feedback to improve theirgeneration quality. However, human feedbackis costly to obtain, especially during inference.In this work, we propose LLMRefine, aninference time optimization method to refineLLM’s output. The core idea is to usea learned fine-grained feedback model topinpoint defects and guide LLM to refinethem iteratively. Using original LLM as aproposal of edits, LLMRefine searches fordefect-less text via simulated annealing, tradingoff the exploration and exploitation. Weconduct experiments on three text generationtasks, including machine translation, long-form question answering (QA), and topicalsummarization. LLMRefine consistentlyoutperforms all baseline approaches, achievingimprovements up to 1.7 MetricX points ontranslation tasks, 8.1 ROUGE-L on ASQA, 2.2ROUGE-L on topical summarization.

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Noisy Multi-Label Text Classification via Instance-Label Pair Correction
Pengyu Xu | Mingyang Song | Linkaida Liu | Bing Liu | Hongjian Sun | Liping Jing | Jian Yu

In noisy label learning, instance selection based on small-loss criteria has been proven to be highly effective. However, in the case of noisy multi-label text classification (NMLTC), the presence of noise is not limited to the instance-level but extends to the (instance-label) pair-level.This gives rise to two main challenges.(1) The loss information at the pair-level fails to capture the variations between instances. (2) There are two types of noise at the pair-level: false positives and false negatives. Identifying false negatives from a large pool of negative pairs presents an exceedingly difficult task. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel approach called instance-label pair correction (iLaCo), which aims to address the problem of noisy pair selection and correction in NMLTC tasks.Specifically, we first introduce a holistic selection metric that identifies noisy pairs by simultaneously considering global loss information and instance-specific ranking information.Secondly, we employ a filter guided by label correlation to focus exclusively on negative pairs with label relevance. This filter significantly reduces the difficulty of identifying false negatives.Experimental analysis indicates that our framework effectively corrects noisy pairs in NMLTC datasets, leading to a significant improvement in model performance.

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Composite Backdoor Attacks Against Large Language Models
Hai Huang | Zhengyu Zhao | Michael Backes | Yun Shen | Yang Zhang

Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated superior performance compared to previous methods on various tasks, and often serve as the foundation models for many researches and services. However, the untrustworthy third-party LLMs may covertly introduce vulnerabilities for downstream tasks. In this paper, we explore the vulnerability of LLMs through the lens of backdoor attacks. Different from existing backdoor attacks against LLMs, ours scatters multiple trigger keys in different prompt components. Such a Composite Backdoor Attack (CBA) is shown to be stealthier than implanting the same multiple trigger keys in only a single component. CBA ensures that the backdoor is activated only when all trigger keys appear. Our experiments demonstrate that CBA is effective in both natural language processing (NLP) and multimodal tasks. For instance, with 3% poisoning samples against the LLaMA-7B model on the Emotion dataset, our attack achieves a 100% Attack Success Rate (ASR) with a False Triggered Rate (FTR) below 2.06% and negligible model accuracy degradation. Our work highlights the necessity of increased security research on the trustworthiness of foundation LLMs.

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Adapting Fake News Detection to the Era of Large Language Models
Jinyan Su | Claire Cardie | Preslav Nakov

In the age of large language models (LLMs) and the widespread adoption of AI-driven content creation, the landscape of information dissemination has witnessed a paradigm shift. With the proliferation of both human-written and machine-generated real and fake news, robustly and effectively discerning the veracity of news articles has become an intricate challenge. While substantial research has been dedicated to fake news detection, it has either assumed that all news articles are human-written or has abruptly assumed that all machine-generated news was fake. Thus, a significant gap exists in understanding the interplay between machine-paraphrased real news, machine-generated fake news, human-written fake news, and human-written real news. In this paper, we study this gap by conducting a comprehensive evaluation of fake news detectors trained in various scenarios. Our primary objectives revolve around the following pivotal question: How can we adapt fake news detectors to the era of LLMs?Our experiments reveal an interesting pattern that detectors trained exclusively on human-written articles can indeed perform well at detecting machine-generated fake news, but not vice versa. Moreover, due to the bias of detectors against machine-generated texts (CITATION), they should be trained on datasets with a lower machine-generated news ratio than the test set. Building on our findings, we provide a practical strategy for the development of robust fake news detectors.

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MCAD: Multi-teacher Cross-modal Alignment Distillation for efficient image-text retrieval
Youbo Lei | Feifei He | Chen Chen | Yingbin Mo | Sijia Li | Defeng Xie | Haonan Lu

Due to the success of large-scale visual-language pretraining (VLP) models and the widespread use of image-text retrieval in industry areas, it is now critically necessary to reduce the model size and streamline their mobile-device deployment. Single- and dual-stream model structures are commonly used in image-text retrieval with the goal of closing the semantic gap between textual and visual modalities. While single-stream models use deep feature fusion to achieve more accurate cross-model alignment, dual-stream models are better at offline indexing and fast inference. We propose a Multi-teacher Cross-modality Alignment Distillation (MCAD) technique to integrate the advantages of single- and dual-stream models. By incorporating the fused single-stream features into the image and text features of the dual-stream model, we formulate new modified teacher similarity distributions and features. Then, we conduct both distribution and feature distillation to boost the capability of the student dual-stream model, achieving high retrieval performance without increasing inference complexity. Extensive experiments demonstrate the remarkable performance and high efficiency of MCAD on image-text retrieval tasks. Furthermore, we implement a lightweight CLIP model on Snapdragon/Dimensity chips with only ~100M running memory and ~8.0ms search latency, achieving the mobile-device application of VLP models.

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Large Language Models are Effective Text Rankers with Pairwise Ranking Prompting
Zhen Qin | Rolf Jagerman | Kai Hui | Honglei Zhuang | Junru Wu | Le Yan | Jiaming Shen | Tianqi Liu | Jialu Liu | Donald Metzler | Xuanhui Wang | Michael Bendersky

Ranking documents using Large Language Models (LLMs) by directly feeding the query and candidate documents into the prompt is an interesting and practical problem. However, researchers have found it difficult to outperform fine-tuned baseline rankers on benchmark datasets.We analyze pointwise and listwise ranking prompts used by existing methods and argue that off-the-shelf LLMs do not fully understand these challenging ranking formulations. In this paper, we propose to significantly reduce the burden on LLMs by using a new technique called Pairwise Ranking Prompting (PRP).Our results are the first in the literature to achieve state-of-the-art ranking performance on standard benchmarks using moderate-sized open-sourced LLMs. On TREC-DL 2019&2020, PRP based on the Flan-UL2 model with 20B parameters performs favorably with the previous best approach in the literature, which is based on the blackbox commercial GPT-4 that has 50x (estimated) model size, while outperforming other LLM-based solutions, such as InstructGPT which has 175B parameters, by over 10% for all ranking metrics. By using the same prompt template on seven BEIR tasks, PRP outperforms supervised baselines and outperforms the blackbox commercial ChatGPT solution by 4.2% and pointwise LLM-based solutions by more than 10% on average NDCG@10.Furthermore, we propose several variants of PRP to improve efficiency and show that it is possible to achieve competitive results even with linear complexity.

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FedLFC: Towards Efficient Federated Multilingual Modeling with LoRA-based Language Family Clustering
Zhihan Guo | Yifei Zhang | Zhuo Zhang | Zenglin Xu | Irwin King

Federated Multilingual Modeling (FMM) plays a crucial role in the applications of natural language processing due to the increasing diversity of languages and the growing demand for data privacy. However, FMM faces limitations stemming from (1) the substantial communication costs in networking and (2) the conflicts arising from parameter interference between different languages. To address these challenges, we introduce a communication-efficient federated learning framework with low-rank adaptation and language family clustering for Multilingual Modeling (MM). In this framework, we maintain the weights of the base model, exclusively updating the lightweight Low-rank adaptation (LoRA) parameters to minimize communication costs. Additionally, we mitigate parameter conflicts by grouping languages based on their language family affiliations, as opposed to aggregating all LoRA parameters. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed model not only surpasses the baseline models in performance but also reduces the communication overhead. Our code is available at

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Gaussian Process Optimization for Adaptable Multi-Objective Text Generation using Linearly-Weighted Language Models
Mohammad Mahdi Abdollah Pour | Ali Pesaranghader | Eldan Cohen | Scott Sanner

In multi-objective text generation, we aim to optimize over multiple weighted aspects (e.g., toxicity, semantic preservation, fluency) of the generated text. However, multi-objective weighting schemes may change dynamically in practice according to deployment requirements, evolving business needs, personalization requirements on edge devices, or the availability of new language models and/or objective requirements. Ideally, we need an efficient method to adapt to the dynamic requirements of the overall objective. To address these requirements, we propose a linear combination of objective-specific language models to efficiently adapt the decoding process and optimize for the desired objective without the significant computational overhead of retraining one or more language models. We show empirically that we can leverage Gaussian Process black box optimization to adapt the language model decoder weights to outperform other fixed weighting schemes and standard baselines of the task in only a few iterations of decoding. Overall this approach enables highly efficient adaptation of controllable language models via multi-objective weighting schemes that may evolve dynamically in practical deployment situations.

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Groundedness in Retrieval-augmented Long-form Generation: An Empirical Study
Alessandro Stolfo

We present an empirical study of groundedness in long-form question answering (LFQA) by retrieval-augmented large language models (LLMs).In particular, we evaluate whether every generated sentence is grounded in the retrieved documents or the model’s pre-training data.Across 3 datasets and 4 model families, our findings reveal that a significant fraction of generated sentences are consistently ungrounded, even when those sentences contain correct ground-truth answers.Additionally, we examine the impacts of factors such as model size, decoding strategy, and instruction tuning on groundedness. Our results show that while larger models tend to ground their outputs more effectively, a significant portion of correct answers remains compromised by hallucinations. This study provides novel insights into the groundedness challenges in LFQA and underscores the necessity for more robust mechanisms in LLMs to mitigate the generation of ungrounded content.

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TagDebias: Entity and Concept Tagging for Social Bias Mitigation in Pretrained Language Models
Mehrnaz Moslemi | Amal Zouaq

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) play a crucial role in various applications, including sensitive domains such as the hiring process. However, extensive research has unveiled that these models tend to replicate social biases present in their pre-training data, raising ethical concerns. In this study, we propose the TagDebias method, which proposes debiasing a dataset using type tags. It then proceeds to fine-tune PLMs on this debiased dataset. Experiments show that our proposed TagDebias model, when applied to a ranking task, exhibits significant improvements in bias scores.

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Improving Absent Keyphrase Generation with Diversity Heads
Edwin Thomas | Sowmya Vajjala

Keyphrase Generation (KPG) is the task of automatically generating appropriate keyphrases for a given text, with a wide range of real-world applications such as document indexing and tagging, information retrieval, and text summarization. NLP research makes a distinction between present and absent keyphrases based on whether a keyphrase is directly present as a sequence of words in the document during evaluation. However, present and absent keyphrases are treated together in a text-to-text generation framework during training. We treat present keyphrase extraction as a sequence labeling problem and propose a new absent keyphrase generation model that uses a modified cross-attention layer with additional heads to capture diverse views for the same context encoding in this paper. Our experiments show improvements over the state-of-the-art for four datasets for present keyphrase extraction and five datasets for absent keyphrase generation among the six English datasets we explored, covering long and short documents.

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mOthello: When Do Cross-Lingual Representation Alignment and Cross-Lingual Transfer Emerge in Multilingual Models?
Tianze Hua | Tian Yun | Ellie Pavlick

Many pretrained multilingual models exhibit cross-lingual transfer ability, which is often attributed to a learned language-neutral representation during pretraining. However, it remains unclear what factors contribute to the learning of a language-neutral representation, and whether the learned language-neutral representation suffices to facilitate cross-lingual transfer. We propose a synthetic task, Multilingual Othello (mOthello), as a testbed to delve into these two questions. We find that: (1) models trained with naive multilingual pretraining fail to learn a language-neutral representation across all input languages; (2) the introduction of “anchor tokens” (i.e., lexical items that are identical across languages) helps cross-lingual representation alignment; and (3) the learning of a language-neutral representation alone is not sufficient to facilitate cross-lingual transfer. Based on our findings, we propose a novel approach – multilingual pretraining with unified output space – that both induces the learning of language-neutral representation and facilitates cross-lingual transfer.

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Discovering and Mitigating Indirect Bias in Attention-Based Model Explanations
Farsheed Haque | Depeng Xu | Shuhan Yuan

As the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) increasingly adopts transformer-based models, the issue of bias becomes more pronounced. Such bias, manifesting through stereotypes and discriminatory practices, can disadvantage certain groups. Our study focuses on direct and indirect bias in the model explanations, where the model makes predictions relying heavily on identity tokens or associated contexts. We present a novel analysis of bias in model explanation, especially the subtle indirect bias, underlining the limitations of traditional fairness metrics. We first define direct and indirect bias in model explanations, which is complementary to fairness in predictions. We then develop an indirect bias discovery algorithm for quantitatively evaluating indirect bias in transformer models using their in-built self-attention matrix. We also propose an indirect bias mitigation algorithm to ensure fairness in transformer models by leveraging attention explanations. Our evaluation shows the significance of indirect bias and the effectiveness of our indirect bias discovery and mitigation.

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i-Code V2: An Autoregressive Generation Framework over Vision, Language, and Speech Data
Ziyi Yang | Mahmoud Khademi | Yichong Xu | Reid Pryzant | Yuwei Fang | Chenguang Zhu | Dongdong Chen | Yao Qian | Xuemei Gao | Yi-Ling Chen | Robert Gmyr | Naoyuki Kanda | Noel Codella | Bin Xiao | Yu Shi | Lu Yuan | Takuya Yoshioka | Michael Zeng | Xuedong Huang

The convergence of text, visual, and audio data is crucial towards human-like artificial intelligence, however the current Vision-Language-Speech landscape is dominated by encoder-only models that lack generative abilities. We propose closing this gap with i-Code V2, one of the first models capable of generating natural language from any combination of Vision, Language, and Speech data. i-Code V2 leverages state-of-the-art single-modality encoders, combining their outputs with a new modality-fusing encoder to project combinations of modalities into a shared representational space. Language tokens are generated from these representations via an autoregressive decoder. i-Code V2 is pretrained end-to-end on a large collection of dual- and single-modality datasets with a novel text completion objective that can be generalized across arbitrary combinations of modalities. i-Code V2 matches or outperforms state-of-the-art single- and dual-modality baselines on 7 multimodal tasks, demonstrating the power of generative multimodal pretraining across a diversity of tasks and signals.

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Think While You Write: Hypothesis Verification Promotes Faithful Knowledge-to-Text Generation
Yifu Qiu | Varun Embar | Shay Cohen | Benjamin Han

Knowledge-to-text generators often struggle to faithfully generate descriptions for the input facts: they may produce hallucinations that contradict the input, or describe facts not present in the input. To reduce hallucinations, we propose a decoding-only method, TWEAK (Think While Effectively Articulating Knowledge), which can be integrated with any generator without retraining. TWEAK treats the generated sequences at each decoding step and its future sequences as hypotheses, and ranks each generation candidate based on the extent to which their hypotheses are supported by the input facts using a Hypothesis Verification Model (HVM). We first demonstrate the effectiveness of TWEAK by using a Natural Language Inference (NLI) model as the HVM and report improved faithfulness with a minimal impact on the quality. We then replace the NLI model with a task-specific HVM trained with a first-of-a-kind dataset, FATE (Fact-Aligned Textual Entailment), which pairs input facts with their original and perturbed descriptions. We test TWEAK with two generators, and the best TWEAK variants improve on average for the two models by 2.24/7.17 points in faithfulness (FactKB) in in/out-of-distribution evaluations, respectively, and with only a 0.14/0.32-point decline in quality (BERTScore).

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It’s All Relative! – A Synthetic Query Generation Approach for Improving Zero-Shot Relevance Prediction
Aditi Chaudhary | Karthik Raman | Michael Bendersky

Large language models (LLMs) have shown promising ability to generate synthetic query-document pairs by prompting with as few as 8 demonstrations. This has enabled building better IR models, especially for tasks with no training data. Typically, such synthetic query generation (QGen) approaches condition on an input context (e.g. a text document) and generate a query relevant to that context, or condition the QGen additionally on the relevance label (e.g. relevant vs irrelevant) to generate queries across relevance buckets. However, we find that such QGen approaches are sub-optimal as they require the model to reason about the desired label and the input from a handful of examples. In this work, we propose to reduce this burden of LLMs by generating queries simultaneously for different labels. We hypothesize that instead of asking the model to generate, say, an irrelevant query given an input context, asking the model to generate an irrelevant query relative to a relevant query is a much simpler task. Extensive experimentation across nine IR datasets shows that synthetic queries generated in such a fashion translates to better downstream performance.

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RS-DPO: A Hybrid Rejection Sampling and Direct Preference Optimization Method for Alignment of Large Language Models
Saeed Khaki | JinJin Li | Lan Ma | Liu Yang | Prathap Ramachandra

Reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) has been extensively employed to align large language models with user intent. However, proximal policy optimization (PPO) based RLHF is occasionally unstable requiring significant hyperparameter finetuning, and computationally expensive to maximize the estimated reward during alignment. Recently, direct preference optimization (DPO) is proposed to address those challenges. However, DPO often relies on contrastive responses generated from human annotator and alternative LLM, instead of the policy model, limiting the effectiveness of the RLHF. In this paper, we addresses both challenges by systematically combining rejection sampling (RS) and DPO. Our proposed method, RS-DPO, initiates with the development of a supervised fine-tuned policy model (SFT). A varied set of k responses per prompt are sampled directly from the SFT model. RS-DPO identifies pairs of contrastive samples based on their reward distribution. Finally, we apply DPO with the contrastive samples to align the model to human preference. Our experiments indicate that our proposed method effectively fine-tunes LLMs with limited resource environments, leading to improved alignment with user intent. Furthermore, it outperforms existing methods, including RS, PPO, and DPO.

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Hypernetwork-Assisted Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning with Meta-Knowledge Distillation for Domain Knowledge Disentanglement
Changqun Li | Linlin Wang | Xin Lin | Shizhou Huang | Liang He

Domain adaptation from labeled source domains to the target domain is important in practical summarization scenarios. However, the key challenge is domain knowledge disentanglement. In this work, we explore how to disentangle domain-invariant knowledge from source domains while learning specific knowledge of the target domain. Specifically, we propose a hypernetwork-assisted encoder-decoder architecture with parameter-efficient fine-tuning. It leverages a hypernetwork instruction learning module to generate domain-specific parameters from the encoded inputs accompanied by task-related instruction. Further, to better disentangle and transfer knowledge from source domains to the target domain, we introduce a meta-knowledge distillation strategy to build a meta-teacher model that captures domain-invariant knowledge across multiple domains and use it to transfer knowledge to students. Experiments on three dialogue summarization datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed model. Human evaluations also show the superiority of our model with regard to the summary generation quality.

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MICo: Preventative Detoxification of Large Language Models through Inhibition Control
Roy Siegelmann | Ninareh Mehrabi | Palash Goyal | Prasoon Goyal | Lisa Bauer | Jwala Dhamala | Aram Galstyan | Rahul Gupta | Reza Ghanadan

Large Language Models (LLMs) are powerful tools which have been both dominant and commonplace in the field of Artificial Intelligence. Yet, LLMs have a tendency to devolve into toxic degeneration, wherein otherwise safe and unproblematic models begin generating toxic content. For the sake of social responsibility and inspired by the biological mechanisms of inhibition control, we introduce the paradigm of Education for Societal Norms (ESN). By collecting and labeling examples as acceptable and unacceptable (in this case toxic and non-toxic), and including a corresponding acceptable rewrite with every unacceptable example, we introduce a new mechanism for LLM detoxification. We annotate a dataset of 2,850 entries and use it to fine-tune a model, which we call a Model with Inhibition Control (MICo). Evaluating this model on toxicity detection capability, rewrite detoxification, meaning preservation, and overall toxicity reduction, we discover significant improvements over the baseline model. In our experiments we show that overall toxicity of this model is more than 60% reduced, with over 75% reduction in severe toxicity.

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Reinforcement Learning with Token-level Feedback for Controllable Text Generation
Wendi Li | Wei Wei | Kaihe Xu | Wenfeng Xie | Dangyang Chen | Yu Cheng

To meet the requirements of real-world applications, it is essential to control generations of large language models (LLMs). Prior research has tried to introduce reinforcement learning (RL) into controllable text generation while most existing methods suffer from overfitting issues (finetuning-based methods) or semantic collapse (post-processing methods). However, current RL methods are generally guided by coarse-grained (sentence/paragraph-level) feedback, which may lead to suboptimal performance owing to semantic twists or progressions within sentences. To tackle that, we propose a novel reinforcement learning algorithm named TOLE which formulates TOken-LEvel rewards for controllable text generation, and employs a “first-quantize-then-noise” paradigm to enhance the robustness of the RL algorithm. Furthermore, TOLE can be flexibly extended to multiple constraints with little computational expense. Experimental results show that our algorithm can achieve superior performance on both single-attribute and multi-attribute control tasks. We have released our codes at

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CoMM: Collaborative Multi-Agent, Multi-Reasoning-Path Prompting for Complex Problem Solving
Pei Chen | Shuai Zhang | Boran Han

Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown great ability in solving traditional natural language tasks and elementary reasoning tasks with appropriate prompting techniques. However, their ability is still limited in solving complicated science problems. In this work, we aim to push the upper bound of the reasoning capability of LLMs by proposing a collaborative multi-agent, multi-reasoning-path (CoMM) prompting framework. Specifically, we prompt LLMs to play different roles in a problem-solving team, and encourage different role-play agents to collaboratively solve the target task. In particular, we discover that applying different reasoning paths for different roles is an effective strategy to implement few-shot prompting approaches in the multi-agent scenarios. Empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on two college-level science problems over competitive baselines. Our further analysis shows the necessity of prompting LLMs to play different roles or experts independently.

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Tokenization Matters: Navigating Data-Scarce Tokenization for Gender Inclusive Language Technologies
Anaelia Ovalle | Ninareh Mehrabi | Palash Goyal | Jwala Dhamala | Kai-Wei Chang | Richard Zemel | Aram Galstyan | Yuval Pinter | Rahul Gupta

Gender-inclusive NLP research has documented the harmful limitations of gender binary-centric large language models (LLM), such as the inability to correctly use gender-diverse English neopronouns (e.g., xe, zir, fae). While data scarcity is a known culprit, the precise mechanisms through which scarcity affects this behavior remain underexplored. We discover LLM misgendering is significantly influenced by Byte-Pair Encoding (BPE) tokenization, the tokenizer powering many popular LLMs. Unlike binary pronouns, BPE overfragments neopronouns, a direct consequence of data scarcity during tokenizer training. This disparate tokenization mirrors tokenizer limitations observed in multilingual and low-resource NLP, unlocking new misgendering mitigation strategies. We propose two techniques: (1) pronoun tokenization parity, a method to enforce consistent tokenization across gendered pronouns, and (2) utilizing pre-existing LLM pronoun knowledge to improve neopronoun proficiency. Our proposed methods outperform finetuning with standard BPE, improving neopronoun accuracy from 14.1% to 58.4%. Our paper is the first to link LLM misgendering to tokenization and deficient neopronoun grammar, indicating that LLMs unable to correctly treat neopronouns as pronouns are more prone to misgender.

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AdaPT: A Set of Guidelines for Hyperbolic Multimodal Multilingual NLP
Ramit Sawhney | Shrey Pandit | Vishwa Shah | Megh Thakkar | Shafiq Joty

The Euclidean space is the familiar space for training neural models and performing arithmetic operations.However, many data types inherently possess complex geometries, and model training methods involve operating over their latent representations, which cannot be effectively captured in the Euclidean space.The hyperbolic space provides a more generalized representative geometry to model the hierarchical complexities of the tree-like structure of natural language.We propose AdaPT a set of guidelines for initialization, parametrization, and training of neural networks, which adapts to the dataset and can be used with different manifolds. AdaPT can be generalized over any existing neural network training methodology and leads to more stable training without a substantial increase in training time.We apply AdaPT guidelines over two state-of-the-art deep learning approaches and empirically demonstrate its effectiveness through experiments on three tasks over 12 languages across speech and text.Through extensive qualitative analysis, we put forward the applicability of AdaPT as a set of guidelines optimally utilizing the manifold geometry, which can be extended to various downstream tasks across languages and modalities.

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More Samples or More Prompts? Exploring Effective Few-Shot In-Context Learning for LLMs with In-Context Sampling
Bingsheng Yao | Guiming Chen | Ruishi Zou | Yuxuan Lu | Jiachen Li | Shao Zhang | Yisi Sang | Sijia Liu | James Hendler | Dakuo Wang

While most existing works on LLM prompting techniques focus only on how to select a better set of data samples inside one single prompt input (In-Context Learning or ICL), why can not we design and leverage multiple prompts together to further improve the LLM’s performance? In this work, we propose In-Context Sampling (ICS), a low-resource LLM prompting technique to produce confident predictions by optimizing the construction of multiple ICL prompt inputs. Extensive experiments with three open-source LLMs (FlanT5-XL, Mistral-7B, and Mixtral-8x7B) on four NLI datasets (e-SNLI, Multi-NLI, ANLI, and Contract-NLI) and one QA dataset (CommonsenseQA) illustrate that ICS can consistently enhance LLMs’ performance. An in-depth evaluation with three data similarity-based ICS strategies suggests that these strategies can further elevate LLM’s performance, which sheds light on a new yet promising future research direction.

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ZSEE: A Dataset based on Zeolite Synthesis Event Extraction for Automated Synthesis Platform
Song He | Xin Peng | Yihan Cai | Xin Li | Zhiqing Yuan | WenLi Du | Weimin Yang

Automated synthesis of zeolite, one of the most important catalysts in chemical industries, holds great significance for attaining economic and environmental benefits. Structural synthesis data extracted through NLP technologies from zeolite experimental procedures can significantly expedite automated synthesis owing to its machine readability. However, the utilization of NLP technologies in information extraction of zeolite synthesis remains restricted due to the lack of annotated datasets. In this paper, we formulate an event extraction task to mine structural synthesis actions from experimental narratives for modular automated synthesis. Furthermore, we introduce ZSEE, a novel dataset containing fine-grained event annotations of zeolite synthesis actions. Our dataset features 16 event types and 13 argument roles which cover all the experimental operational steps of zeolite synthesis. We explore current state-of-the-art event extraction methods on ZSEE, perform error analysis based on the experimental results, and summarize the challenges and corresponding research directions to further facilitate the automated synthesis of zeolites. The code is publicly available at

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Mitigating Hallucination in Abstractive Summarization with Domain-Conditional Mutual Information
Kyubyung Chae | Jaepill Choi | Yohan Jo | Taesup Kim

A primary challenge in abstractive summarization is hallucination—the phenomenon where a model generates plausible text that is absent in the source text. We hypothesize that the domain (or topic) of the source text triggers the model to generate text that is highly probable in the domain, neglecting the details of the source text. To alleviate this model bias, we introduce a decoding strategy based on domain-conditional pointwise mutual information. This strategy adjusts the generation probability of each token by comparing it with the token’s marginal probability within the domain of the source text. According to evaluation on the XSUM dataset, our method demonstrates improvement in terms of faithfulness and source relevance.

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Adversarial DPO: Harnessing Harmful Data for Reducing Toxicity with Minimal Impact on Coherence and Evasiveness in Dialogue Agents
San Kim | Gary Lee

Recent advancements in open-domain dialogue systems have been propelled by the emergence of high-quality large language models (LLMs) and various effective training methodologies. Nevertheless, the presence of toxicity within these models presents a significant challenge that can potentially diminish the user experience. In this study, we introduce an innovative training algorithm, an improvement upon direct preference optimization (DPO), called adversarial DPO (ADPO). The ADPO algorithm is designed to train models to assign higher probability distributions to preferred responses and lower distributions to unsafe responses, which are self-generated using the toxic control token. We demonstrate that ADPO enhances the model’s resilience against harmful conversations while minimizing performance degradation. Furthermore, we illustrate that ADPO offers a more stable training procedure compared to the traditional DPO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first adaptation of the DPO algorithm that directly incorporates harmful data into the generative model, thereby reducing the need to artificially create safe dialogue data.

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Prompt Space Optimizing Few-shot Reasoning Success with Large Language Models
Fobo Shi | Peijun Qing | Dong Yang | Nan Wang | Youbo Lei | Haonan Lu | Xiaodong Lin | Duantengchuan Li

Prompt engineering is an essential technique for enhancing the abilities of large language models (LLMs) by providing explicit and specific instructions. It enables LLMs to excel in various tasks, such as arithmetic reasoning, question answering, summarization, relation extraction, machine translation, and sentiment analysis. Researchers have been actively exploring different prompt engineering strategies, such as Chain of Thought (CoT), Zero-CoT, and In-context learning. However, an unresolved problem arises from the fact that current approaches lack a solid mathematical solution for determining optimal prompts. To address this issue in prompt engineering, we propose a new and effective approach called Prompt Space. Our methodology utilizes text embeddings to obtain basis vectors by matrix decomposition, and then constructs a space for representing all prompts. Prompt Space significantly outperforms state-of-the-art prompt paradigms on ten public reasoning benchmarks. Notably, without the help of the CoT method and the prompt “Let’s think step by step”, Prompt Space shows superior performance over the few-shot method. Overall, our approach provides a robust and effective mathematical framework for selecting simple and effective prompts. This advancement marks a significant step towards improving prompt engineering for a wide variety of applications in LLMs. Our code is publicly available at

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DAGCN: Distance-based and Aspect-oriented Graph Convolutional Network for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Zhihao Wang | Bo Zhang | Ru Yang | Chang Guo | Maozhen Li

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a task that aims to determine the sentiment polarity of aspects by identifying opinion words. Recent advancements have predominantly been rooted either in semantic or syntactic methods. However, both of them tend to interference from local factors such as irrelevant words and edges, hindering the precise identification of opinion words. In this paper, we present Distance-based and Aspect-oriented Graph Convolutional Network (DAGCN) to address the aforementioned issue. Firstly, we introduce the Distance-based Syntactic Weight (DSW). It focuses on the local scope of aspects in the pruned dependency trees, thereby reducing the candidate pool of opinion words. Additionally, we propose Aspect-Fusion Attention (AF) to further filter opinion words within the local context and consider cases where opinion words are distant from the aspect. With the combination of DSW and AF, we achieve precise identification of corresponding opinion words. Extensive experiments on three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art models and verify the effectiveness of the proposed architecture.

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Connecting the Dots: Inferring Patent Phrase Similarity with Retrieved Phrase Graphs
Zhuoyi Peng | Yi Yang

We study the patent phrase similarity inference task, which measures the semantic similarity between two patent phrases. As patent documents employ legal and highly technical language, existing semantic textual similarity methods that use localized contextual information do not perform satisfactorily in inferring patent phrase similarity. To address this, we introduce a graph-augmented approach to amplify the global contextual information of the patent phrases. For each patent phrase, we construct a phrase graph that links to its focal patents and a list of patents that are either cited by or cite these focal patents. The augmented phrase embedding is then derived from combining its localized contextual embedding with its global embedding within the phrase graph. We further propose a self-supervised learning objective that capitalizes on the retrieved topology to refine both the contextualized embedding and the graph parameters in an end-to-end manner. Experimental results from a unique patent phrase similarity dataset demonstrate that our approach significantly enhances the representation of patent phrases, resulting in marked improvements in similarity inference in a self-supervised fashion. Substantial improvements are also observed in the supervised setting, underscoring the potential benefits of leveraging retrieved phrase graph augmentation.

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Self-Regulated Sample Diversity in Large Language Models
Mingyue Liu | Jonathan Frawley | Sarah Wyer | Hubert P. H. Shum | Sara Uckelman | Sue Black | Chris Willcocks

Sample diversity depends on the task; within mathematics, precision and determinism are paramount, while storytelling thrives on creativity and surprise. This paper presents a simple self-regulating approach where we adjust sample diversity inference parameters dynamically based on the input prompt—in contrast to existing methods that require expensive and inflexible setups, or maintain static values during inference. Capturing a broad spectrum of sample diversities can be formulated as a straightforward self-supervised inference task, which we find significantly improves the quality of responses generically without model retraining or fine-tuning. In particular, our method demonstrates significant improvement in all supercategories of the MMLU multitask benchmark (GPT-3.5: +4.4%, GPT-4: +1.5%), which captures a large variety of difficult tasks covering STEM, the humanities and social sciences.

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Methods, Applications, and Directions of Learning-to-Rank in NLP Research
Justin Lee | Gabriel Bernier-Colborne | Tegan Maharaj | Sowmya Vajjala

Learning-to-rank (LTR) algorithms aim to order a set of items according to some criteria. They are at the core of applications such as web search and social media recommendations, and are an area of rapidly increasing interest, with the rise of large language models (LLMs) and the widespread impact of these technologies on society. In this paper, we survey the diverse use cases of LTR methods in natural language processing (NLP) research, looking at previously under-studied aspects such as multilingualism in LTR applications and statistical significance testing for LTR problems. We also consider how large language models are changing the LTR landscape. This survey is aimed at NLP researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the formalisms and best practices regarding the application of LTR approaches in their research.

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When Quantization Affects Confidence of Large Language Models?
Irina Proskurina | Luc Brun | Guillaume Metzler | Julien Velcin

Recent studies introduced effective compression techniques for Large Language Models (LLMs) via post-training quantization or low-bit weight representation. Although quantized weights offer storage efficiency and allow for faster inference, existing works have indicated that quantization might compromise performance and exacerbate biases in LLMs.This study investigates the confidence and calibration of quantized models, considering factors such as language model type and scale as contributors to quantization loss.Firstly, we reveal that quantization with GPTQ to 4-bit results in a decrease in confidence regarding true labels, with varying impacts observed among different language models. Secondly, we observe fluctuations in the impact on confidence across different scales. Finally, we propose an explanation for quantization loss based on confidence levels, indicating that quantization disproportionately affects samples where the full model exhibited low confidence levels in the first place.We make our code and quantized models publicly available.

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MedCycle: Unpaired Medical Report Generation via Cycle-Consistency
Elad Hirsch | Gefen Dawidowicz | Ayellet Tal

Generating medical reports for X-ray images presents a significant challenge, particularly in unpaired scenarios where access to paired image-report data for training is unavailable. Previous works have typically learned a joint embedding space for images and reports, necessitating a specific labeling schema for both. We introduce an innovative approach that eliminates the need for consistent labeling schemas, thereby enhancing data accessibility and enabling the use of incompatible datasets. This approach is based on cycle-consistent mapping functions that transform image embeddings into report embeddings, coupled with report auto encoding for medical report generation. Our model and objectives consider intricate local details and the overarching semantic context within images and reports. This approach facilitates the learning of effective mapping functions, resulting in the generation of coherent reports. It outperforms state-of-the-art results in unpaired chest X-ray report generation, demonstrating improvements in both language and clinical metrics.

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Beta-LR: Interpretable Logical Reasoning based on Beta Distribution
Yizhuo Ma | Ke Qin | Shuang Liang

The logical information contained in text isof significant importance for logical reasoning.Previous approaches have relied on embeddingtext into a low-dimensional vector to capturelogical information and perform reasoning inEuclidean space. These methods involve constructing special graph architectures that matchlogical relations or designing data augmentation frameworks by extending texts based onsymbolic logic. However, it presents two obvious problems. 1) The logical informationreflected in the text exhibits uncertainty that isdifficult to represent using a vector. 2) Integrating logical information requires modeling logical operations (such as ∪, ∩, and ¬), while onlysimple arithmetic operations can be performedin Euclidean space. To address both the problems, we propose Beta-LR, a probabilistic embedding method to capture logical information.Specifically, we embed texts into beta distribution on each dimension to eliminate logical uncertainty. We also define neural operators thatenable interpretability and perform logical operations based on the characteristics of the betadistribution. We conduct experiments on twodatasets, ReClor and LogiQA, and our Beta-LRachieves competitive results. The experimentsdemonstrate that our method effectively captures the logical information in text for reasoning purposes. The source code is available at

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Applications of BERT Models Towards Automation of Clinical Coding in Icelandic
Haraldur Orri Hauksson | Hafsteinn Einarsson

This study explores the potential of automating clinical coding in Icelandic, a language with limited digital resources, by leveraging over 25 years of electronic health records (EHR) from the Landspitali University Hospital. Traditionally a manual and error-prone task, clinical coding is essential for patient care, billing, and research. Our research delves into the effectiveness of Transformer-based models in automating this process. We investigate various model training strategies, including continued pretraining and model adaptation, under a constrained computational budget. Our findings reveal that the best-performing model achieves competitive results in both micro and macro F1 scores, with label attention contributing significantly to its success. The study also explores the possibility of training on unlabeled data. Our research provides valuable insights into the possibilities of using NLP for clinical coding in low-resource languages, demonstrating that small countries with unique languages and well-segmented healthcare records can achieve results comparable to those in higher-resourced languages.

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“Tell me who you are and I tell you how you argue”: Predicting Stances and Arguments for Stakeholder Groups
Philipp Heinisch | Lorik Dumani | Philipp Cimiano | Ralf Schenkel

Argument mining has focused so far mainly on the identification, extraction, and formalization of arguments. An important yet unaddressedtask consists in the prediction of the argumentative behavior of stakeholders in a debate. Predicting the argumentative behavior in advance can support foreseeing issues in public policy making or help recognize potential disagreements early on and help to resolve them. In this paper, we consider the novel task of predicting the argumentative behavior of individual stakeholders. We present ARGENST, a framework that relies on a recommender-based architecture to predict the stance and the argumentative main point on a specific controversial topic for a given stakeholder, which is described in terms of a profile including properties related to demographic attributes, religious and political orientation, socio-economic background, etc. We evaluate our approach on the well-known dataset in terms of accuracy for predicting stance as well as in terms of similarity of the generated arguments to the ground truth arguments using BERTScore. As part of a case study, we show how juries of members representing different stakeholder groups and perspectives can be assembled to simulate the public opinion on a given topic.

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Psychometric Predictive Power of Large Language Models
Tatsuki Kuribayashi | Yohei Oseki | Timothy Baldwin

Instruction tuning aligns the response of large language models (LLMs) with human preferences.Despite such efforts in human–LLM alignment, we find that instruction tuning does not always make LLMs human-like from a cognitive modeling perspective. More specifically, next-word probabilities estimated by instruction-tuned LLMs are often worse at simulating human reading behavior than those estimated by base LLMs.In addition, we explore prompting methodologies for simulating human reading behavior with LLMs. Our results show that prompts reflecting a particular linguistic hypothesis improve psychometric predictive power, but are still inferior to small base models.These findings highlight that recent advancements in LLMs, i.e., instruction tuning and prompting, do not offer better estimates than direct probability measurements from base LLMs in cognitive modeling. In other words, pure next-word probability remains a strong predictor for human reading behavior, even in the age of LLMs.

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Large Language Models Sensitivity to The Order of Options in Multiple-Choice Questions
Pouya Pezeshkpour | Estevam Hruschka

Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable capabilities in various NLP tasks. However, previous works have shown these models are sensitive towards prompt wording, and few-shot demonstrations and their order, posing challenges to fair assessment of these models. As these models become more powerful, it becomes imperative to understand and address these limitations. In this paper, we focus on LLMs robustness on the task of multiple-choice questions—commonly adopted task to study reasoning and fact-retrieving capability of LLMs. Investigating the sensitivity of LLMs towards the order of options in multiple-choice questions, we demonstrate a considerable performance gap of approximately 13% to 85% in LLMs on different benchmarks, when answer options are reordered, even when using demonstrations in a few-shot setting. Through a detailed analysis, we conjecture that this sensitivity arises when LLMs are uncertain about the prediction between the top-2/3 choices, and specific options placements may favor certain prediction between those top choices depending on the question caused by positional bias. We also identify patterns in top-2 choices that amplify or mitigate the model’s bias toward option placement. We found that for amplifying bias, the optimal strategy involves positioning the top two choices as the first and last options. Conversely, to mitigate bias, we recommend placing these choices among the adjacent options. To validate our conjecture, we conduct various experiments and adopt two approaches to calibrate LLMs’ predictions, leading to up to 8 percentage points improvement across different models and benchmarks.

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PEEB: Part-based Image Classifiers with an Explainable and Editable Language Bottleneck
Thang Pham | Peijie Chen | Tin Nguyen | Seunghyun Yoon | Trung Bui | Anh Nguyen

CLIP-based classifiers rely on the prompt containing a class name that is known to the text encoder. Therefore, they perform poorly on new classes or the classes whose names rarely appear on the Internet (e.g., scientific names of birds). For fine-grained classification, we propose PEEB – an explainable and editable classifier to (1) express the class name into a set of text descriptors that describe the visual parts of that class; and (2) match the embeddings of the detected parts to their textual descriptors in each class to compute a logit score for classification. In a zero-shot setting where the class names are unknown, PEEB outperforms CLIP by a huge margin (∼10× in top-1 accuracy). Compared to part-based classifiers, PEEB is not only the state-of-the-art (SOTA) on the supervised-learning setting (88.80% and 92.20% accuracy on CUB-200 and Stanford Dogs-120, respectively) but also the first to enable users to edit the text descriptors to form a new classifier without any re-training. Compared to concept bottleneck models, PEEB is also the SOTA in both zero-shot and supervised-learning settings.

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Ethos: Rectifying Language Models in Orthogonal Parameter Space
Lei Gao | Yue Niu | Tingting Tang | Salman Avestimehr | Murali Annavaram

Language models (LMs) have greatly propelled the research on natural language processing. However, LMs also raise concerns regarding the generation of biased or toxic content and the potential disclosure of private information from the training dataset. In this work, we present a new efficient approach, Ethos, that rectifies LMs to mitigate toxicity and bias in outputs and avoid privacy leakage. Ethos is built on task arithmetic. However, unlike current task arithmetic algorithms, Ethos distinguishes general beneficial and undesired knowledge when reconstructing task vectors. Specifically, Ethos first obtains a set of principal components from the pre-trained models using singular value decomposition. Then, by projecting the task vector onto principal components, Ethos separates the principal components that encode general from those associated with undesired knowledge. Ethos performs forgetting or unlearning by only negating the task vector with undesired knowledge, thereby minimizing collateral damage on general model utility. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on three different tasks: bias, toxicity, and memorization unlearning. Evaluations show Ethos is more effective in removing undesired knowledge while maintaining the overall model performance compared to current task arithmetic methods.

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Crafting In-context Examples according to LMs’ Parametric Knowledge
Yoonsang Lee | Pranav Atreya | Xi Ye | Eunsol Choi

In-context learning can improve the performances of knowledge-rich tasks such as question answering. In such scenarios, in-context examples trigger a language model (LM) to surface information stored in its parametric knowledge. We study how to better construct in-context example sets, based on whether the model is aware of the in-context examples. We identify ‘known’ examples, where models can correctly answer from their parametric knowledge, and ‘unknown’ ones. Our experiments show that prompting with ‘unknown’ examples decreases the performance, potentially as it encourages hallucination rather than searching for its parametric knowledge. Constructing an in-context example set that presents both known and unknown information performs the best across diverse settings. We perform analysis on three multi-answer question answering datasets, which allows us to further study answer set ordering strategies based on the LM’s knowledge of each answer. Together, our study sheds light on how to best construct in-context example sets for knowledge-rich tasks.

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ICXML: An In-Context Learning Framework for Zero-Shot Extreme Multi-Label Classification
Yaxin Zhu | Hamed Zamani

This paper focuses on the task of Extreme Multi-Label Classification (XMC) whose goal is to predict multiple labels for each instance from an extremely large label space. While existing research has primarily focused on fully supervised XMC, real-world scenarios often lack supervision signals, highlighting the importance of zero-shot settings. Given the large label space, utilizing in-context learning approaches is not trivial. We address this issue by introducing In-Context Extreme Multi-label Learning (ICXML), a two-stage framework that cuts down the search space by generating a set of candidate labels through in-context learning and then reranks them. Extensive experiments suggest that ICXML advances the state of the art on two diverse public benchmarks.

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CLGSI: A Multimodal Sentiment Analysis Framework based on Contrastive Learning Guided by Sentiment Intensity
Yang Yang | Xunde Dong | Yupeng Qiang

Recently, contrastive learning has begun to gain popularity in multimodal sentiment analysis (MSA). However, most of existing MSA methods based on contrastive learning lacks more detailed learning of the distribution of sample pairs with different sentiment intensity differences in the contrastive learning representation space. In addition, limited research has been conducted on the fusion of each modality representation obtained by contrastive learning training.In this paper, we propose a novel framework for multimodal sentiment analysis based on Contrastive Learning Guided by Sentiment Intensity (CLGSI). Firstly, the proposed contrastive learning guided by sentiment intensity selects positive and negative sample pairs based on the difference in sentiment intensity and assigns corresponding weights accordingly.Subsequently, we propose a new multimodal representation fusion mechanism, called Global-Local-Fine-Knowledge (GLFK), which extracts common features between different modalities’ representations. At the same time, each unimodal encoder output is separately processed by a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) to extract specific features of each modality. Finally, joint learning of the common and specific features is used to predict sentiment intensity. The effectiveness of CLGSI is assessed on two English datasets, MOSI and MOSEI, as well as one Chinese dataset, SIMS. We achieve competitive experimental results, which attest to the strong generalization performance of our approach. The code for our approach will be released in

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Interpreting Answers to Yes-No Questions in Dialogues from Multiple Domains
Zijie Wang | Farzana Rashid | Eduardo Blanco

People often answer yes-no questions without explicitly saying yes, no, or similar polar key-words. Figuring out the meaning of indirectanswers is challenging, even for large language models. In this paper, we investigate this problem working with dialogues from multiple domains. We present new benchmarks in three diverse domains: movie scripts, tennis interviews, and airline customer service. We present an approach grounded on distant supervision and blended training to quickly adapt to a new dialogue domain. Experimental results show that our approach is never detrimental and yields F1 improvements as high as 11-34%.

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Enhancing Perception: Refining Explanations of News Claims with LLM Conversations
Yi-Li Hsu | Jui-Ning Chen | Yang Fan Chiang | Shang-Chien Liu | Aiping Xiong | Lun-Wei Ku

We introduce Enhancing Perception, a framework for Large Language Models (LLMs) designed to streamline the time-intensive task typically undertaken by professional fact-checkers of crafting explanations for fake news. This study investigates the effectiveness of enhancing LLM explanations through conversational refinement. We compare various questioner agents, including state-of-the-art LLMs like GPT-4, Claude 2, PaLM 2, and 193 American participants acting as human questioners. Based on the histories of these refinement conversations, we further generate comprehensive summary explanations. We evaluated the effectiveness of these initial, refined, and summary explanations across 40 news claims by involving 2,797 American participants, measuring their self-reported belief change regarding both real and fake claims after receiving the explanations. Our findings reveal that, in the context of fake news, explanations that have undergone conversational refinement—whether by GPT-4 or human questioners, who ask more diverse and detail-oriented questions—were significantly more effective than both the initial unrefined explanations and the summary explanations. Moreover, these refined explanations achieved a level of effectiveness comparable to that of expert-written explanations. The results highlight the potential of automatic explanation refinement by LLMs in debunking fake news claims.

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How Interpretable are Reasoning Explanations from Prompting Large Language Models?
Yeo Wei Jie | Ranjan Satapathy | Rick Goh | Erik Cambria

Prompt Engineering has garnered significant attention for enhancing the performance of large language models across a multitude of tasks. Techniques such as the Chain-of-Thought not only bolster task performance but also delineate a clear trajectory of reasoning steps, offering a tangible form of explanation for the audience. Prior works on interpretability assess the reasoning chains yielded by Chain-of-Thought solely along a singular axis, namely faithfulness. We present a comprehensive and multifaceted evaluation of interpretability, examining not only faithfulness but also robustness and utility across multiple commonsense reasoning benchmarks. Likewise, our investigation is not confined to a single prompting technique; it expansively covers a multitude of prevalent prompting techniques employed in large language models, thereby ensuring a wide-ranging and exhaustive evaluation. In addition, we introduce a simple interpretability alignment technique, termed Self-Entailment-Alignment Chain-of-thought, that yields more than 70% improvements across multiple dimensions of interpretability. Code is available at

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Plug-in Language Model: Controlling Text Generation with a Simple Regression Model
Nai-Chi Yang | Wei-Yun Ma | Pu-Jen Cheng

Large-scale pre-trained language models have displayed unrivaled capacity in generating text that closely resembles human-written text. Nevertheless, generating texts adhering to specific conditions without fine-tuning or adding new parameters can be challenging. Contemporary approaches commonly rely on either prompts or auxiliary models to avoid modifying the language models. These auxiliary models are designed to assess whether a generated token contributes to meeting the desired requirements. These approaches adjust the distribution of the next token during the inference phase by leveraging the prediction score of the desired attribute to calculate gradients. However, these auxiliary models typically require the language model’s latent states. This prerequisite challenges integrating various existing black box attribute models or tools. We present the Plug-in Language Model (PiLM) as a solution to address the limitations. PiLM leverages reinforcement learning to utilize black box tools directly, adjusting the latent state to control text generation. However, performing backpropagation during the inference phase is time-consuming for PiLM. By replacing backpropagation with a simple regression model, PiLM can achieve an inference time comparable to that of the original LLM. Experiment results show that our approaches in this paper outperform existing state-of-the-art methods that rely on gradient-based, weighted decoding, or prompt-based methodologies.

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Signer Diversity-driven Data Augmentation for Signer-Independent Sign Language Translation
Honghaofu Honghaofu | Liang Zhang | Biao Fu | Rui Zhao | Jinsong Su | Xiaodong Shi | Yidong Chen

The primary objective of sign language translation (SLT) is to transform sign language videos into natural sentences.A crucial challenge in this field is developing signer-independent SLT systems which requires models to generalize effectively to signers not encountered during training.This challenge is exacerbated by the limited diversity of signers in existing SLT datasets, which often results in suboptimal generalization capabilities of current models.Achieving robustness to unseen signers is essential for signer-independent SLT.However, most existing method relies on signer identity labels, which is often impractical and costly in real-world applications.To address this issue, we propose the Signer Diversity-driven Data Augmentation (SDDA) method that can achieve good generalization without relying on signer identity labels. SDDA comprises two data augmentation schemes. The first is data augmentation based on adversarial training, which aims to utilize the gradients of the model to generate adversarial examples. The second is data augmentation based on diffusion model, which focuses on using the advanced diffusion-based text guided image editing method to modify the appearances of the signer in images. The combination of the two strategies significantly enriches the diversity of signers in the training process.Moreover, we introduce a consistency loss and a discrimination loss to enhance the learning of signer-independent features.Our experimental results demonstrate our model significantly enhances the performance of SLT in the signer-independent setting, achieving state-of-the-art results without relying on signer identity labels.

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A Systematic Analysis of Subwords and Cross-Lingual Transfer in Multilingual Translation
Francois Meyer | Jan Buys

Multilingual modelling can improve machine translation for low-resource languages, partly through shared subword representations. This paper studies the role of subword segmentation in cross-lingual transfer. We systematically compare the efficacy of several subword methods in promoting synergy and preventing interference across different linguistic typologies. Our findings show that subword regularisation boosts synergy in multilingual modelling, whereas BPE more effectively facilitates transfer during cross-lingual fine-tuning. Notably, our results suggest that differences in orthographic word boundary conventions (the morphological granularity of written words) may impede cross-lingual transfer more significantly than linguistic unrelatedness. Our study confirms that decisions around subword modelling can be key to optimising the benefits of multilingual modelling.

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Multi-Granularity Guided Fusion-in-Decoder
Eunseong Choi | Hyeri Lee | Jongwuk Lee

In Open-domain Question Answering (ODQA), it is essential to discern relevant contexts as evidence and avoid spurious ones among retrieved results. The model architecture that uses concatenated multiple contexts in the decoding phase, *i.e.*, Fusion-in-Decoder, demonstrates promising performance but generates incorrect outputs from seemingly plausible contexts. To address this problem, we propose the ***M**ulti-**G**ranularity guided **F**usion-**i**n-**D**ecoder (**MGFiD**)*, discerning evidence across multiple levels of granularity. Based on multi-task learning, MGFiD harmonizes passage re-ranking with sentence classification. It aggregates evident sentences into an *anchor vector* that instructs the decoder. Additionally, it improves decoding efficiency by reusing the results of passage re-ranking for *passage pruning*. Through our experiments, MGFiD outperforms existing models on the Natural Questions (NQ) and TriviaQA (TQA) datasets, highlighting the benefits of its multi-granularity solution.

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Group Fairness in Multilingual Speech Recognition Models
Anna Zee | Marc Zee | Anders Søgaard

We evaluate the performance disparity of the Whisper and MMS families of ASR models across the VoxPopuli and Common Voice multilingual datasets, with an eye toward intersectionality. Our two most important findings are that model size, surprisingly, correlates logarithmically with worst-case performance disparities, meaning that larger (and better) models are less fair. We also observe the importance of intersectionality. In particular, models often exhibit significant performance disparity across binary gender for adolescents.

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Rethinking Machine Ethics – Can LLMs Perform Moral Reasoning through the Lens of Moral Theories?
Jingyan Zhou | Minda Hu | Junan Li | Xiaoying Zhang | Xixin Wu | Irwin King | Helen Meng

Making moral judgments is an essential step toward developing ethical AI systems. Prevalent approaches are mostly implemented in a bottom-up manner, which uses a large set of annotated data to train models based on crowd-sourced opinions about morality. These approaches have been criticized for potentially overgeneralizing a limited group of annotators’ moral stances and lacking explainability. This work proposes a flexible top-down framework to steer (Large) Language Models to perform moral reasoning with well-established moral theories from interdisciplinary research. The theory-guided top-down framework can incorporate various moral theories. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework on datasets derived from moral theories. Furthermore, we show the alignment between different moral theories and existing morality datasets. Our analysis exhibits the potential and flaws in existing resources (models and datasets) in developing explainable moral judgment-making systems.

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Role Prompting Guided Domain Adaptation with General Capability Preserve for Large Language Models
Rui Wang | Fei Mi | Yi Chen | Boyang Xue | Hongru Wang | Qi Zhu | Kam-Fai Wong | Ruifeng Xu

The growing interest in Large Language Models (LLMs) for specialized applications has revealed a significant challenge: when tailored to specific domains, LLMs tend to experience catastrophic forgetting, compromising their general capabilities and leading to a suboptimal user experience. Additionally, crafting a versatile model for multiple domains simultaneously often results in a decline in overall performance due to confusion between domains. In response to these issues, we present the RolE Prompting Guided Multi-Domain Adaptation (REGA) strategy. This novel approach effectively manages multi-domain LLM adaptation through three key components: 1) Self-Distillation constructs and replays general-domain exemplars to alleviate catastrophic forgetting. 2) Role Prompting assigns a central prompt to the general domain and a unique role prompt to each specific domain to minimize inter-domain confusion during training. 3) Role Integration reuses and integrates a small portion of domain-specific data to the general-domain data, which are trained under the guidance of the central prompt. The central prompt is used for a streamlined inference process, removing the necessity to switch prompts for different domains.Empirical results demonstrate that REGA effectively alleviates catastrophic forgetting and inter-domain confusion. This leads to improved domain-specific performance compared to standard fine-tuned models, while still preserving robust general capabilities.

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BERTweet’s TACO Fiesta: Contrasting Flavors On The Path Of Inference And Information-Driven Argument Mining On Twitter
Marc Feger | Stefan Dietze

Argument mining, dealing with the classification of text based on inference and information, denotes a challenging analytical task in the rich context of Twitter (now 𝕏), a key platform for online discourse and exchange. Thereby, Twitter offers a diverse repository of short messages bearing on both of these elements. For text classification, transformer approaches, particularly BERT, offer state-of-the-art solutions. Our study delves into optimizing the embeddings of the understudied BERTweet transformer for argument mining on Twitter and broader generalization across topics.We explore the impact of pre-classification fine-tuning by aligning similar manifestations of inference and information while contrasting dissimilar instances. Using the TACO dataset, our approach augments tweets for optimizing BERTweet in a Siamese network, strongly improving classification and cross-topic generalization compared to standard methods.Overall, we contribute the transformer WRAPresentations and classifier WRAP, scoring 86.62% F1 for inference detection, 86.30% for information recognition, and 75.29% across four combinations of these elements, to enhance inference and information-driven argument mining on Twitter.

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Testing the limits of logical reasoning in neural and hybrid models
Manuel Vargas Guzmán | Jakub Szymanik | Maciej Malicki

We study the ability of neural and hybrid models to generalize logical reasoning patterns. We created a series of tests for analyzing various aspects of generalization in the context of language and reasoning, focusing on compositionality and recursiveness. We used them to study the syllogistic logic in hybrid models, where the network assists in premise selection. We analyzed feed-forward, recurrent, convolutional, and transformer architectures. Our experiments demonstrate that even though the models can capture elementary aspects of the meaning of logical terms, they learn to generalize logical reasoning only to a limited degree.

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METAL: Towards Multilingual Meta-Evaluation
Rishav Hada | Varun Gumma | Mohamed Ahmed | Kalika Bali | Sunayana Sitaram

With the rising human-like precision of Large Language Models (LLMs) in numerous tasks, their utilization in a variety of real-world applications is becoming more prevalent. Several studies have shown that LLMs excel on many standard NLP benchmarks. However, it is challenging to evaluate LLMs due to test dataset contamination and the limitations of traditional metrics. Since human evaluations are difficult to collect, there is a growing interest in the community to use LLMs themselves as reference-free evaluators for subjective metrics. However, past work has shown that LLM-based evaluators can exhibit bias and have poor alignment with human judgments. In this study, we propose a framework for an end-to-end assessment of LLMs as evaluators in multilingual scenarios. We create a carefully curated dataset, covering 10 languages containing native speaker judgments for the task of summarization. This dataset is created specifically to evaluate LLM-based evaluators, which we refer to as meta-evaluation (METAL). We compare the performance of LLM-based evaluators created using GPT-3.5-Turbo, GPT-4, and PaLM2. Our results indicate that LLM-based evaluators based on GPT-4 perform the best across languages, while GPT-3.5-Turbo performs poorly. Additionally, we perform an analysis of the reasoning provided by LLM-based evaluators and find that it often does not match the reasoning provided by human judges.

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AGIEval: A Human-Centric Benchmark for Evaluating Foundation Models
Wanjun Zhong | Ruixiang Cui | Yiduo Guo | Yaobo Liang | Shuai Lu | Yanlin Wang | Amin Saied | Weizhu Chen | Nan Duan

Assessing foundation models’ abilities for human-level tasks is crucial for Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) development.Traditional benchmarks, which rely on artificial datasets, may not accurately represent these capabilities. In this paper, we introduce AGIEval, a novel bilingual benchmark designed to assess foundation models in the context of human-centric standardized exams, such as college entrance exams, law school admission tests, math competitions, and lawyer qualification tests. We evaluate several state-of-the-art foundation models on our benchmark. Impressively, we show that GPT-4 exceeds the average human performance in SAT, LSAT, and math contests, with 95% accuracy on SAT Math and 92.5% on the Chinese college entrance English exam. This demonstrates the exceptional performance of contemporary foundation models. In contrast, we also find that GPT-4 is less proficient in tasks requiring complex reasoning or specific domain knowledge. Our comprehensive analyses of model capabilities (understanding, knowledge, reasoning, and calculation) reveal their strengths and limitations, providing valuable insights into future directions for enhancing general capabilities. By concentrating on tasks pertinent to human cognition and decision-making, our benchmark delivers a meaningful and robust evaluation of foundation models’ performance in real-world scenarios.

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Product Description and QA Assisted Self-Supervised Opinion Summarization
Tejpalsingh Siledar | Rupasai Rangaraju | Sankara Muddu | Suman Banerjee | Amey Patil | Sudhanshu Singh | Muthusamy Chelliah | Nikesh Garera | Swaprava Nath | Pushpak Bhattacharyya

In e-commerce, opinion summarization is the process of summarizing the consensus opinions found in product reviews. However, the potential of additional sources such as product description and question-answers (QA) has been considered less often. Moreover, the absence of any supervised training data makes this task challenging. To address this, we propose a novel synthetic dataset creation (SDC) strategy that leverages information from reviews as well as additional sources for selecting one of the reviews as a pseudo-summary to enable supervised training. Our Multi-Encoder Decoder framework for Opinion Summarization (MEDOS) employs a separate encoder for each source, enabling effective selection of information while generating the summary. For evaluation, due to the unavailability of test sets with additional sources, we extend the Amazon, Oposum+, and Flipkart test sets and leverage ChatGPT to annotate summaries. Experiments across nine test sets demonstrate that the combination of our SDC approach and MEDOS model achieves on average a 14.5% improvement in ROUGE-1 F1 over the SOTA. Moreover, comparative analysis underlines the significance of incorporating additional sources for generating more informative summaries. Human evaluations further indicate that MEDOS scores relatively higher in coherence and fluency with 0.41 and 0.5 (−1 to 1) respectively, compared to existing models. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to generate opinion summaries leveraging additional sources in a self-supervised setting.

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COMEM: In-Context Retrieval-Augmented Mass-Editing Memory in Large Language Models
Shanbao Qiao | Xuebing Liu | Seung-Hoon Na

Noting that world knowledge continuously evolves over time, large language models (LLMs) need to be properly adjusted by performing the “knowledge editing”, which involves updating outdated information or correcting false information. To achieve reliable and “massive” editing capabilities in terms of generalization and specificity, this paper proposes a unified knowledge editing method called in-COntext retrieval-augmented Mass-Editing Memory (COMEM), which combines two types of editing approaches: parameter updating and in-context knowledge editing (IKE). In particular, COMEM incorporates retrieval-augmented IKE, a novel extension of IKE designed for massive editing tasks, based on an updating-aware demonstration construction.Experimental results on the zsRE and CounterFact datasets demonstrate that COMEM outperforms all existing methods, achieving state-of-the-art performance. Our code is available at

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Content-Specific Humorous Image Captioning Using Incongruity Resolution Chain-of-Thought
Kohtaro Tanaka | Kohei Uehara | Lin Gu | Yusuke Mukuta | Tatsuya Harada

Although automated image captioning methods have benefited considerably from the development of large language models (LLMs), generating humorous captions is still a challenging task. Humorous captions generated by humans are unique to the image and reflect the content of the image. However, captions generated using previous captioning models tend to be generic. Therefore, we propose incongruity-resolution chain-of-thought (IRCoT) as a novel prompting framework that creates content-specific resolutions from fine details extracted from an image. Furthermore, we integrate logit bias and negative sampling to suppress the output of generic resolutions. The results of experiments with GPT4-V demonstrate that our proposed framework effectively generated humorous captions tailored to the content of specific input images.

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Denoising Attention for Query-aware User Modeling
Elias Bassani | Pranav Kasela | Gabriella Pasi

Personalization of search results has gained increasing attention in the past few years, also thanks to the development of Neural Networks-based approaches for Information Retrieval. Recent works have proposed to build user models at query time by leveraging the Attention mechanism, which allows weighing the contribution of the user-related information w.r.t. the current query.This approach allows giving more importance to the user’s interests related to the current search performed by the user.In this paper, we discuss some shortcomings of the Attention mechanism when employed for personalization and introduce a novel Attention variant, the Denoising Attention, to solve them.Denoising Attention adopts a robust normalization scheme and introduces a filtering mechanism to better discern among the user-related data those helpful for personalization.Experimental evaluation shows improvements in MAP, MRR, and NDCG above 15% w.r.t. other Attention variants at the state-of-the-art.

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A Lightweight Mixture-of-Experts Neural Machine Translation Model with Stage-wise Training Strategy
Fan Zhang | Mei Tu | Song Liu | Jinyao Yan

Dealing with language heterogeneity has always been one of the challenges in neural machine translation (NMT).The idea of using mixture-of-experts (MoE) naturally excels in addressing this issue by employing different experts to take responsibility for different problems.However, the parameter-inefficiency problem in MoE results in less performance improvement when boosting the number of parameters.Moreover, most of the MoE models are suffering from the training instability problem.This paper proposes MoA (Mixture-of-Adapters), a lightweight MoE-based NMT model that is trained via an elaborately designed stage-wise training strategy.With the standard Transformer as the backbone model, we introduce lightweight adapters as experts for easy expansion.To improve the parameter efficiency, we explicitly model and distill the language heterogeneity into the gating network with clustering.After freezing the gating network, we adopt the Gumbel-Max sampling as the routing scheme when training experts to balance the knowledge of generalization and specialization while preventing expert over-fitting.Empirical results show that MoA achieves stable improvements in different translation tasks by introducing much fewer extra parameters compared to other MoE baselines.Additionally, the performance evaluations on a multi-domain translation task illustrate the effectiveness of our training strategy.

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BEAR: A Unified Framework for Evaluating Relational Knowledge in Causal and Masked Language Models
Jacek Wiland | Max Ploner | Alan Akbik

Knowledge probing assesses to which degree a language model (LM) has successfully learned relational knowledge during pre-training. Probing is an inexpensive way to compare LMs of different sizes and training configurations. However, previous approaches rely on the objective function used in pre-training LMs and are thus applicable only to masked or causal LMs. As a result, comparing different types of LMs becomes impossible. To address this, we propose an approach that uses an LM’s inherent ability to estimate the log-likelihood of any given textual statement. We carefully design an evaluation dataset of 7,731 instances (40,916 in a larger variant) from which we produce alternative statements for each relational fact, one of which is correct. We then evaluate whether an LM correctly assigns the highest log-likelihood to the correct statement. Our experimental evaluation of 22 common LMs shows that our proposed framework, BEAR, can effectively probe for knowledge across different LM types. We release the BEAR datasets and an open-source framework that implements the probing approach to the research community to facilitate the evaluation and development of LMs.

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Conformal Intent Classification and Clarification for Fast and Accurate Intent Recognition
Floris Hengst | Ralf Wolter | Patrick Altmeyer | Arda Kaygan

We present Conformal Intent Classification and Clarification (CICC), a framework for fast and accurate intent classification for task-oriented dialogue systems. The framework turns heuristic uncertainty scores of any intent classifier into a clarification question that is guaranteed to contain the true intent at a pre-defined confidence level.By disambiguating between a small number of likely intents, the user query can be resolved quickly and accurately. Additionally, we propose to augment the framework for out-of-scope detection.In a comparative evaluation using seven intent recognition datasets we find that CICC generates small clarification questions and is capable of out-of-scope detection.CICC can help practitioners and researchers substantially in improving the user experience of dialogue agents with specific clarification questions.

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Anonymity at Risk? Assessing Re-Identification Capabilities of Large Language Models in Court Decisions
Alex Nyffenegger | Matthias Stürmer | Joel Niklaus

Anonymity in court rulings is a critical aspect of privacy protection in the European Union and Switzerland but with the advent of LLMs, concerns about large-scale re-identification of anonymized persons are growing. In accordance with the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (FSCS), we study re-identification risks using actual legal data. Following the initial experiment, we constructed an anonymized Wikipedia dataset as a more rigorous testing ground to further investigate the findings. In addition to the datasets, we also introduce new metrics to measure performance. We systematically analyze the factors that influence successful re-identifications, identifying model size, input length, and instruction tuning among the most critical determinants. Despite high re-identification rates on Wikipedia, even the best LLMs struggled with court decisions. We demonstrate that for now, the risk of re-identifications using LLMs is minimal in the vast majority of cases. We hope that our system can help enhance the confidence in the security of anonymized decisions, thus leading the courts to publish more decisions.

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X-LLaVA: Optimizing Bilingual Large Vision-Language Alignment
DongJae Shin | HyeonSeok Lim | Inho Won | ChangSu Choi | Minjun Kim | SeungWoo Song | HanGyeol Yoo | SangMin Kim | KyungTae Lim

The impressive development of large language models (LLMs) is expanding into the realm of large multimodal models (LMMs), which incorporate multiple types of data beyond text. However, the nature of multimodal models leads to significant expenses in the creation of training data. Furthermore, constructing multilingual data for LMMs presents its own set of challenges due to language diversity and complexity. Therefore, in this study, we propose two cost-effective methods to solve this problem: (1) vocabulary expansion and pretraining of multilingual LLM for specific languages, and (2) automatic and elaborate construction of multimodal datasets using GPT4-V. Based on these methods, we constructed a 91K English-Korean-Chinese multilingual, multimodal training dataset. Additionally, we developed a bilingual multimodal model that exhibits excellent performance in both Korean and English, surpassing existing approaches.

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Why So Gullible? Enhancing the Robustness of Retrieval-Augmented Models against Counterfactual Noise
Giwon Hong | Jeonghwan Kim | Junmo Kang | Sung-Hyon Myaeng | Joyce Whang

Most existing retrieval-augmented language models (LMs) assume a naive dichotomy within a retrieved document set: query-relevance and irrelevance. Our work investigates a more challenging scenario in which even the “relevant” documents may contain misleading or incorrect information, causing conflict among the retrieved documents and thereby negatively influencing model decisions as noise. We observe that existing LMs are highly brittle to the presence of conflicting information in both the fine-tuning and in-context few-shot learning scenarios. We propose approaches for handling knowledge conflicts among retrieved documents by explicitly fine-tuning a discriminator or prompting GPT-3.5 to elicit its discriminative capability. Our empirical results on open-domain QA show that these approaches significantly enhance model robustness. We also provide our findings on incorporating the fine-tuned discriminator’s decision into the in-context learning process, proposing a way to exploit the benefits of two disparate learning schemes. Alongside our findings, we provide MacNoise, a machine-generated, conflict-induced dataset to further encourage research in this direction.

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Heterogeneity over Homogeneity: Investigating Multilingual Speech Pre-Trained Models for Detecting Audio Deepfake
Orchid Chetia Phukan | Gautam Kashyap | Arun Balaji Buduru | Rajesh Sharma

In this work, we investigate multilingual speech Pre-Trained models (PTMs) for Audio deepfake detection (ADD). We hypothesize thatmultilingual PTMs trained on large-scale diverse multilingual data gain knowledge about diverse pitches, accents, and tones, during theirpre-training phase and making them more robust to variations. As a result, they will be more effective for detecting audio deepfakes. To validate our hypothesis, we extract representations from state-of-the-art (SOTA) PTMs including monolingual, multilingual as well as PTMs trained for speaker and emotion recognition, and evaluated them on ASVSpoof 2019 (ASV), In-the-Wild (ITW), and DECRO benchmark databases. We show that representations from multilingual PTMs, with simple downstream networks, attain the best performance for ADD compared to other PTM representations, which validates our hypothesis. We also explore the possibility of fusion of selected PTM representations for further improvements in ADD, and we propose a framework, MiO (Merge into One) for this purpose. With MiO, we achieve SOTA performance on ASV and ITW and comparable performance on DECRO with current SOTA works.

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Identifying Self-Disclosures of Use, Misuse and Addiction in Community-based Social Media Posts
Chenghao Yang | Tuhin Chakrabarty | Karli Hochstatter | Melissa Slavin | Nabila El-Bassel | Smaranda Muresan

In the last decade, the United States has lost more than 500,000 people from an overdose involving prescription and illicit opioids making it a national public health emergency (USDHHS, 2017). Medical practitioners require robust and timely tools that can effectively identify at-risk patients. Community-based social media platforms such as Reddit allow self-disclosure for users to discuss otherwise sensitive drug-related behaviors. We present a moderate size corpus of 2500 opioid-related posts from various subreddits labeled with six different phases of opioid use: Medical Use, Misuse, Addiction, Recovery, Relapse, Not Using. For every post, we annotate span-level extractive explanations and crucially study their role both in annotation quality and model development. We evaluate several state-of-the-art models in a supervised, few-shot, or zero-shot setting. Experimental results and error analysis show that identifying the phases of opioid use disorder is highly contextual and challenging. However, we find that using explanations during modeling leads to a significant boost in classification accuracy demonstrating their beneficial role in a high-stakes domain such as studying the opioid use disorder continuum.

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Self-Adaptive Sampling for Accurate Video Question Answering on Image Text Models
Wei Han | Hui Chen | Min-Yen Kan | Soujanya Poria

Image–text models (ITMs) is the prevalent architecture to solve video question–answering tasks, which requires only a few input frames to save huge computational cost compared to video–language models.However, we find existent ITM video question–answering solutions either 1) adopt simplistic and unintentional sampling strategies, which may miss key frames to offer the answer clues; or 2) sample a large number of frames into divided groups, which the computational sources can not accommodate. In this work, we aim at an efficient sampling method towards the few-frame situations.We first summarize a family of prior sampling methods based on question–frame correlation into a unified one, dubbed *Most Implied Frames* (MIF). Through some primary results and analysis, Through analysis, we form a hypothesis that question-aware sampling is not necessary, from which we further propose the other method *Most Dominant Frames* (MDF).Experimental results on four public datasets and three advanced ITMs demonstrate that our proposed strategies can boost the performance for image–text pretrained models, and have a wide application scenario in terms of model architectures and dataset types. Our code is available at

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Towards an On-device Agent for Text Rewriting
Yun Zhu | Yinxiao Liu | Felix Stahlberg | Shankar Kumar | Yu-Hui Chen | Liangchen Luo | Lei Shu | Renjie Liu | Jindong Chen | Lei Meng

Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive capabilities for text rewriting. However creating a smaller yet potent language model for text rewriting presents two formidable challenges: costly data collection and absence of emergent capabilities.In this paper we present solutions to address the above challenges.We propose an new instruction tuning method to develop a mo-bile text rewriting model that leverages LLM-generated data and heuristic reinforcement learning, eliminating the need for human data collection. Moreover, to bridge the performance gap from the constraint size, we pro-pose a cascading approach based on the confidence levels which are distilled from the large server model’s critiques. To evaluate the text rewriting tasks for mobile scenarios, we introduce MessageRewriteEval, a human-labeled benchmark that focuses on text rewriting of messages through natural language instructions. Through empirical experiments, we demonstrate that our on-device model surpasses the current state-of-the-art LLMs in text rewriting while maintaining a significantly reduced model size using public benchmark EditEval and our new benchmark. We also demonstrate that our proposed cascading approach improves model performance further.

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Tailoring Vaccine Messaging with Common-Ground Opinions
Rickard Stureborg | Sanxing Chen | Roy Xie | Aayushi Patel | Christopher Li | Chloe Zhu | Tingnan Hu | Jun Yang | Bhuwan Dhingra

One way to personalize chatbot interactions is by establishing common ground with the intended reader. A domain where establishing mutual understanding could be particularly impactful is vaccine concerns and misinformation. Vaccine interventions are forms of messaging which aim to answer concerns expressed about vaccination. Tailoring responses in this domain is difficult, since opinions often have seemingly little ideological overlap. We define the task of tailoring vaccine interventions to a Common-Ground Opinion (CGO). Tailoring responses to a CGO involves meaningfully improving the answer by relating it to an opinion or belief the reader holds. In this paper we introduce Tailor-CGO, a dataset for evaluating how well responses are tailored to provided CGOs. We benchmark several major LLMs on this task; finding GPT-4-Turbo performs significantly better than others. We also build automatic evaluation metrics, including an efficient and accurate BERT model that outperforms finetuned LLMs, investigate how to successfully tailor vaccine messaging to CGOs, and provide actionable recommendations from this investigation.Tailor-CGO dataset and code available at:

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Best of Both Worlds: A Pliable and Generalizable Neuro-Symbolic Approach for Relation Classification
Robert Vacareanu | Fahmida Alam | Md Asiful Islam | Haris Riaz | Mihai Surdeanu

This paper introduces a novel neuro-symbolic architecture for relation classification (RC) that combines rule-based methods with contemporary deep learning techniques. This approach capitalizes on the strengths of both paradigms: the adaptability of rule-based systems and the generalization power of neural networks. Our architecture consists of two components: a declarative rule-based model for transparent classification and a neural component to enhance rule generalizability through semantic text matching.Notably, our semantic matcher is trained in an unsupervised domain-agnostic way, solely with synthetic data.Further, these components are loosely coupled, allowing for rule modifications without retraining the semantic matcher.In our evaluation, we focused on two few-shot relation classification datasets: Few-Shot TACRED and a Few-Shot version of NYT29. We show that our proposed method outperforms previous state-of-the-art models in three out of four settings, despite not seeing any human-annotated training data.Further, we show that our approach remains modular and pliable, i.e., the corresponding rules can be locally modified to improve the overall model. Human interventions to the rules for the TACRED relation org:parents boost the performance on that relation by as much as 26% relative improvement, without negatively impacting the other relations, and without retraining the semantic matching component.

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Q-Tuning: Queue-based Prompt Tuning for Lifelong Few-shot Language Learning
Yanhui Guo | Shaoyuan Xu | Jinmiao Fu | Jia Liu | Chaosheng Dong | Bryan Wang

This paper introduces Q-tuning, a novel approach for continual prompt tuning that enables the lifelong learning of a pre-trained language model. When learning a new task, Q-tuning trains a task-specific prompt by adding it to a prompt queue consisting of the prompts from older tasks. To better transfer the knowledge of old tasks, we design an adaptive knowledge aggregation technique that reweighs previous prompts in the queue with a learnable low-rank matrix. Once the prompt queue reaches its maximum capacity, we leverage a PCA-based eviction rule to reduce the queue’s size, allowing the newly trained prompt to be added while preserving the primary knowledge of old tasks. In order to mitigate the accumulation of information loss caused by the eviction, we additionally propose a globally shared prefix prompt and a memory retention regularization based on information theory. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods substantially on continual prompt tuning benchmarks. Moreover, our approach enables lifelong learning on linearly growing task sequences while requiring constant complexity for training and inference.

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In-Context Example Ordering Guided by Label Distributions
Zhichao Xu | Daniel Cohen | Bei Wang | Vivek Srikumar

By allowing models to predict without task-specific training, in-context learning (ICL) with pretrained LLMs has enormous potential in NLP. However, a number of problems persist in ICL. In particular, its performance is sensitive to the choice and order of in-context examples. Given the same set of in-context examples with different orderings, model performance may vary from near random to near state-of-the-art. In this work, we formulate in-context example ordering as an optimization problem. We examine three problem settings that differ in the assumptions they make about what is known about the task. Inspired by the idea of learning from label proportions, we propose two principles for in-context example ordering guided by model’s probability predictions. We apply our proposed principles to thirteen text classification datasets and nine different autoregressive LLMs with 700M to 13B parameters. We demonstrate that our approach outperforms the baselines by improving the classification accuracy, reducing model miscalibration, and also by selecting better in-context examples.

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Beyond Surface Similarity: Detecting Subtle Semantic Shifts in Financial Narratives
Jiaxin Liu | Yi Yang | Kar Yan Tam

In this paper, we introduce the Financial-STS task, a financial domain-specific NLP task designed to measure the nuanced semantic similarity between pairs of financial narratives. These narratives originate from the financial statements of the same company but correspond to different periods, such as year-over-year comparisons. Measuring the subtle semantic differences between these paired narratives enables market stakeholders to gauge changes over time in the company’s financial and operational situations, which is critical for financial decision-making. We find that existing pretrained embedding models and LLM embeddings fall short in discerning these subtle financial narrative shifts. To address this gap, we propose an LLM-augmented pipeline specifically designed for the Financial-STS task. Evaluation on a human-annotated dataset demonstrates that our proposed method outperforms existing methods trained on classic STS tasks and generic LLM embeddings.

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Laying Anchors: Semantically Priming Numerals in Language Modeling
Mandar Sharma | Rutuja Taware | Pravesh Koirala | Nikhil Muralidhar | Naren Ramakrishnan

Off-the-shelf pre-trained language models have become the de facto standard in NLP pipelines for a multitude of downstream tasks. However, the inability of these models to properly encode numerals limits their performance on tasks requiring numeric comprehension. We introduce strategies to semantically prime numerals in any corpus by generating anchors governed by the distribution of numerals in said corpus, thereby enabling mathematically grounded representations of these numeral tokens. We establish the superiority of our proposed techniques through evaluation on a range of numeracy tasks for both in-domain (seen) and out-domain (unseen) numerals. Further, we expand our empirical evaluations to numerals ranging from 1 to 10 billion, a significantly broader range compared to previous studies of the same nature, and we demonstrate significant improvements in the mathematical grounding of our learned embeddings.

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UEGP: Unified Expert-Guided Pre-training for Knowledge Rekindle
Yutao Mou | Kexiang Wang | Jianhe Lin | Dehong Ma | Jun Fan | Daiting Shi | Zhicong Cheng | Gu Simiu | Dawei Yin | Weiran Xu

Pre-training and fine-tuning framework has become the standard training paradigm for NLP tasks and is also widely used in industrial-level applications. However, there are still a limitation with this paradigm: simply fine-tuning with task-specific objectives tends to converge to local minima, resulting in a sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we first propose a new paradigm: knowledge rekindle, which aims to re-incorporate the fine-tuned expert model into the training cycle and break through the performance upper bounds of experts without introducing additional annotated data. Then we further propose a unified expert-guided pre-training (UEGP) framework for knowledge rekindle. Specifically, we reuse fine-tuned expert models for various downstream tasks as knowledge sources and inject task-specific prior knowledge to pre-trained language models (PLMs) by means of knowledge distillation. In this process, we perform multi-task learning with knowledge distillation and masked language modeling (MLM) objectives. We also further explored whether mixture-of-expert guided pre-training (MoEGP) can further enhance the effect of knowledge rekindle. Experiments and analysis on eight datasets in GLUE benchmark and a industrial-level search re-ranking dataset show the effectiveness of our method.

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LatticeGen: Hiding Generated Text in a Lattice for Privacy-Aware Large Language Model Generation on Cloud
Mengke Zhang | Tianxing He | Tianle Wang | Lu Mi | Niloofar Mireshghallah | Binyi Chen | Hao Wang | Yulia Tsvetkov

In the current user-server interaction paradigm of prompted generation with large language models (LLMs) on cloud, the server fully controls the generation process, which leaves zero options for users who want to keep the generated text private to themselves. For privacy-aware text generation on cloud, we propose LatticeGen, a cooperative protocol in which the server still handles most of the computation while the client controls the sampling operation. The key idea is that the true generated sequence is mixed with noise tokens by the client and hidden in a noised lattice. Only the client knows which tokens are the true ones. Considering potential attacks from a hypothetically malicious server and how the client can defend against it, we propose the repeated beam-search attack and the mixing noise scheme. In our experiments we apply LatticeGen to protect both prompt and generation. It is shown that while the noised lattice degrades generation quality, LatticeGen successfully protects the true generation to a remarkable degree under strong attacks (more than 50% of the semantic remains hidden as measured by BERTScore).

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HateModerate: Testing Hate Speech Detectors against Content Moderation Policies
Jiangrui Zheng | Xueqing Liu | Mirazul Haque | Xing Qian | Guanqun Yang | Wei Yang

To protect users from massive hateful content, existing works studied automated hate speech detection. Despite the existing efforts, one question remains: Do automated hate speech detectors conform to social media content policies? A platform’s content policies are a checklist of content moderated by the social media platform. Because content moderation rules are often uniquely defined, existing hate speech datasets cannot directly answer this question. This work seeks to answer this question by creating HateModerate, a dataset for testing the behaviors of automated content moderators against content policies. First, we engage 28 annotators and GPT in a six-step annotation process, resulting in a list of hateful and non-hateful test suites matching each of Facebook’s 41 hate speech policies. Second, we test the performance of state-of-the-art hate speech detectors against HateModerate, revealing substantial failures these models have in their conformity to the policies. Third, using HateModerate, we augment the training data of a top-downloaded hate detector on HuggingFace. We observe significant improvement in the models’ conformity to content policies while having comparable scores on the original test data. Our dataset and code can be found on

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Compensate Quantization Errors: Make Weights Hierarchical to Compensate Each Other
Yifei Gao | Jie Ou | Lei Wang | Yuting Xiao | Xiangzhiyuan Xiangzhiyuan | Ruiting Dai | Jun Cheng

Emergent Large Language Models (LLMs) use their extraordinary performance and powerful deduction capacity to discern from traditional language models. However, the expenses of computational resources and storage for these LLMs are stunning, quantization then arises as a trending conversation. To address accuracy decay caused by quantization, two streams of works in post-training quantization methods stand out. One uses other weights to compensate existing quantization error, while the other transfers the quantization difficulty to other parts in the model. Combining both merits, we introduce Learnable Singular value Increment (LSI) as an advanced solution. LSI uses Singular Value Decomposition to extract singular values of the weights and make them learnable to help weights compensate each other conditioned on activation. Incorporating LSI with existing techniques, we achieve state-of-the-art performance in diverse quantization settings, no matter in weight-only, weight-activation or extremely low bit scenarios. By unleashing the potential of LSI, efficient finetuning on quantized model is no longer a prohibitive problem.

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Contrastive Preference Learning for Neural Machine Translation
Jianfei He | Shichao Sun | Sen Peng | Jie Xu | Xiaohua Jia | Wenjie Li

There exists a discrepancy between the token-level objective during training and the overall sequence-level quality that is expected from the model. This discrepancy leads to issues like exposure bias.To align the model with human expectations, sequence-level objectives are often used to fine-tune pre-trained models.In this paper, we introduce a contrastive preference model that enhances the traditional Plackett-Luce model by incorporating an indicator function. Building upon this novel preference model, we propose Contrastive Preference Learning (CPL), which uses offline samples with list-wise preferences to fine-tune a pre-trained model in Neural Machine Translation. Our experiments, conducted on three language pairs, demonstrate that CPL outperforms not only the vanilla Transformer model but also other token-level and sequence-level baselines. Furthermore, the ablation study highlights the essential role of the proposed indicator function in achieving this improvement.

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SocREval: Large Language Models with the Socratic Method for Reference-free Reasoning Evaluation
Hangfeng He | Hongming Zhang | Dan Roth

To comprehensively gauge the capacity of current models for complex reasoning, it is crucial to assess their step-by-step reasoning in a scalable manner. Established reference-based evaluation metrics rely on human-annotated reasoning chains as references to assess the model-derived chains. However, such “gold-standard” human-written reasoning chains may not be unique and their acquisition is often labor-intensive. Existing reference-free reasoning evaluation metrics, while eliminating the need for human-crafted reasoning chains as references, often require fine-tuning with human-derived chains before evaluation, complicating the process and questioning their adaptability to other datasets. To address these challenges, we harness GPT-4 to automatically evaluate reasoning chain quality, thereby removing the dependency on human-written reasoning chains for both model fine-tuning and evaluative purposes. Leveraging the Socratic method, we develop SocREval (**Soc**ratic Method-Inspired **R**easoning **Eval**uation), a novel approach for prompt design in reference-free reasoning evaluation. Empirical results from four human annotated datasets reveal that SocREval significantly improves GPT-4’s performance, surpassing existing reference-free and reference-based reasoning evaluation metrics. Beyond its demonstrated efficacy, SocREval, proves to be both cost-efficient and robust to prompt writing and example selection, as substantiated by our in-depth analysis.

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Multilingual Machine Translation with Large Language Models: Empirical Results and Analysis
Wenhao Zhu | Hongyi Liu | Qingxiu Dong | Jingjing Xu | Shujian Huang | Lingpeng Kong | Jiajun Chen | Lei Li

Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable potential in handling multilingual machine translation (MMT). In this paper, we systematically investigate the advantages and challenges of LLMs for MMT by answering two questions: 1) How well do LLMs perform in translating massive languages? 2) Which factors affect LLMs’ performance in translation? We thoroughly evaluate eight popular LLMs, including ChatGPT and GPT-4. Our empirical results show that translation capabilities of LLMs are continually involving. GPT-4 has beat the strong supervised baseline NLLB in 40.91% of translation directions but still faces a large gap towards the commercial translation system like Google Translate, especially on low-resource languages. Through further analysis, we discover that LLMs exhibit new working patterns when used for MMT. First, LLM can acquire translation ability in a resource-efficient way and generate moderate translation even on zero-resource languages. Second, instruction semantics can surprisingly be ignored when given in-context exemplars. Third, cross-lingual exemplars can provide better task guidance for low-resource translation than exemplars in the same language pairs. Code will be released at:

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Unleashing the Power of LLMs in Court View Generation by Stimulating Internal Knowledge and Incorporating External Knowledge
Yifei Liu | Yiquan Wu | Ang Li | Yating Zhang | Changlong Sun | Weiming Lu | Fei Wu | Kun Kuang

Court View Generation (CVG) plays a vital role in the realm of legal artificial intelligence, which aims to support judges in crafting legal judgment documents. The court view consists of three essential judgment parts: the charge-related, law article-related, and prison term-related parts, each requiring specialized legal knowledge, rendering CVG a challenging task.Although Large Language Models (LLMs) have made remarkable strides in language generation, they encounter difficulties in the knowledge-intensive legal domain.Actually, there can be two types of knowledge: internal knowledge stored within LLMs’ parameters and external knowledge sourced from legal documents outside the models.In this paper, we decompose court views into different parts, stimulate internal knowledge, and incorporate external information to unleash the power of LLMs in the CVG task.To validate our method, we conduct a series of experiment results on two real-world datasets LAIC2021 and CJO2022. The experiments demonstrate that our method is capable of generating more accurate and reliable court views.

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Prompting Vision-Language Models For Aspect-Controlled Generation of Referring Expressions
Danfeng Guo | Sanchit Agarwal | Arpit Gupta | Jiun-Yu Kao | Emre Barut | Tagyoung Chung | Jing Huang | Mohit Bansal

Referring Expression Generation (REG) is the task of generating a description that unambiguously identifies a given target in the scene. Different from Image Captioning (IC), REG requires learning fine-grained characteristics of not only the scene objects but also their surrounding context. Referring expressions are usually not singular; an object can often be uniquely referenced in numerous ways, for instance, by color, by location, or by relationship with other objects. Most prior works, however, have not explored this ‘aspect-based multiplicity’ of referring expressions. Hence, in this work, we focus on the Aspect-Controlled REG task, which requires generating a referring expression conditioned on the input aspect(s), where an aspect captures a style of reference. By changing the input aspect such as color, location, action etc., one can generate multiple distinct expressions per target region. To solve this new task, we first modify BLIP for aligning image-regions and text-expressions. We achieve this through a novel approach for feeding the input by drawing a bounding box around the target image-region and prompting the model to generate the referring expression. Our base REG model already beats all prior works in CIDEr score. To tackle Aspect-Controlled REG, we append ‘aspect tokens’ to the prompt and show that distinct expressions can be generated by just changing the prompt. Finally, to prove the high-quality and diversity of the data generated by our proposed aspect-controlled REG model, we also perform data-augmentation-based evaluation on the downstream Referring Expression Comprehension (REC) task. With just half of the real data augmented with the generated synthetic data, we achieve performance comparable to training with 100% of real data, using a SOTA REC model.

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Task-Agnostic Detector for Insertion-Based Backdoor Attacks
Weimin Lyu | Xiao Lin | Songzhu Zheng | Lu Pang | Haibin Ling | Susmit Jha | Chao Chen

Textual backdoor attacks pose significant security threats. Current detection approaches, typically relying on intermediate feature representation or reconstructing potential triggers, are task-specific and less effective beyond sentence classification, struggling with tasks like question answering and named entity recognition. We introduce TABDet (Task-Agnostic Backdoor Detector), a pioneering task-agnostic method for backdoor detection. TABDet leverages final layer logits combined with an efficient pooling technique, enabling unified logit representation across three prominent NLP tasks. TABDet can jointly learn from diverse task-specific models, demonstrating superior detection efficacy over traditional task-specific methods.

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Uncertainty Estimation on Sequential Labeling via Uncertainty Transmission
Jianfeng He | Linlin Yu | Shuo Lei | Chang-Tien Lu | Feng Chen

Sequential labeling is a task predicting labels for each token in a sequence, such as Named Entity Recognition (NER). NER tasks aim to extract entities and predict their labels given a text, which is important in information extraction. Although previous works have shown great progress in improving NER performance, uncertainty estimation on NER (UE-NER) is still underexplored but essential. This work focuses on UE-NER, which aims to estimate uncertainty scores for the NER predictions. Previous uncertainty estimation models often overlook two unique characteristics of NER: the connection between entities (i.e., one entity embedding is learned based on the other ones) and wrong span cases in the entity extraction subtask. Therefore, we propose a Sequential Labeling Posterior Network (SLPN) to estimate uncertainty scores for the extracted entities, considering uncertainty transmitted from other tokens. Moreover, we have defined an evaluation strategy to address the specificity of wrong-span cases. Our SLPN has achieved significant improvements on three datasets, such as a 5.54-point improvement in AUPR on the MIT-Restaurant dataset. Our code is available at

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Exploring Language Model’s Code Generation Ability with Auxiliary Functions
Seonghyeon Lee | Sanghwan Jang | Seongbo Jang | Dongha Lee | Hwanjo Yu

Auxiliary function is a helpful component to improve language model’s code generation ability. However, a systematic exploration of how they affect has yet to be done. In this work, we comprehensively evaluate the ability to utilize auxiliary functions encoded in recent code-pretrained language models. First, we construct a human-crafted evaluation set, called HumanExtension, which contains examples of two functions where one function assists the other.With HumanExtension, we design several experiments to examine their ability in a multifaceted way. Our evaluation processes enable a comprehensive understanding of including auxiliary functions in the prompt in terms of effectiveness and robustness. An additional implementation style analysis captures the models’ various implementation patterns when they access the auxiliary function. Through this analysis, we discover the models’ promising ability to utilize auxiliary functions including their self-improving behavior by implementing the two functions step-by-step. However, our analysis also reveals the model’s underutilized behavior to call the auxiliary function, suggesting the future direction to enhance their implementation by eliciting the auxiliary function call ability encoded in the models. We release our code and dataset to facilitate this research direction.

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Crossing Linguistic Horizons: Finetuning and Comprehensive Evaluation of Vietnamese Large Language Models
Sang Truong | Duc Nguyen | Toan Nguyen | Dong Le | Nhi Truong | Tho Quan | Sanmi Koyejo

Recent advancements in large language models (LLMs) have underscored their importance in the evolution of artificial intelligence. However, despite extensive pretraining on multilingual datasets, available open-sourced LLMs exhibit limited effectiveness in processing Vietnamese. The challenge is exacerbated by the absence of systematic benchmark datasets and metrics tailored for Vietnamese LLM evaluation. To mitigate these issues, we have finetuned LLMs specifically for Vietnamese and developed a comprehensive evaluation framework encompassing 10 tasks and 31 metrics. We observe that finetuning can help LLMs transfer knowledge across languages, serving as an efficient way to bolster their capabilities in non-English languages. Moreover, our analysis indicates that larger models can introduce more biases and uncalibrated outputs and the key factor influencing LLM performance is the quality of the training or finetuning datasets. These insights underscore the significance of meticulous finetuning with high-quality datasets in enhancing LLM performance.

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GoT: Effective Graph-of-Thought Reasoning in Language Models
Yao Yao | Zuchao Li | Hai Zhao

With the widespread use of language models (LMs) in NLP tasks, researchers have discovered the potential of Chain-of-thought (CoT) to assist LMs in accomplishing complex reasoning tasks by generating intermediate steps. However, human thought processes are often non-linear, rather than simply sequential chains of thoughts. Therefore, we propose Graph-of-Thought (GoT) reasoning, which models human thought processes not only as a chain but also as a graph. By representing thought units as nodes and connections between them as edges, our approach captures the non-sequential nature of human thinking and allows for a more realistic modeling of thought processes. GoT adopts a two-stage framework with an additional GoT encoder for thought graph representation and fuses the graph representation with the original input representation through a gated fusion mechanism. We evaluate GoT’s performance on a text-only reasoning task (AQUA-RAT) and a multimodal reasoning task (ScienceQA). Our model achieves significant improvement over the strong CoT baseline on the AQUA-RAT test set and boosts accuracy from 85.19% to 87.59% using the T5-base model over the state-of-the-art Multimodal-CoT on the ScienceQA test set. Our code is publicly available at

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Enhancing the General Agent Capabilities of Low-Paramter LLMs through Tuning and Multi-Branch Reasoning
Qinhao Zhou | Zihan Zhang | Xiang Xiang | Ke Wang | Yuchuan Wu | Yongbin Li

Open-source pre-trained Large Language Models (LLMs) exhibit strong language understanding and generation capabilities, making them highly successful in a variety of tasks. However, when used as agents for dealing with complex problems in the real world, their performance is far inferior to large commercial models such as ChatGPT and GPT-4. As intelligent agents, LLMs need to have the capabilities of task planning, long-term memory, and the ability to leverage external tools to achieve satisfactory performance. Various methods have been proposed to enhance the agent capabilities of LLMs. On the one hand, methods involve constructing agent-specific data and fine-tuning the models. On the other hand, some methods focus on designing prompts that effectively activate the reasoning abilities of the LLMs. We explore both strategies on the 7B and 13B models. We propose a comprehensive method for constructing agent-specific data using GPT-4. Through supervised fine-tuning with constructed data, we find that for these models with a relatively small number of parameters, supervised fine-tuning can significantly reduce hallucination outputs and formatting errors in agent tasks. Furthermore, techniques such as multi-path reasoning and task decomposition can effectively decrease problem complexity and enhance the performance of LLMs as agents. We evaluate our method on five agent tasks of AgentBench and achieve satisfactory results.

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MuMath: Multi-perspective Data Augmentation for Mathematical Reasoning in Large Language Models
Weihao You | Shuo Yin | Xudong Zhao | Zhilong Ji | Guoqiang Zhong | Jinfeng Bai

Recently, the tool-use Large Language Models (LLMs) that integrate with external Python interpreters have significantly enhanced mathematical reasoning capabilities for open-source LLMs. However, these models fall short in demonstrating the calculation process, which compromises user-friendliness and understanding of problem-solving steps. Conversely, while tool-free methods offer a clear display of the problem-solving process, their accuracy leaves room for improvement.These tool-free methods typically employ a somewhat narrow range of augmentation techniques such as rephrasing and difficulty enhancement to boost performance. In response to this issue, we have amalgamated and further refined these strengths while broadening the scope of augmentation methods to construct a **mu**lti-perspective augmentation dataset for **math**ematics—termed **MuMath** (𝜇-Math) Dataset.Subsequently, we finetune LLaMA-2 on the MuMath dataset to derive the MuMath model. Our experiments indicate that our MuMath-70B model achieves new state-of-the-art performance among tool-free methods—achieving 88.3% on GSM8K and 34.5% on MATH .We release the MuMath dataset along with its corresponding models and code for public use.

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Tram: A Token-level Retrieval-augmented Mechanism for Source Code Summarization
Tong Ye | Lingfei Wu | Tengfei Ma | Xuhong Zhang | Yangkai Du | Peiyu Liu | Shouling Ji | Wenhai Wang

Automatically generating human-readable text describing the functionality of a program is the intent of source code summarization. Although neural language models achieve significant performance in this field, they are limited by their inability to access external knowledge. To address this limitation, an emerging trend is combining neural models with external knowledge through retrieval methods. Previous methods have relied on the sentence-level retrieval paradigm on the encoder side. However, this paradigm is coarse-grained, noise-filled and cannot directly take advantage of the high-quality retrieved summary tokens on the decoder side. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained Token-level retrieval-augmented mechanism (Tram) on the decoder side rather than the encoder side to enhance the performance of neural models and produce more low-frequency tokens in generating summaries. Furthermore, to overcome the challenge of token-level retrieval in capturing contextual code semantics, we also propose integrating code semantics into individual summary tokens. The results of extensive experiments and human evaluation show that our token-level retrieval-augmented approach significantly improves performance and is more interpretable.

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UNO-DST: Leveraging Unlabelled Data in Zero-Shot Dialogue State Tracking
Chuang Li | Yan Zhang | Min-Yen Kan | Haizhou Li

Previous zero-shot dialogue state tracking (DST) methods only apply transfer learning, but ignore unlabelled data in the target domain.We transform zero-shot DST into few-shot DST by utilising such unlabelled data via joint and self-training methods. Our method incorporates auxiliary tasks that generate slot types as inverse prompts for main tasks, creating slot values during joint training. Cycle consistency between these two tasks enables the generation and selection of quality samples in unknown target domains for subsequent fine-tuning. This approach also facilitates automatic label creation, thereby optimizing the training and fine-tuning of DST models. We demonstrate this method’s effectiveness on general language models in zero-shot scenarios, improving average joint goal accuracy by 8% across all domains in MultiWOZ.

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Evaluating Step-by-Step Reasoning through Symbolic Verification
YiFan Zhang | Hanlin Zhang | Li Li | Eric Xing

Pre-trained language models (LMs) have shown remarkable reasoning performance using explanations or chain-of-thoughts (CoT)) for in-context learning. On the other hand, these reasoning tasks are usually presumed to be more approachable for symbolic programming. To understand the mechanism of reasoning of LMs, we curate synthetic datasets containing equivalent (natural, symbolic) data pairs, where symbolic examples contain first-order logic rules and predicates from non-parametric knowledge bases (KBs), supporting automated verification of intermediate reasoning results. Then we revisit neuro-symbolic approaches and propose to learn from demonstrations containing logic rules and corresponding examples to iteratively reason over KBs, recovering Prolog’s backward chaining algorithm and supporting automated verification of LMs’ outputs. Comprehensive experiments are included to systematically compare LMLP with CoT in deductive reasoning settings, showing that LMLP enjoys more than 25% higher accuracy than CoT on length generalization benchmarks even with smaller model sizes.

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Multi-Review Fusion-in-Context
Aviv Slobodkin | Ori Shapira | Ran Levy | Ido Dagan

Grounded text generation, encompassing tasks such as long-form question-answering and summarization, necessitates both content selection and content consolidation. Current end-to-end methods are difficult to control and interpret due to their opaqueness.Accordingly, recent works have proposed a modular approach, with separate components for each step. Specifically, we focus on the second subtask, of generating coherent text given pre-selected content in a multi-document setting. Concretely, we formalize Fusion-in-Context (FiC) as a standalone task, whose input consists of source texts with highlighted spans of targeted content. A model then needs to generate a coherent passage that includes all and only the target information.Our work includes the development of a curated dataset of 1000 instances in the reviews domain, alongside a novel evaluation framework for assessing the faithfulness and coverage of highlights, which strongly correlate to human judgment. Several baseline models exhibit promising outcomes and provide insightful analyses.This study lays the groundwork for further exploration of modular text generation in the multi-document setting, offering potential improvements in the quality and reliability of generated content. Our benchmark, FuseReviews, including the dataset, evaluation framework, and designated leaderboard, can be found at

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Retrieving Examples from Memory for Retrieval Augmented Neural Machine Translation: A Systematic Comparison
Maxime Bouthors | Josep Crego | François Yvon

Retrieval-Augmented Neural Machine Translation (RAMT) architectures retrieve examples from memory to guide the generation process. While most works in this trend explore new ways to exploit the retrieved examples, the upstream retrieval step is mostly unexplored. In this paper, we study the effect of varying retrieval methods for several translation architectures to better understand the interplay between these two processes.We conduct experiments in two language pairs in a multi-domain setting and consider several downstream architectures based on a standard autoregressive model, an edit-based model, and a large language model with in-context learning. Our experiments show that the choice of the retrieval technique impacts the translation scores, with variance across architectures. We also discuss the effects of increasing the number and diversity of examples, which are mostly positive across the board.

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Extending Input Contexts of Language Models through Training on Segmented Sequences
Petros Karypis | Julian McAuley | George Karypis

Effectively training language models on longinputs poses many technical challenges. As acost consideration, languages models are pre-trained on a fixed sequence length before beingadapted to longer sequences. We explore var-ious methods for adapting models to longerinputs by training on segmented sequences andan interpolation-based method for extendingabsolute positional embeddings. We developa training procedure to extend the input con-text size of pretrained models with no architec-tural changes and no additional memory coststhan training on the original input lengths. Bysub-sampling segments from long inputs whilemaintaining their original position the model isable to learn new positional interactions. Ourmethod benefits both models trained with abso-lute positional embeddings, by extending theirinput contexts, as well as popular relative posi-tional embedding methods showing a reducedperplexity on sequences longer than they weretrained on. We demonstrate our method canextend input contexts by a factor of 4× whileimproving perplexity.

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Reason from Fallacy: Enhancing Large Language Models’ Logical Reasoning through Logical Fallacy Understanding
Yanda Li | Dixuan Wang | Jiaqing Liang | Guochao Jiang | Qianyu He | Yanghua Xiao | Deqing Yang

Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated good performance in many reasoning tasks, but they still struggle with some complicated reasoning tasks including logical reasoning. One non-negligible reason for LLMs’ suboptimal performance on logical reasoning is their overlooking of understanding logical fallacies correctly. To evaluate LLMs’ capability of logical fallacy understanding (LFU), we propose five concrete tasks from three cognitive dimensions of WHAT, WHY, and HOW in this paper. Towards these LFU tasks, we have successfully constructed a new dataset LFUD based on GPT-4 accompanied by a little human effort. Our extensive experiments justify that our LFUD can be used not only to evaluate LLMs’ LFU capability, but also to fine-tune LLMs to obtain significantly enhanced performance on logical reasoning.

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Exploring Automated Distractor Generation for Math Multiple-choice Questions via Large Language Models
Wanyong Feng | Jaewook Lee | Hunter McNichols | Alexander Scarlatos | Digory Smith | Simon Woodhead | Nancy Ornelas | Andrew Lan

Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are ubiquitous in almost all levels of education since they are easy to administer, grade, and are a reliable format in assessments and practices. One of the most important aspects of MCQs is the distractors, i.e., incorrect options that are designed to target common errors or misconceptions among real students. To date, the task of crafting high-quality distractors largely remains a labor and time-intensive process for teachers and learning content designers, which has limited scalability. In this work, we study the task of automated distractor generation in the domain of math MCQs and explore a wide variety of large language model (LLM)-based approaches, from in-context learning to fine-tuning. We conduct extensive experiments using a real-world math MCQ dataset and find that although LLMs can generate some mathematically valid distractors, they are less adept at anticipating common errors or misconceptions among real students.

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Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis with Context Denoising
Yuanhe Tian | Chang Liu | Yan Song | Fei Xia | Yongdong Zhang

Given a sentence and a particular aspect term, aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) aims to predict the sentiment polarity towards this aspect term, which provides fine-grained analysis on sentiment understanding and it has attracted much attention in recent years. In order to achieve a good performance on ABSA, it is important for a model to appropriately encode contextual information, especially identifying salient features and eliminating noise in the context. To make incorrect predictions, most existing approaches employ powerful text encoders to locate important context features, as well as noises that mislead ABSA models. These approaches determine the noise in the text for ABSA by assigning low weights to context features or directly removing them from model input, which runs the risk of computing wrong weights or eliminating important context information. In this paper, we propose to improve ABSA with context denoising, where three types of word-level information are regarded as noise, namely, lexicographic noise, bag-of-words noise, and syntax noise. We utilize diffusion networks to perform the denoising process to gradually eliminate them so as to better predict sentiment polarities for given aspect terms. Our approach uses task-specific noise rather than the standard stochastic Gaussian noise in the diffusion networks. The experimental results on five widely used ABSA datasets demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of our approach.

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IruMozhi: Automatically classifying diglossia in Tamil
Kabilan Prasanna | Aryaman Arora

Tamil, a Dravidian language of South Asia, is a highly diglossic language with two very different registers in everyday use: Literary Tamil (preferred in writing and formal communication) and Spoken Tamil (confined to speech and informal media). Spoken Tamil is under-studied in modern NLP systems compared to Literary Tamil written in the Tamil script, as evidenced by a lack of datasets explicitly targetting the Spoken variety. In this paper, we release IruMozhi, a human-translated dataset of parallel text in Literary and Spoken Tamil. Using IruMozhi, we train classifiers on the task of identifying which Tamil variety a text belongs to. We use these models to gauge the availability of pretraining data in Spoken Tamil, to audit the composition of existing labelled datasets for Tamil, and to encourage future work on the variety.

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RENOVI: A Benchmark Towards Remediating Norm Violations in Socio-Cultural Conversations
Haolan Zhan | Zhuang Li | Xiaoxi Kang | Tao Feng | Yuncheng Hua | Lizhen Qu | Yi Ying | Mei Rianto Chandra | Kelly Rosalin | Jureynolds Jureynolds | Suraj Sharma | Shilin Qu | Linhao Luo | Ingrid Zukerman | Lay-Ki Soon | Zhaleh Semnani Azad | Reza Haf

Norm violations occur when individuals fail to conform to culturally accepted behaviors, which may lead to potential conflicts. Remediating norm violations requires social awareness and cultural sensitivity of the nuances at play. To equip interactive AI systems with a remediation ability, we offer ReNoVi — a large-scale corpus of 9,258 multi-turn dialogues annotated with social norms, as well as define a sequence of tasks to help understand and remediate norm violations step by step. ReNoVi consists of two parts: 512 human-authored dialogues (real data), and 8,746 synthetic conversations generated by ChatGPT through prompt learning. While collecting sufficient human-authored data is costly, synthetic conversations provide suitable amounts of data to help mitigate the scarcity of training data, as well as the chance to assess the alignment between LLMs and humans in the awareness of social norms. We thus harness the power of ChatGPT to generate synthetic training data for our task. To ensure the quality of both human-authored and synthetic data, we follow a quality control protocol during data collection. Our experimental results demonstrate the importance of remediating norm violations in socio-cultural conversations, as well as the improvement in performance obtained from synthetic data.

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Human-in-the-Loop Synthetic Text Data Inspection with Provenance Tracking
Hong Jin Kang | Fabrice Harel-Canada | Muhammad Ali Gulzar | Nanyun Peng | Miryung Kim

Data augmentation techniques apply transformations to existing texts to generate additional data. The transformations may produce low-quality texts, where the meaning of the text is changed and the text may even be mangled beyond human comprehension. Analyzing the synthetically generated texts and their corresponding labels is slow and demanding. To winnow out texts with incorrect labels, we develop INSPECTOR, a human-in-the-loop data inspection technique. INSPECTOR combines the strengths of provenance tracking techniques with assistive labeling. INSPECTOR allows users to group related texts by their transformation provenance, i.e., the transformations applied to the original text, or feature provenance, the linguistic features of the original text. For assistive labeling, INSPECTOR computes metrics that approximate data quality, and allows users to compare the corresponding label of each text against the predictions of a large language model. In a user study, INSPECTOR increases the number of texts with correct labels identified by on a sentiment analysis task and by on a hate speech detection task. The participants found grouping the synthetically generated texts by their common transformation to be the most useful technique. Surprisingly, grouping texts by common linguistic features was perceived to be unhelpful. Contrary to prior work, our study finds that no single technique obviates the need for human inspection effort. This validates the design of INSPECTOR which combines both analysis of data provenance and assistive labeling to reduce human inspection effort.

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COMMIT: Code-Mixing English-Centric Large Language Model for Multilingual Instruction Tuning
Jaeseong Lee | YeonJoon Jung | Seung-won Hwang

Recently, instruction-tuned large language models (LLMs) are showing prominent performance on various tasks, such as question answering. However, the majority of instruction-tuned LLMs are English-centric, which hinders their application to low-resource language QA. In this paper, we propose COde-Mixed Multilingual Instruction Tuning (COMMIT) to adapt English-centric LLM to low-resource language QA. We point out two main causes of English-centricness: imbalance of unlabeled data, and English-centric instruction tuning datasets. To deviate from English-centric instruction tuning, we propose to specialize code-mixing for instruction tuning, which blocks code-mixing in English templates, to leverage the potential of its superiority. To overcome data imbalance, we perform cross-lingual alignment. The majority of cross-lingual alignment works focused on making representations similar, which is not desirable to decoder-based LLMs, such as LLaMA. Therefore, we propose code-mixed continual causal language modeling to align the decoder. COMMIT improves the exact match score of low-resourced language QA by up to 32x. Code is publicly available.

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DiLM: Distilling Dataset into Language Model for Text-level Dataset Distillation
Aru Maekawa | Satoshi Kosugi | Kotaro Funakoshi | Manabu Okumura

Dataset distillation aims to compress a training dataset by creating a small number of informative synthetic samples such that neural networks trained on them perform as well as those trained on the original training dataset. Current text dataset distillation methods create each synthetic sample as a sequence of word embeddings instead of a text to apply gradient-based optimization; however, such embedding-level distilled datasets cannot be used for training other models whose word embedding weights are different from the model used for distillation. To address this issue, we propose a novel text dataset distillation approach, called Distilling dataset into Language Model (DiLM), which trains a language model to generate informative synthetic training samples as text data, instead of directly optimizing synthetic samples. We evaluated DiLM on various text classification datasets and showed that distilled synthetic datasets from DiLM outperform those from current coreset selection methods. DiLM achieved remarkable generalization performance in training different types of models and in-context learning of large language models. Our code will be available at

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MindAgent: Emergent Gaming Interaction
Ran Gong | Qiuyuan Huang | Xiaojian Ma | Yusuke Noda | Zane Durante | Zilong Zheng | Demetri Terzopoulos | Li Fei-Fei | Jianfeng Gao | Hoi Vo

Large Foundation Models (LFMs) can perform complex scheduling in a multi-agent system and can coordinate agents to complete sophisticated tasks that require extensive collaboration.However, despite the introduction of numerous gaming frameworks, the community lacks adequate benchmarks that support the implementation of a general multi-agent infrastructure encompassing collaboration between LFMs and human-NPCs. We propose a novel infrastructure—Mindagent—for evaluating planning and coordination capabilities in the context of gaming interaction. In particular, our infrastructure leverages an existing gaming framework to (i) act as the coordinator for a multi-agent system, (ii) collaborate with human players via instructions, and (iii) enable in-context learning based on few-shot prompting with feedback.Furthermore, we introduce “Cuisineworld”, a new gaming scenario and its related benchmark that supervises multiple agents playing the game simultaneously and measures multi-agent collaboration efficiency. We have conducted comprehensive evaluations with a new auto-metric Collaboration Score: CoS for assessing the collaboration efficiency. Finally, Mindagent can be deployed in real-world gaming scenarios in a customized VR version of Cuisineworld and adapted in the “Minecraft” domain. Our work involving LFMs within our new infrastructure for general-purpose scheduling and coordination can elucidate how such skills may be obtained by learning from large language corpora.

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BotChat: Evaluating LLMs’ Capabilities of Having Multi-Turn Dialogues
Haodong Duan | Jueqi Wei | Chonghua Wang | Hongwei Liu | Yixiao Fang | Songyang Zhang | Dahua Lin | Kai Chen

In the realm of modern Large Language Models (LLMs), facilitating high-quality, multi-turn dialogues with humans represents a cornerstone feature. However, human-based evaluation of such a capability involves substantial manual effort. This study offers a formative assessment of current LLMs’ proficiency in emulating human-like, multi-turn conversations using an LLM-centric approach. The evaluation encompasses three key elements in the evaluation pipeline: utterance generation, evaluation protocol, and judgement, and we delve deeply into each aspect. GPT-4, both as an utterance generator and as a judge, exhibits exceptional performance. As a generator, GPT-4 crafts dialogues indistinguishable from human interactions in terms of style and flow. When judging, it shows a heightened alignment with human evaluative standards and consistency. Conversely, other LLMs face challenges in producing quality multi-turn dialogues, hindered by inadequate instruction-following abilities, a propensity for prolix utterances, and overall limited capabilities. Notably, generating extensive dialogues (e.g., spanning tens of turns) remains a formidable task for most LLMs, particularly in Chinese contexts. We hope that our work can serve as a valuable resource for evaluating the multi-turn chatting capabilities of LLMs. Related resources are available at

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Learning Mutually Informed Representations for Characters and Subwords
Yilin Wang | Xinyi Hu | Matthew Gormley

Most pretrained language models rely on subword tokenization, which processes text as a sequence of subword tokens. However, different granularities of text, such as characters, subwords, and words, can contain different kinds of information. Previous studies have shown that incorporating multiple input granularities improves model generalization, yet very few of them outputs useful representations for each granularity. In this paper, we introduce the entanglement model, aiming to combine character and subword language models. Inspired by vision-language models, our model treats characters and subwords as separate modalities, and it generates mutually informed representations for both granularities as output. We evaluate our model on text classification, named entity recognition, POS-tagging, and character-level sequence labeling (intraword code-switching). Notably, the entanglement model outperforms its backbone language models, particularly in the presence of noisy texts and low-resource languages. Furthermore, the entanglement model even outperforms larger pre-trained models on all English sequence labeling tasks and classification tasks. We make our code publically available.

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A Novel Two-step Fine-tuning Framework for Transfer Learning in Low-Resource Neural Machine Translation
Yuan Gao | Feng Hou | Ruili Wang

Existing transfer learning methods for neural machine translation typically use a well-trained translation model (i.e., a parent model) of a high-resource language pair to directly initialize a translation model (i.e., a child model) of a low-resource language pair, and the child model is then fine-tuned with corresponding datasets. In this paper, we propose a novel two-step fine-tuning (TSFT) framework for transfer learning in low-resource neural machine translation. In the first step, we adjust the parameters of the parent model to fit the child language by using the child source data. In the second step, we transfer the adjusted parameters to the child model and fine-tune it with a proposed distillation loss for efficient optimization. Our experimental results on five low-resource translations demonstrate that our framework yields significant improvements over various strong transfer learning baselines. Further analysis demonstrated the effectiveness of different components in our framework.

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Enhancing Cross-lingual Sentence Embedding for Low-resource Languages with Word Alignment
Zhongtao Miao | Qiyu Wu | Kaiyan Zhao | Zilong Wu | Yoshimasa Tsuruoka

The field of cross-lingual sentence embeddings has recently experienced significant advancements, but research concerning low-resource languages has lagged due to the scarcity of parallel corpora. This paper shows that cross-lingual word representation in low-resource languages is notably under-aligned with that in high-resource languages in current models. To address this, we introduce a novel framework that explicitly aligns words between English and eight low-resource languages, utilizing off-the-shelf word alignment models. This framework incorporates three primary training objectives: aligned word prediction and word translation ranking, along with the widely used translation ranking. We evaluate our approach through experiments on the bitext retrieval task, which demonstrate substantial improvements on sentence embeddings in low-resource languages. In addition, the competitive performance of the proposed model across a broader range of tasks in high-resource languages underscores its practicality.

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C3LPGCN:Integrating Contrastive Learning and Cooperative Learning with Prompt into Graph Convolutional Network for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Ye He | Shihao Zou | YuzheChen YuzheChen | Xianying Huang

Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) is a fine-grained task. Recently, using graph convolutional networks (GCNs) to model syntactic information has become a popular topic. In addition, a growing consensus exists to enhance sentence representation using contrastive learning. However, when modeling syntactic information, incorrect syntactic structure may introduce additional noise. Meanwhile, we believe that contrastive learning implicitly introduce label information as priori. Therefore, we propose C3LPGCN, which integrates Contrastive Learning and Cooperative Learning with Prompt into GCN. Specifically, to alleviate the noise when modeling syntactic information, we propose mask-aware aspect information filter, which combines prompt information of template with aspect information to filter the syntactic information. Besides, we propose prompt-based contrastive learning and cooperative learning to utilise the label information further. On the one hand, we construct prompts containing labels for contrastive learning, by which the model can focus more on task-relevant features. On the other hand, cooperative learning further extracts label information by aligning input samples’ representation and output distribution with label samples. Extensive experiments on three datasets demonstrate that our method significantly improves the model’s performance compared to traditional contrastive learning methods. Moreover, our C3LPGCN outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Our source code and final models are publicly available at github

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Visual Enhanced Entity-Level Interaction Network for Multimodal Summarization
Haolong Yan | Binghao Tang | Boda Lin | Gang Zhao | Si Li

MultiModal Summarization (MMS) aims to generate a concise summary based on multimodal data like texts and images and has wide application in multimodal fields.Previous works mainly focus on the coarse-level textual and visual features in which the overall features of the image interact with the whole sentence.However, the entities of the input text and the objects of the image may be underutilized, limiting the performance of current MMS models.In this paper, we propose a novel Visual Enhanced Entity-Level Interaction Network (VE-ELIN) to address the problem of underutilization of multimodal inputs at a fine-grained level in two ways.We first design a cross-modal entity interaction module to better fuse the entity information in text and the object information in vision.Then, we design an object-guided visual enhancement module to fully extract the visual features and enhance the focus of the image on the object area.We evaluate VE-ELIN on two MMS datasets and propose new metrics to measure the factual consistency of entities in the output.Finally, experimental results demonstrate that VE-ELIN is effective and outperforms previous methods under both traditional metrics and ours.The source code is available at

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Knowledgeable In-Context Tuning: Exploring and Exploiting Factual Knowledge for In-Context Learning
Jianing Wang | Chengyu Wang | Chuanqi Tan | Jun Huang | Ming Gao

Large language models (LLMs) enable in-context learning (ICL) by conditioning on a few labeled training examples as a text-based prompt, eliminating the need for parameter updates and achieving competitive performance. In this paper, we demonstrate that factual knowledge is imperative for the performance of ICL in three core facets: the inherent knowledge learned in LLMs, the factual knowledge derived from the selected in-context examples, and the knowledge biases in LLMs for output generation. To unleash the power of LLMs in few-shot learning scenarios, we introduce a novel Knowledgeable In-Context Tuning (KICT) framework to further improve the performance of ICL:1) injecting knowledge into LLMs during continual self-supervised pre-training, 2) judiciously selecting the examples for ICL with high knowledge relevance, and 3) calibrating the prediction results based on prior knowledge.We evaluate the proposed approaches on autoregressive models (e.g., GPT-style LLMs) over multiple text classification and question-answering tasks. Experimental results demonstrate that KICT substantially outperforms strong baselines and improves by more than 13% and 7% on text classification and question-answering tasks, respectively.

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Time Machine GPT
Felix Drinkall | Eghbal Rahimikia | Janet Pierrehumbert | Stefan Zohren

Large language models (LLMs) are often trained on extensive, temporally indiscriminate text corpora, reflecting the lack of datasets with temporal metadata. This approach is not aligned with the evolving nature of language. Conventional methods for creating temporally adapted language models often depend on further pre-training static models on time-specific data. This paper presents a new approach: a series of point-in-time LLMs called TimeMachineGPT (TiMaGPT), specifically designed to be nonprognosticative. This ensures they remain uninformed about future factual information and linguistic changes. This strategy is beneficial for understanding language evolution and is of critical importance when applying models in dynamic contexts, such as time-series forecasting, where foresight of future information can prove problematic. We provide access to both the models and training datasets.

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An End-to-End Submodular Framework for Data-Efficient In-Context Learning
Lilly Kumari | Shengjie Wang | Arnav Das | Tianyi Zhou | Jeff Bilmes

Recent advancements in natural language tasks leverage the emergent In-Context Learning (ICL) ability of pretrained Large Language Models (LLMs). ICL enables LLMs to perform new tasks by utilizing a limited number of input-output examples as prompts. While ICL circumvents the costly step of finetuning LLMs, its effectiveness is heavily dependent on the quality and ordering of provided examples (called exemplars). In this work, we propose a two-stage data-efficient framework Div-S3 for exemplar selection for ICL. The first stage focuses on data annotation and employs a pool-based active learning approach to select a set of Diverse and informative exemplars from the target tasks’ unlabeled pool. Given a test input/query, the second stage uses Submodular Span Summarization (S3) to select the most relevant and non-redundant exemplars from the annotated pool of a limited budget. On 7 different NLP datasets and 5 LLMs of varying complexities, we show Div-S3 outperforms (1) existing active learning-based methods for data annotation for ICL and (2) similarity-based methods for test query-specific exemplars retrieval.

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Teaching Llama a New Language Through Cross-Lingual Knowledge Transfer
Hele-Andra Kuulmets | Taido Purason | Agnes Luhtaru | Mark Fishel

This paper explores cost-efficient methods to adapt pretrained Large Language Models (LLMs) to new lower-resource languages, with a specific focus on Estonian. Leveraging the Llama 2 model, we investigate the impact of combining cross-lingual instruction-tuning with additional monolingual pretraining. Our results demonstrate that even a relatively small amount of additional monolingual pretraining followed by cross-lingual instruction-tuning significantly enhances results on Estonian. Furthermore, we showcase cross-lingual knowledge transfer from high-quality English instructions to Estonian, resulting in improvements in commonsense reasoning and multi-turn conversation capabilities. Our best model, named Llammas, represents the first open-source instruction-following LLM for Estonian. Additionally, we publish Alpaca-est, the first general task instruction dataset for Estonia. These contributions mark the initial progress in the direction of developing open-source LLMs for Estonian.

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Simulating Opinion Dynamics with Networks of LLM-based Agents
Yun-Shiuan Chuang | Agam Goyal | Nikunj Harlalka | Siddharth Suresh | Robert Hawkins | Sijia Yang | Dhavan Shah | Junjie Hu | Timothy Rogers

Accurately simulating human opinion dynamics is crucial for understanding a variety of societal phenomena, including polarization and the spread of misinformation. However, the agent-based models (ABMs) commonly used for such simulations often over-simplify human behavior. We propose a new approach to simulating opinion dynamics based on populations of Large Language Models (LLMs). Our findings reveal a strong inherent bias in LLM agents towards producing accurate information, leading simulated agents to consensus in line with scientific reality. This bias limits their utility for understanding resistance to consensus views on issues like climate change. After inducing confirmation bias through prompt engineering, however, we observed opinion fragmentation in line with existing agent-based modeling and opinion dynamics research. These insights highlight the promise and limitations of LLM agents in this domain and suggest a path forward: refining LLMs with real-world discourse to better simulate the evolution of human beliefs.

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Probing the Category of Verbal Aspect in Transformer Language Models
Anisia Katinskaia | Roman Yangarber

We investigate how pretrained language models (PLM) encode the grammatical category of verbal aspect in Russian. Encoding of aspect in transformer LMs has not been studied previously in any language. A particular challenge is posed by ”alternative contexts”: where either the perfective or the imperfective aspect is suitable grammatically and semantically. We perform probing using BERT and RoBERTa on alternative and non-alternative contexts. First, we assess the models’ performance on aspect prediction, via behavioral probing. Next, we examine the models’ performance when their contextual representations are substituted with counterfactual representations, via causal probing. These counterfactuals alter the value of the “boundedness” feature—a semantic feature, which characterizes the action in the context. Experiments show that BERT and RoBERTa do encode aspect—mostly in their final layers. The counterfactual interventions affect perfective and imperfective in opposite ways, which is consistent with grammar: perfective is positively affected by adding the meaning of boundedness, and vice versa. The practical implications of our probing results are that fine-tuning only the last layers of BERT on predicting aspect is faster and more effective than fine-tuning the whole model. The model has high predictive uncertainty about aspect in alternative contexts, which tend to lack explicit hints about the boundedness of the described action.

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A Measure for Transparent Comparison of Linguistic Diversity in Multilingual NLP Data Sets
Tanja Samardzic | Ximena Gutierrez | Christian Bentz | Steven Moran | Olga Pelloni

Typologically diverse benchmarks are increasingly created to track the progress achieved in multilingual NLP. Linguistic diversity of these data sets is typically measured as the number of languages or language families included in the sample, but such measures do not consider structural properties of the included languages. In this paper, we propose assessing linguistic diversity of a data set against a reference language sample as a means of maximising linguistic diversity in the long run. We represent languages as sets of features and apply a version of the Jaccard index suitable for comparing sets of measures. In addition to the features extracted from typological data bases, we propose an automatic text-based measure, which can be used as a means of overcoming the well-known problem of data sparsity in manually collected features. Our diversity score is interpretable in terms of linguistic features and can identify the types of languages that are not represented in a data set. Using our method, we analyse a range of popular multilingual data sets (UD, Bible100, mBERT, XTREME, XGLUE, XNLI, XCOPA, TyDiQA, XQuAD). In addition to ranking these data sets, we find, for example, that (poly)synthetic languages are missing in almost all of them.

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Beyond Read-Only: Crafting a Comprehensive Chinese Text-to-SQL Dataset for Database Manipulation and Query
Xi Chen | Jinguo You | Likun Likun | Xiang Li

Text-to-SQL aims to convert natural language into structured query language, which is a challenging task. Current research focuses mainly on read operations and ignores other aspects of database operations such as create, update, and delete operations. The benchmark datasets as well as models that have been proposed also fail to cover these operations, limiting the development and practical applications in the field. To bridge this gap, we propose CRUDSQL, a large-scale cross-domain single-table CRUD operations Chinese Text-to-SQL dataset. The dataset contains 10,000 question/SQL pairs involving 625 tables from different domains. To support further research on this dataset, we also propose a baseline method, CRUDParser, which employs a two-phase approach based on BERT and T5 for SQL generation and incorporates two strategies, value matching, and value prompting, for interacting with databases to further improve the performance. The experimental results show that the new operation types bring different challenges for future research, and our approach achieves 67.08% and 83.8% exact set matching accuracy under both read and delete operations in the test set, but only 49.6% and 61.8% under create and update operations. We believe that the proposal of CRUDSQL as well as CRUDParser can provide new directions and possibilities for research and practical applications in the field of Text-to-SQL. The dataset is published at

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Normalizing without Modernizing: Keeping Historical Wordforms of Middle French while Reducing Spelling Variants
Raphael Rubino | Johanna Gerlach | Jonathan Mutal | Pierrette Bouillon

Conservation of historical documents benefits from computational methods by alleviating the manual labor related to digitization and modernization of textual content. Languages usually evolve over time and keeping historical wordforms is crucial for diachronic studies and digital humanities. However, spelling conventions did not necessarily exist when texts were originally written and orthographic variations are commonly observed depending on scribes and time periods. In this study, we propose to automatically normalize orthographic wordforms found in historical archives written in Middle French during the 16th century without fully modernizing textual content. We leverage pre-trained models in a low resource setting based on a manually curated parallel corpus and produce additional resources with artificial data generation approaches. Results show that causal language models and knowledge distillation improve over a strong baseline, thus validating the proposed methods.

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Anti-LM Decoding for Zero-shot In-context Machine Translation
Suzanna Sia | Alexandra DeLucia | Kevin Duh

Zero-shot In-context learning is the phenomenon where models can perform a task given only the instructions. However, pre-trained large language models are known to be poorly calibrated for zero-shot tasks. One of the most effective approaches to handling this bias is to adopt a contrastive decoding objective, which accounts for the prior probability of generating the next token by conditioning on a context. This work introduces an Anti-Language Model objective with a decay factor designed to address the weaknesses of In-context Machine Translation. We conduct our experiments across 3 model types and sizes, 3 language directions, and for both greedy decoding and beam search. The proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art decoding objectives, with up to 20 BLEU point improvement from the default objective in some settings.

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Defending Against Weight-Poisoning Backdoor Attacks for Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning
Shuai Zhao | Leilei Gan | Anh Tuan Luu | Jie Fu | Lingjuan Lyu | Meihuizi Jia | Jinming Wen

Recently, various parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) strategies for application to language models have been proposed and successfully implemented. However, this raises the question of whether PEFT, which only updates a limited set of model parameters, constitutes security vulnerabilities when confronted with weight-poisoning backdoor attacks. In this study, we show that PEFT is more susceptible to weight-poisoning backdoor attacks compared to the full-parameter fine-tuning method, with pre-defined triggers remaining exploitable and pre-defined targets maintaining high confidence, even after fine-tuning. Motivated by this insight, we developed a Poisoned Sample Identification Module (PSIM) leveraging PEFT, which identifies poisoned samples through confidence, providing robust defense against weight-poisoning backdoor attacks. Specifically, we leverage PEFT to train the PSIM with randomly reset sample labels. During the inference process, extreme confidence serves as an indicator for poisoned samples, while others are clean. We conduct experiments on text classification tasks, five fine-tuning strategies, and three weight-poisoning backdoor attack methods. Experiments show near 100% success rates for weight-poisoning backdoor attacks when utilizing PEFT. Furthermore, our defensive approach exhibits overall competitive performance in mitigating weight-poisoning backdoor attacks.

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Select and Summarize: Scene Saliency for Movie Script Summarization
Rohit Saxena | Frank Keller

Abstractive summarization for long-form narrative texts such as movie scripts is challenging due to the computational and memory constraints of current language models. A movie script typically comprises a large number of scenes; however, only a fraction of these scenes are salient, i.e., important for understanding the overall narrative. The salience of a scene can be operationalized by considering it as salient if it is mentioned in the summary. Automatically identifying salient scenes is difficult due to the lack of suitable datasets. In this work, we introduce a scene saliency dataset that consists of human-annotated salient scenes for 100 movies. We propose a two-stage abstractive summarization approach which first identifies the salient scenes in script and then generates a summary using only those scenes. Using QA-based evaluation, we show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art summarization methods and reflects the information content of a movie more accurately than a model that takes the whole movie script as input.

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Don’t be a Fool: Pooling Strategies in Offensive Language Detection from User-Intended Adversarial Attacks
Seunguk Yu | Juhwan Choi | YoungBin Kim

Offensive language detection is an important task for filtering out abusive expressions and improving online user experiences. However, malicious users often attempt to avoid filtering systems through the involvement of textual noises. In this paper, we propose these evasions as user-intended adversarial attacks that insert special symbols or leverage the distinctive features of the Korean language. Furthermore, we introduce simple yet effective pooling strategies in a layer-wise manner to defend against the proposed attacks, focusing on the preceding layers not just the last layer to capture both offensiveness and token embeddings. We demonstrate that these pooling strategies are more robust to performance degradation even when the attack rate is increased, without directly training of such patterns. Notably, we found that models pre-trained on clean texts could achieve a comparable performance in detecting attacked offensive language, to models pre-trained on noisy texts by employing these pooling strategies.

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Z-GMOT: Zero-shot Generic Multiple Object Tracking
Kim Tran | Anh Duy Le Dinh | Tien-Phat Nguyen | Thinh Phan | Pha Nguyen | Khoa Luu | Donald Adjeroh | Gianfranco Doretto | Ngan Le

Despite recent significant progress, Multi-Object Tracking (MOT) faces limitations such as reliance on prior knowledge and predefined categories and struggles with unseen objects. To address these issues, Generic Multiple Object Tracking (GMOT) has emerged as an alternative approach, requiring less prior information. However, current GMOT methods often rely on initial bounding boxes and struggle to handle variations in factors such as viewpoint, lighting, occlusion, and scale, among others. Our contributions commence with the introduction of the Referring GMOT dataset a collection of videos, each accompanied by detailed textual descriptions of their attributes. Subsequently, we propose Z-GMOT, a cutting-edge tracking solution capable of tracking objects from never-seen categories without the need of initial bounding boxes or predefined categories. Within our Z-GMOT framework, we introduce two novel components: (i) iGLIP, an improved Grounded language-image pretraining, for accurately detecting unseen objects with specific characteristics. (ii) MA-SORT, a novel object association approach that adeptly integrates motion and appearance-based matching strategies to tackle the complex task of tracking objects with high similarity. Our contributions are benchmarked through extensive experiments conducted on the Referring GMOT dataset for GMOT task. Additionally, to assess the generalizability of the proposed Z-GMOT, we conduct ablation studies on the DanceTrack and MOT20 datasets for the MOT task. Our dataset, code, and models are released at:

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NLP for Counterspeech against Hate: A Survey and How-To Guide
Helena Bonaldi | Yi-Ling Chung | Gavin Abercrombie | Marco Guerini

In recent years, counterspeech has emerged as one of the most promising strategies to fight online hate. These non-escalatory responses tackle online abuse while preserving the freedom of speech of the users, and can have a tangible impact in reducing online and offline violence. Recently, there has been growing interest from the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community in addressing the challenges of analysing, collecting, classifying, and automatically generating counterspeech, to reduce the huge burden of manually producing it. In particular, researchers have taken different directions in addressing these challenges, thus providing a variety of related tasks and resources. In this paper, we provide a guide for doing research on counterspeech, by describing - with detailed examples - the steps to undertake, and providing best practices that can be learnt from the NLP studies on this topic. Finally, we discuss open challenges and future directions of counterspeech research in NLP.

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PRODIGy: a PROfile-based DIalogue Generation dataset
Daniela Occhipinti | Serra Tekiroglu | Marco Guerini

Providing dialogue agents with a profile representation can improve their consistency and coherence, leading to better conversations. However, current profile-based dialogue datasets for training such agents contain either explicit profile representations that are simple and dialogue-specific, or implicit representations that are difficult to collect. In this work, we introduce the PRODIGy (PROfile-based DIalogue Generation) dataset, which brings diverse representations together, providing a more comprehensive profile dimension set for each speaker. This resource comprises more than 20k dialogues, sourced from movie scripts, aligned with speaker representations such as communication style, biography, personality and gender. Initial experiments with diverse baselines show that providing generative language models with these aspects of a profile, both separately and jointly, enhances models’ performance. This improvement holds true in both in-domain and cross-domain settings, for both fine-tuned and instruction-based LLMs.

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WaterJudge: Quality-Detection Trade-off when Watermarking Large Language Models
Piotr Molenda | Adian Liusie | Mark Gales

Watermarking generative-AI systems, such as LLMs, has gained considerable interest, driven by their enhanced capabilities across a wide range of tasks. Although current approaches have demonstrated that small, context-dependent shifts in the word distributions can be used to apply and detect watermarks, there has been little work in analyzing the impact that these perturbations have on the quality of generated texts. Balancing high detectability with minimal performance degradation is crucial in terms of selecting the appropriate watermarking setting; therefore this paper proposes a simple analysis framework where comparative assessment, a flexible NLG evaluation framework, is used to assess the quality degradation caused by a particular watermark setting. We demonstrate that our framework provides easy visualization of the quality-detection trade-off of watermark settings, enabling a simple solution to find an LLM watermark operating point that provides a well-balanced performance. This approach is applied to two different summarization systems and a translation system, enabling cross-model analysis for a task, and cross-task analysis.

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Cognitive Overload: Jailbreaking Large Language Models with Overloaded Logical Thinking
Nan Xu | Fei Wang | Ben Zhou | Bangzheng Li | Chaowei Xiao | Muhao Chen

While large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated increasing power, they have also called upon studies on their vulnerabilities. As representatives, jailbreak attacks can provoke harmful or unethical responses from LLMs, even after safety alignment. In this paper, we investigate a novel category of jailbreak attacks specifically designed to target the cognitive structure and processes of LLMs. Specifically, we analyze the safety vulnerability of LLMs in the face of 1) multilingual cognitive overload, 2) veiled expression, and 3) effect-to- cause reasoning. Different from previous jailbreak attacks, our proposed cognitive overload is a black-box attack with no need for knowledge of model architecture or access to model weights. Experiments conducted on AdvBench and MasterKey reveal that various LLMs, including both popular open-source model Llama 2 and the proprietary model ChatGPT, can be compromised through cognitive overload. Motivated by cognitive psychology work on managing cognitive load, we further investigate defending cognitive overload attack from two perspectives. Empirical studies show that our cognitive overload from three perspectives can jailbreak all studied LLMs successfully, while existing defense strategies can hardly mitigate the caused malicious uses effectively.

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PAELLA: Parameter-Efficient Lightweight Language-Agnostic Captioning Model
Rita Ramos | Emanuele Bugliarello | Bruno Martins | Desmond Elliott

We introduce PAELLA, a Parameter-Efficient Lightweight Language-Agnostic image captioning model designed to be both parameter and data-efficient using retrieval augmentation. The model is trained by learning a small mapping network with 34M parameters between a pre-trained visual model and a multilingual language model that is conditioned on two types of input: (i) the image itself, and (ii) a set of retrieved captions in the target language. The retrieved examples play a key role in guiding the model to generate captions across languages. Through retrieval, the model can be lightweight in terms of the number of trainable parameters, which only exist in its mapping network, and also in the amount of multilingual training data that is required. Experiments on the XM3600 dataset, featuring 36 languages, show that PAELLA can outperform or compete against some models with 3–77× more learned parameters and 35–863× more data, particularly in low-resource languages. We also find that PAELLA can be trained on only monolingual data and still show strong zero-shot abilities in other languages.

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OSCaR: Object State Captioning and State Change Representation
Nguyen Nguyen | Jing Bi | Ali Vosoughi | Yapeng Tian | Pooyan Fazli | Chenliang Xu

The capability of intelligent models to extrapolate and comprehend changes in object states is a crucial yet demanding aspect of AI research, particularly through the lens of human interaction in real-world settings. This task involves describing complex visual environments, identifying active objects, and interpreting their changes as conveyed through language. Traditional methods, which isolate object captioning and state change detection, offer a limited view of dynamic environments. Moreover, relying on a small set of symbolic words to represent changes has restricted the expressiveness of language. To address these challenges, in this paper, we introduce the Object State Captioning and State Change Representation (OSCaR) dataset and benchmark. OSCaR consists of 14,084 annotated video segments with nearly 1,000 unique objects from various egocentric video collections. It sets a new testbed for evaluating Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs). Our experiments demonstrate that while MLLMs show some skill, they lack a full understanding of object state changes. The benchmark includes a fine-tuned model that, despite initial capabilities, requires significant improvements in accuracy and generalization ability for effective understanding of these changes. Our code and dataset are available at

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SumCSE: Summary as a transformation for Contrastive Learning
Raghuveer Thirukovalluru | Xiaolan Wang | Jun Chen | Shuyang Li | Jie Lei | Rong Jin | Bhuwan Dhingra

Sentence embedding models are typically trained using contrastive learning (CL), either using human annotations directly or by repurposing other annotated datasets. In this work, we explore the recently introduced paradigm of generating CL data using generative language models (LM). In CL for computer vision (CV), compositional transformations (series of operations applied over an image. e.g. cropping + color distortion) which modify the input/image to retain minimal information were shown to be very effective. We show that composition of a ‘Summary’ transformation with diverse paraphrasing/contradicting transformations accomplishes the same and works very well in CL for sentence embeddings. Our final generated dataset (using Vicuna-13B) significantly outperforms the previous best unsupervised method (using ChatGPT) by 1.8 points, and SimCSE, a strong supervised baseline by 0.3 points on the semantic text similarity (STS) benchmark.

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The Curious Decline of Linguistic Diversity: Training Language Models on Synthetic Text
Yanzhu Guo | Guokan Shang | Michalis Vazirgiannis | Chloé Clavel

This study investigates the consequences of training language models on synthetic data generated by their predecessors, an increasingly prevalent practice given the prominence of powerful generative models. Diverging from the usual emphasis on performance metrics, we focus on the impact of this training methodology on linguistic diversity, especially when conducted recursively over time. To assess this, we adapt and develop a set of novel metrics targeting lexical, syntactic, and semantic diversity, applying them in recursive finetuning experiments across various natural language generation tasks in English. Our findings reveal a consistent decrease in the diversity of the model outputs through successive iterations, especially remarkable for tasks demanding high levels of creativity. This trend underscores the potential risks of training language models on synthetic text, particularly concerning the preservation of linguistic richness. Our study highlights the need for careful consideration of the long-term effects of such training approaches on the linguistic capabilities of language models.

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PersonaLLM: Investigating the Ability of Large Language Models to Express Personality Traits
Hang Jiang | Xiajie Zhang | Xubo Cao | Cynthia Breazeal | Deb Roy | Jad Kabbara

Despite the many use cases for large language models (LLMs) in creating personalized chatbots, there has been limited research on evaluating the extent to which the behaviors of personalized LLMs accurately and consistently reflect specific personality traits. We consider studying the behavior of LLM-based agents which we refer to as LLM personas and present a case study with GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 to investigate whether LLMs can generate content that aligns with their assigned personality profiles. To this end, we simulate distinct LLM personas based on the Big Five personality model, have them complete the 44-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality test and a story writing task, and then assess their essays with automatic and human evaluations. Results show that LLM personas’ self-reported BFI scores are consistent with their designated personality types, with large effect sizes observed across five traits. Additionally, LLM personas’ writings have emerging representative linguistic patterns for personality traits when compared with a human writing corpus. Furthermore, human evaluation shows that humans can perceive some personality traits with an accuracy of up to 80%. Interestingly, the accuracy drops significantly when the annotators were informed of AI authorship.

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FIRE: A Dataset for Financial Relation Extraction
Hassan Hamad | Abhinav Kumar Thakur | Nijil Kolleri | Sujith Pulikodan | Keith Chugg

This paper introduces FIRE (**FI**nancial **R**elation **E**xtraction), a sentence-level dataset of named entities and relations within the financial sector. Comprising 3,025 instances, the dataset encapsulates 13 named entity types along with 18 relation types. Sourced from public financial reports and financial news articles, FIRE captures a wide array of financial information about a business including, but not limited to, corporate structure, business model, revenue streams, and market activities such as acquisitions. The full dataset was labeled by a single annotator to minimize labeling noise. The labeling time for each sentence was recorded during the labeling process. We show how this feature, along with curriculum learning techniques, can be used to improved a model’s performance. The FIRE dataset is designed to serve as a valuable resource for training and evaluating machine learning algorithms in the domain of financial information extraction. The dataset and the code to reproduce our experimental results are available at The repository for the labeling tool can be found at

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MusiLingo: Bridging Music and Text with Pre-trained Language Models for Music Captioning and Query Response
Zihao Deng | Yinghao Ma | Yudong Liu | Rongchen Guo | Ge Zhang | Wenhu Chen | Wenhao Huang | Emmanouil Benetos

Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown immense potential in multimodal applications, yet the convergence of textual and musical domains remains not well-explored. To address this gap, we present MusiLingo, a novel system for music caption generation and music-related query responses. MusiLingo employs a single projection layer to align music representations from the pre-trained frozen music audio model MERT (CITATION) with a frozen LLM, bridging the gap between music audio and textual contexts. We train it on an extensive music caption dataset and fine-tune it with instructional data. Due to the scarcity of high-quality music Q&A datasets, we created the MusicInstruct (MI) dataset from captions in the MusicCaps datasets, tailored for open-ended music inquiries. Empirical evaluations demonstrate its competitive performance in generating music captions and composing music-related Q&A pairs. Our introduced dataset enables notable advancements beyond previous ones.

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Investigating Acceleration of LLaMA Inference by Enabling Intermediate Layer Decoding via Instruction Tuning with ‘LITE
Neeraj Varshney | Agneet Chatterjee | Mihir Parmar | Chitta Baral

Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable performance across a wide variety of tasks; however, their large size makes their inference slow and computationally expensive. Focusing on this problem, we study instruction tuning LLMs with additional explicit Losses from the Intermediate layers (LITE) and show that it enables these layers to acquire ‘good’ generation ability without affecting the generation ability of the final layer. We then perform ‘dynamic confidence-based early exiting’ at token level from the intermediate layers which improves the computational efficiency of text generation without sacrificing the quality of the generation. We conduct comprehensive experiments by instruction tuning LLaMA-2 models on the Alpaca dataset and evaluate on four different instruction test sets. We show that dynamic early exiting achieves consistent and considerable inference cost improvements (37.86% for 7B and 46.35% for 13B model) while maintaining the generation quality. We further conduct a thorough analysis of the results and dissect the efficiency improvements which reveals several important findings.

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Instruction-following Evaluation through Verbalizer Manipulation
Shiyang Li | Jun Yan | Hai Wang | Zheng Tang | Xiang Ren | Vijay Srinivasan | Hongxia Jin

While instruction-tuned models have shown remarkable success in various natural language processing tasks, accurately evaluating their ability to follow instructions remains challenging. Existing benchmarks primarily focus on common instructions that align well with what the model learned during training. However, proficiency in responding to these instructions does not necessarily imply strong ability in instruction following. In this paper, we propose a novel instruction-following evaluation protocol called verbalizer manipulation. It instructs the model to verbalize the task label with words aligning with model priors to different extents, adopting verbalizers from highly aligned (e.g., outputting “positive” for positive sentiment), to minimally aligned (e.g., outputting “negative” for positive sentiment). Verbalizer manipulation can be seamlessly integrated with any classification benchmark to examine the model’s reliance on priors and its ability to override them to accurately follow the instructions. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation of four major model families across nine datasets, employing twelve sets of verbalizers for each of them. We observe that the instruction-following abilities of models, across different families and scales, are significantly distinguished by their performance on less natural verbalizers. Even the strongest GPT-4 model struggles to perform better than random guessing on the most challenging verbalizer, emphasizing the need for continued advancements to improve their instruction-following abilities.

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WebWISE: Unlocking Web Interface Control for LLMs via Sequential Exploration
Heyi Tao | Sethuraman T V | Michal Shlapentokh-Rothman | Tanmay Gupta | Heng Ji | Derek Hoiem

This paper investigates using Large Language Models (LLMs) to automatically perform web software tasks using click, scroll, and text in- put operations. Previous approaches, such as reinforcement learning (RL) or imitation learning, are inefficient to train and task-specific. Our method uses filtered Document Object Model (DOM) elements as observations and performs tasks step-by-step, sequentially generating small programs based on the current observations. We use in-context learning, either benefiting from a single manually provided example, or an automatically generated example based on a successful zero-shot trial. We evaluate our proposed method on the MiniWob++ benchmark. With only one in-context example, our WebWISE method using gpt-3.5-turbo achieves similar or better performance than other methods that require many demonstrations or trials.

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CodecLM: Aligning Language Models with Tailored Synthetic Data
Zifeng Wang | Chun-Liang Li | Vincent Perot | Long Le | Jin Miao | Zizhao Zhang | Chen-Yu Lee | Tomas Pfister

Instruction tuning has emerged as the key in aligning large language models (LLMs) with specific task instructions, thereby mitigating the discrepancy between the next-token prediction objective and users’ actual goals. To reduce the labor and time cost to collect or annotate data by humans, researchers start to explore the use of LLMs to generate instruction-aligned synthetic data. Recent works focus on generating diverse instructions and applying LLM to increase instruction complexity, often neglecting downstream use cases. It remains unclear how to tailor high-quality data to elicit better instruction-following abilities in different target instruction distributions and LLMs. To this end, we introduce CodecLM, a general framework for adaptively generating high-quality synthetic data for LLM alignment with different downstream instruction distributions and LLMs. Drawing on the Encode-Decode principles, we use LLMs as codecs to guide the data generation process. We first encode seed instructions into metadata, which are concise keywords generated on-the-fly to capture the target instruction distribution, and then decode metadata to create tailored instructions. We also introduce Self-Rubrics and Contrastive Filtering during decoding to tailor data-efficient samples. Extensive experiments on four open-domain instruction following benchmarks validate the effectiveness of CodecLM over the current state-of-the-arts.

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Prompting Few-shot Multi-hop Question Generation via Comprehending Type-aware Semantics
Zefeng Lin | Weidong Chen | Yan Song | Yongdong Zhang

Given several documents, multi-hop question generation (MQG) is a task aims to generate complicated questions that require reasoning over multiple pieces of these documents to find the answer. To perform this task, existing studies focus on designing advanced architectures to locate essential keywords or sentences in multiple documents and then generate questions accordingly, where they normally do not note that question types could provide crucial hints for extracting key information from the documents for MQG. In general, supervised approaches are used that rely on large annotated data, which is not available in many low-resource scenarios and thus makes MQG hard in these domains. Consider the recent success of large language models (LLMs) on natural language processing tasks using limited labeled data under few-shot settings, in this paper, we propose an approach named type-aware semantics extraction-based chain-of-thought method (TASE-CoT) for few-shot MQG. Specifically, our approach firstly extracts question types and essential semantic phrases from the given documents and the answer. Then, we design a three-step CoT template to leverage the extracted question type and semantic phrases to predict multi-hop questions. Extensive experiments and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach and the proposed modules.

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When Hindsight is Not 20/20: Testing Limits on Reflective Thinking in Large Language Models
Yanhong Li | Chenghao Yang | Allyson Ettinger

Recent studies suggest that self-reflective prompting can significantly enhance the reasoning capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs). However, the use of external feedback as a stop criterion raises doubts about the true extent of LLMs’ ability to emulate human-like self-reflection. In this paper, we set out to clarify these capabilities under a more stringent evaluation setting in which we disallow any kind of external feedback. Our findings under this setting show a split: while self-reflection enhances performance in TruthfulQA, it adversely affects results in HotpotQA.We conduct follow-up analyses to clarify the contributing factors in these patterns, and find that the influence of self-reflection is impacted both by reliability of accuracy in models’ initial responses, and by overall question difficulty: specifically, self-reflection shows the most benefit when models are less likely to be correct initially, and when overall question difficulty is higher. We also find that self-reflection reduces tendency toward majority voting. Based on our findings, we propose guidelines for decisions on when to implement self-reflection. We release the codebase for reproducing our experiments at

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CoDa: Constrained Generation based Data Augmentation for Low-Resource NLP
Chandra Kiran Evuru | Sreyan Ghosh | Sonal Kumar | Ramaneswaran S | Utkarsh Tyagi | Dinesh Manocha

We present CoDa (**Co**nstrained Generation based **Da**ta Augmentation), a controllable, effective, and *training-free* data augmentation technique for low-resource (data-scarce) NLP. Our approach is based on prompting off-the-shelf instruction-following Large Language Models (LLMs) for generating text that satisfies a set of constraints. Precisely, we extract a set of simple constraints from every instance in the low-resource dataset and verbalize them to prompt an LLM to generate novel and diverse training instances. Our findings reveal that synthetic data that follows simple constraints in the downstream dataset act as highly effective augmentations, and CoDa can achieve this without intricate decoding-time constrained generation techniques or fine-tuning with complex algorithms that eventually make the model biased toward the small number of training instances. Additionally, CoDa is the first framework that provides users explicit control over the augmentation generation process, thereby also allowing easy adaptation to several domains. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CoDa across 11 datasets spanning 3 tasks and 3 low-resource settings. CoDa outperforms all our baselines, qualitatively and quantitatively, with improvements of 0.12%-7.19%. Code is available.

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Synonym relations affect object detection learned on vision-language data
Giacomo Nebbia | Adriana Kovashka

We analyze whether object detectors trained on vision-language data learn effective visual representations for synonyms. Since many current vision-language models accept user-provided textual input, we highlight the need for such models to learn feature representations that are robust to changes in how such input is provided. Specifically, we analyze changes in synonyms used to refer to objects. Here, we study object detectors trained on vision-language data and investigate how to make their performance less dependent on whether synonyms are used to refer to an object. We propose two approaches to achieve this goal: data augmentation by back-translation and class embedding enrichment. We show the promise of such approaches, reporting improved performance on synonyms from mAP@0.5=33.87% to 37.93%.

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CM-TTS: Enhancing Real Time Text-to-Speech Synthesis Efficiency through Weighted Samplers and Consistency Models
Xiang Li | FanBu FanBu | Ambuj Mehrish | Yingting Li | Jiale Han | Bo Cheng | Soujanya Poria

Neural Text-to-Speech (TTS) systems find broad applications in voice assistants, e-learning, and audiobook creation. The pursuit of modern models, like Diffusion Models (DMs), holds promise for achieving high-fidelity, real-time speech synthesis. Yet, the efficiency of multi-step sampling in Diffusion Models presents challenges. Efforts have been made to integrate GANs with DMs, speeding up inference by approximating denoising distributions, but this introduces issues with model convergence due to adversarial training. To overcome this, we introduce CM-TTS, a novel architecture grounded in consistency models (CMs). Drawing inspiration from continuous-time diffusion models, CM-TTS achieves top-quality speech synthesis in fewer steps without adversarial training or pre-trained model dependencies. We further design weighted samplers to incorporate different sampling positions into model training with dynamic probabilities, ensuring unbiased learning throughout the entire training process. We present a real-time mel-spectrogram generation consistency model, validated through comprehensive evaluations. Experimental results underscore CM-TTS’s superiority over existing single-step speech synthesis systems, representing a significant advancement in the field.

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RobustSentEmbed: Robust Sentence Embeddings Using Adversarial Self-Supervised Contrastive Learning
Javad Rafiei Asl | Prajwal Panzade | Eduardo Blanco | Daniel Takabi | Zhipeng Cai

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have consistently demonstrated outstanding performance across a diverse spectrum of natural language processing tasks. Nevertheless, despite their success with unseen data, current PLM-based representations often exhibit poor robustness in adversarial settings. In this paper, we introduce RobustSentEmbed, a self-supervised sentence embedding framework designed to improve both generalization and robustness in diverse text representation tasks and against a diverse set of adversarial attacks. Through the generation of high-risk adversarial perturbations and their utilization in a novel objective function, RobustSentEmbed adeptly learns high-quality and robust sentence embeddings. Our experiments confirm the superiority of RobustSentEmbed over state-of-the-art representations. Specifically, Our framework achieves a significant reduction in the success rate of various adversarial attacks, notably reducing the BERTAttack success rate by almost half (from 75.51% to 38.81%). The framework also yields improvements of 1.59% and 0.23% in semantic textual similarity tasks and various transfer tasks, respectively.

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Characterizing Human and Zero-Shot GPT-3.5 Object-Similarity Judgments
D McKnight | Alona Fyshe

Recent advancements in large language models’ (LLMs) capabilities have yielded few-shot, human-comparable performance on a range of tasks. At the same time, researchers expend significant effort and resources gathering human annotations. At some point, LLMs may be able to perform some simple annotation tasks, but studies of LLM annotation accuracy and behavior are sparse. In this paper, we characterize OpenAI’s GPT-3.5’s judgment on a behavioral task for implicit object categorization. We characterize the embedding spaces of models trained on human vs. GPT responses and give similarities and differences between them, finding many similar dimensions. We also find that despite these similar dimensions, augmenting humans’ responses with GPT ones drives model divergence across the sizes of datasets tested.

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Self-Demos: Eliciting Out-of-Demonstration Generalizability in Large Language Models
Wei He | Shichun Liu | Jun Zhao | Yiwen Ding | Yi Lu | Zhiheng Xi | Tao Gui | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang

Large language models (LLMs) have shown promising abilities of in-context learning (ICL), adapting swiftly to new tasks with only few-shot demonstrations. However, current few-shot methods heavily depend on high-quality, query-specific demos, which are often lacking. When faced with out-of-demonstration (OOD) queries, methods that rely on hand-crafted demos or external retrievers might fail. To bridge the gap between limited demos and OOD queries, we propose Self-Demos, a novel prompting method that elicits the inherent generalizability in LLMs by query-aware demo generation. The generated demos strategically interpolate between existing demos and the given query, transforming the query from OOD to ID. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we manually constructed OOD-Toolset, a dataset in the tool-using scenario with over 300 real-world APIs and 1000 instances, each consisting of three tool-use cases as demos and an OOD query. Thorough experiments on our dataset and two public math benchmarks have shown that our method can outperform state-of-the-art baselines in the OOD setting. Moreover, we conduct a range of analyses to validate Self-Demos’s generalization and provide more insights.

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Getting Sick After Seeing a Doctor? Diagnosing and Mitigating Knowledge Conflicts in Event Temporal Reasoning
Tianqing Fang | Zhaowei Wang | Wenxuan Zhou | Hongming Zhang | Yangqiu Song | Muhao Chen

Event temporal reasoning aims at identifying the temporal relations between two or more events from narratives. However, knowledge conflicts arise when there is a mismatch between the actual temporal relations of events in the context and the prior knowledge or biases learned by the model. In this paper, we propose to detect knowledge-conflict examples in event temporal reasoning using bias indicators, which include event relation prior bias, tense bias, narrative bias, and dependency bias. We define conflict examples as those where event relations are opposite to biased or prior relations. To mitigate event-related knowledge conflicts, we introduce a Counterfactual Data Augmentation (CDA) based method that can be applied to both Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) and Large Language Models (LLMs) either as additional training data or demonstrations for In- Context Learning. Experiments suggest both PLMs and LLMs suffer from knowledge conflicts in event temporal reasoning, and CDA has the potential for reducing hallucination and improving model performance.

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MCECR: A Novel Dataset for Multilingual Cross-Document Event Coreference Resolution
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Viet Lai | Chien Nguyen | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen

Event coreference resolution (ECR) is a critical task in information extraction of natural language processing, aiming to identify and link event mentions across multiple documents. Despite recent progress, existing datasets for ECR primarily focus on within-document event coreference and English text, lacking cross-document ECR datasets for multiple languages beyond English. To address this issue, this work presents the first multiligual dataset for cross-document ECR, called MCECR (Multilingual Cross-Document Event Coreference Resolution), that manually annotates a diverse collection of documents for event mentions and coreference in five languages, i.e., English, Spanish, Hindi, Turkish, and Ukrainian. Using sampled articles from Wikinews over various topics as the seeds, our dataset fetches related news articles from the Google search engine to increase the number of non-singleton event clusters. In total, we annotate 5,802 news articles, providing a substantial and varied dataset for multilingual ECR in both within-document and cross-document scenarios. Extensive analysis of the proposed dataset reveals the challenging nature of multilingual event coreference resolution tasks, promoting MCECR as a strong benchmark dataset for future research in this area.

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Sentiment Analysis in the Era of Large Language Models: A Reality Check
Wenxuan Zhang | Yue Deng | Bing Liu | Sinno Pan | Lidong Bing

Sentiment analysis (SA) has been a long-standing research area in natural language processing. With the recent advent of large language models (LLMs), there is great potential for their employment on SA problems. However, the extent to which current LLMs can be leveraged for different sentiment analysis tasks remains unclear. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive investigation into the capabilities of LLMs in performing various sentiment analysis tasks, from conventional sentiment classification to aspect-based sentiment analysis and multifaceted analysis of subjective texts. We evaluate performance across 13 tasks on 26 datasets and compare the results against small language models (SLMs) trained on domain-specific datasets. Our study reveals that while LLMs demonstrate satisfactory performance in simpler tasks, they lag behind in more complex tasks requiring a deeper understanding of specific sentiment phenomena or structured sentiment information. However, LLMs significantly outperform SLMs in few-shot learning settings, suggesting their potential when annotation resources are limited. We also highlight the limitations of current evaluation practices in assessing LLMs’ SA abilities and propose a novel benchmark, SentiEval, for a more comprehensive and realistic evaluation. Data and code are available at

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Tokenizer Choice For LLM Training: Negligible or Crucial?
Mehdi Ali | Michael Fromm | Klaudia Thellmann | Richard Rutmann | Max Lübbering | Johannes Leveling | Katrin Klug | Jan Ebert | Niclas Doll | Jasper Buschhoff | Charvi Jain | Alexander Weber | Lena Jurkschat | Hammam Abdelwahab | Chelsea John | Pedro Ortiz Suarez | Malte Ostendorff | Samuel Weinbach | Rafet Sifa | Stefan Kesselheim | Nicolas Flores-Herr

The recent success of large language models (LLMs) has been predominantly driven by curating the training dataset composition, scaling of model architectures and dataset sizes and advancements in pretraining objectives, leaving tokenizer influence as a blind spot.Shedding light on this underexplored area, we conduct a comprehensive study on the influence of tokenizer choice on LLM downstream performance by training 24 mono- and multilingual LLMs at a 2.6B parameter scale, ablating different tokenizer algorithms and parameterizations. Our studies highlight that the tokenizer choice can significantly impact the model’s downstream performance and training costs. In particular, we find that the common tokenizer evaluation metrics fertility and parity are not always predictive of model downstream performance, rendering these metrics a questionable proxy for the model’s downstream performance. Furthermore, we show that multilingual tokenizers trained on the five most frequent European languages require vocabulary size increases of factor three in comparison to English. While English-centric tokenizers have been applied to the training of multi-lingual LLMs in the past, we find that this approach results in a severe downstream performance degradation and additional training costs of up to 68%, due to an inefficient tokenization vocabulary.

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Think Before You Speak: Cultivating Communication Skills of Large Language Models via Inner Monologue
Junkai Zhou | Liang Pang | Huawei Shen | Xueqi Cheng

The emergence of large language models (LLMs) further improves the capabilities of open-domain dialogue systems and can generate fluent, coherent, and diverse responses. However, LLMs still lack a crucial ability: communication skills. This limitation renders them more like information seeking tools rather than anthropomorphic chatbots. Communication skills, such as topic transition, proactively asking questions, concept guidance, empathy, and summarising often should be taken into consideration, to make LLMs more anthropomorphic and proactive during the conversation, thereby increasing the interest of users and attracting them to chat for longer. However, enabling these communication skills in black-box LLMs remains a key challenge because they do not have the same utterance formation mode as real people: think before speaking. Inspired by linguistics and cognitive science, we empower LLMs with communication skills through inner monologues. To evaluate various communication skills, we construct a benchmark named Cskills, which can also more comprehensively evaluate the dialogue generation ability of the model. Experimental results show that the proposed CSIM strategy improves the backbone models and outperforms the baselines.

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The Impact of Differential Privacy on Group Disparity Mitigation
Victor Hansen | Atula Neerkaje | Ramit Sawhney | Lucie Flek | Anders Søgaard

The performance cost of differential privacy has, for some applications, been shown to be higher for minority groups; fairness, conversely, has been shown to disproportionally compromise the privacy of members of such groups. Most work in this area has been restricted to computer vision and risk assessment. In response, we evaluate the impact of differential privacy on fairness across four diverse tasks, focusing on how attempts to mitigate privacy violations and between-group performance differences interact: Does privacy inhibit attempts to ensure fairness? To this end, we train (𝜀,𝛿)-differentially private models with empirical risk minimization and group distributionally robust training objectives. Consistent with previous findings, we find that differential privacy increases between-group performance differences in the baseline setting; more interestingly, differential privacy reduces between-group performance differences in the robust setting. We explain this by interpreting differential privacy as regularization.

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Isometric Neural Machine Translation using Phoneme Count Ratio Reward-based Reinforcement Learning
Shivam Mhaskar | Nirmesh Shah | Mohammadi Zaki | Ashishkumar Gudmalwar | Pankaj Wasnik | Rajiv Shah

Traditional Automatic Video Dubbing (AVD) pipeline consists of three key modules, namely, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Neural Machine Translation (NMT), and Text-to-Speech (TTS). Within AVD pipelines, isometric-NMT algorithms are employed to regulate the length of the synthesized output text. This is done to guarantee synchronization with respect to the alignment of video and audio subsequent to the dubbing process. Previous approaches have focused on aligning the number of characters and words in the source and target language texts of Machine Translation models. However, our approach aims to align the number of phonemes instead, as they are closely associated with speech duration. In this paper, we present the development of an isometric NMT system using Reinforcement Learning (RL), with a focus on optimizing the alignment of phoneme counts in the source and target language sentence pairs. To evaluate our models, we propose the Phoneme Count Compliance (PCC) score, which is a measure of length compliance. Our approach demonstrates a substantial improvement of approximately 36% in the PCC score compared to the state-of-the-art models when applied to English-Hindi language pairs. Moreover, we propose a student-teacher architecture within the framework of our RL approach to maintain a trade-off between the phoneme count and translation quality.

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Read between the lines - Functionality Extraction From READMEs
Prince Kumar | Srikanth Tamilselvam | Dinesh Garg

While text summarization is a well-known NLP task, in this paper, we introduce a novel and useful variant of it called functionality extraction from Git README files. Though this task is a text2text generation at an abstract level, it involves its own peculiarities and challenges making existing text2text generation systems not very useful. The motivation behind this task stems from a recent surge in research and development activities around the use of large language models for code-related tasks, such as code refactoring, code summarization, etc. We also release a human-annotated dataset called FuncRead, and develop a battery of models for the task. Our exhaustive experimentation shows that small size fine-tuned models beat any baseline models that can be designed using popular black-box or white-box large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT and Bard. Our best fine-tuned 7 Billion CodeLlama model exhibit 70% and 20% gain on the F1 score against ChatGPT and Bard respectively.

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AbsPyramid: Benchmarking the Abstraction Ability of Language Models with a Unified Entailment Graph
Zhaowei Wang | Haochen Shi | Weiqi Wang | Tianqing Fang | Hongming Zhang | Sehyun Choi | Xin Liu | Yangqiu Song

Cognitive research indicates that abstraction ability is essential in human intelligence, which remains under-explored in language models. In this paper, we present AbsPyramid, a unified entailment graph of 221K textual descriptions of abstraction knowledge. While existing resources only touch nouns or verbs within simplified events or specific domains, AbsPyramid collects abstract knowledge for three components of diverse events to comprehensively evaluate the abstraction ability of language models in the open domain. Experimental results demonstrate that current LLMs face challenges comprehending abstraction knowledge in zero-shot and few-shot settings. By training on our rich abstraction knowledge, we find LLMs can acquire basic abstraction abilities and generalize to unseen events. In the meantime, we empirically show that our benchmark is comprehensive to enhance LLMs across two previous abstraction tasks.

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Few-TK: A Dataset for Few-shot Scientific Typed Keyphrase Recognition
Avishek Lahiri | Pratyay Sarkar | Medha Sen | Debarshi Kumar Sanyal | Imon Mukherjee

Scientific texts are distinctive from ordinary texts in quite a few aspects like their vocabulary and discourse structure. Consequently, Information Extraction (IE) tasks for scientific texts come with their own set of challenges. The classical definition of Named Entities restricts the inclusion of all scientific terms under its hood, which is why previous works have used the terms Named Entities and Keyphrases interchangeably. We suggest the rechristening of Named Entities for the scientific domain as Typed Keyphrases (TK), broadening their scope. We advocate for exploring this task in the few-shot domain due to the scarcity of labeled scientific IE data. Currently, no dataset exists for few-shot scientific Typed Keyphrase Recognition. To address this gap, we develop an annotation schema and present Few-TK, a dataset in the AI/ML field that includes scientific Typed Keyphrase annotations on abstracts of 500 research papers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the introductory few-shot Typed Keyphrase recognition dataset and only the second dataset structured specifically for few-shot NER, after Few-NERD. We report the results of several few-shot sequence-labelling models applied to our dataset. The data and code are available at

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Language Models can be Deductive Solvers
Jiazhan Feng | Ruochen Xu | Junheng Hao | Hiteshi Sharma | Yelong Shen | Dongyan Zhao | Weizhu Chen

Logical reasoning is a fundamental aspect of human intelligence and a key component of tasks like problem-solving and decision-making. Recent advancements have enabled Large Language Models (LLMs) to potentially exhibit reasoning capabilities, but complex logical reasoning remains a challenge. The state-of-the-art, solver-augmented language models, use LLMs to parse natural language logical questions into symbolic representations first and then adopt external logical solvers to take in the symbolic representations and output the answers. Despite their impressive performance, any parsing errors will inevitably result in the failure of the execution of external logical solvers and no answer to the logical questions. In this paper, we introduce LoGiPT, a novel language model that directly internalizes and emulates the reasoning processes of logical solvers and avoids parsing errors by learning strict adherence to solver syntax and grammar. LoGiPT is fine-tuned on a newly constructed instruction-tuning dataset derived from revealing and refining the invisible reasoning process of deductive solvers. Experimental results on two public deductive reasoning benchmarks show that LoGiPT outperforms state-of-the-art solver-augmented LMs and few-shot prompting methods on competitive LLMs like GPT-4. This project is available in

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Interpreting User Requests in the Context of Natural Language Standing Instructions
Nikita Moghe | Patrick Xia | Jacob Andreas | Jason Eisner | Benjamin Van Durme | Harsh Jhamtani

Users of natural language interfaces, frequently powered by Large Language Models (LLMs), must often repeat their full set of preferences each time they make a similar request. We describe an approach to LLM-based dialogue modeling in which persistent user constraints and preferences – collectively termed standing instructions – are provided as additional context for such interfaces. For example, when a user states “I’m hungry”, a previously expressed preference for Persian food can be automatically added to the LLM prompt, influencing the search for relevant restaurants.We develop NLSI, a language-to-program dataset consisting of over 2.4K English dialogues spanning 17 domains, in which each dialogue is paired with a user profile (a set of user-specific standing instructions) and corresponding structured representations (a sequence of API calls). A key challenge in NLSI is to identify which subset of the standing instructions is applicable to a given dialogue. NLSI contains diverse phenomena, from simple preferences to interdependent instructions such as triggering a hotel search whenever the user is booking tickets to an event. We conduct experiments on NLSI using prompting with large language models and various retrieval approaches, achieving a maximum of 46% exact match on API prediction. Our results demonstrate the challenges in identifying the relevant standing instructions and their interpretation into API calls

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Secure Your Model: An Effective Key Prompt Protection Mechanism for Large Language Models
Ruixiang Tang | Yu-Neng Chuang | Xuanting Cai | Mengnan Du | Xia Hu

Large language models (LLMs) have notably revolutionized many domains within natural language processing due to their exceptional performance. Their security has become increasingly vital. This study is centered on protecting LLMs against unauthorized access and potential theft. We propose a simple yet effective protective measure wherein a unique key prompt is embedded within the LLM. This mechanism enables the model to respond only when presented with the correct key prompt; otherwise, LLMs will refuse to react to any input instructions. This key prompt protection offers a robust solution to prevent the unauthorized use of LLMs, as the model becomes unusable without the correct key. We evaluated the proposed protection on multiple LLMs and NLP tasks. Results demonstrate that our method can successfully protect the LLM without significantly impacting the model’s original function. Moreover, we demonstrate potential attacks that attempt to bypass the protection mechanism will adversely affect the model’s performance, further emphasizing the effectiveness of the proposed protection method.

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Enhancing Chain-of-Thoughts Prompting with Iterative Bootstrapping in Large Language Models
Jiashuo Sun | Yi Luo | Yeyun Gong | Chen Lin | Yelong Shen | Jian Guo | Nan Duan

Large language models (LLMs) can achieve impressive performance on various reasoning tasks by incorporating chain-of-thought (CoT) prompting, where step-by-step reasoning is provided to guide LLMs to generate answers to questions, and the question-rationale-answer triplets are utilized as demonstration exemplars. However, the reasoning chains of demonstrations generated by LLMs are observed to be prone to errors, which can subsequently lead to incorrect reasoning during inference. Furthermore, inappropriate exemplars, e.g., overly simplistic or complex exemplars depending on the question’s difficulty level, can affect the LLM’s performance. To address these issues, we introduce Iter-CoT (Iterative bootstrapping in Chain-of-Thoughts prompting). Iter-CoT has two advantages: (1) it adopts iterative bootstrapping that enables LLMs to rectify errors autonomously, resulting in more precise and comprehensive reasoning chains. (2) it selects exemplars of challenging yet answerable (i.e., the LLM has the potential to answer correctly) questions, enhancing the LLMs’ generalizability to answer questions with varying difficulty levels. Experimental results exhibit Iter-CoT superior performance on three distinct reasoning tasks on ten datasets.

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Do Prompt Positions Really Matter?
Junyu Mao | Stuart E. Middleton | Mahesan Niranjan

Prompt-based models have gathered a lot of attention from researchers due to their remarkable advancements in the fields of zero-shot and few-shot learning. Developing an effective prompt template plays a critical role. However, prior studies have mainly focused on prompt vocabulary searching or embedding initialization within a predefined template with the prompt position fixed. In this empirical study, we conduct the most comprehensive analysis to date of prompt position for diverse Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Our findings quantify the substantial impact prompt position has on model performance. We observe that the prompt positions used in prior studies are often sub-optimal, and this observation is consistent even in widely used instruction-tuned models. These findings suggest prompt position optimisation as a valuable research direction to augment prompt engineering methodologies and prompt position-aware instruction tuning as a potential way to build more robust models in the future.

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Natural Language Embedded Programs for Hybrid Language Symbolic Reasoning
Tianhua Zhang | Jiaxin Ge | Hongyin Luo | Yung-Sung Chuang | Mingye Gao | Yuan Gong | Yoon Kim | Xixin Wu | Helen Meng | James Glass

How can we perform computations over natural language representations to solve tasks that require symbolic and numeric reasoning? We propose natural language embedded programs (NLEP) as a unifying framework for addressing math/symbolic reasoning, natural language understanding, and instruction following tasks. Our approach prompts a language model to generate full Python programs that define functions over data structures which contain natural language representations of structured knowledge. A Python interpreter then executes the generated code and prints the output. Despite using a task-general prompt, we find that this approach can improve upon strong baselines across a range of different tasks including math and symbolic reasoning, text classification, question answering, and instruction following. We found that the generated programs are interpretable since they outline the exact reasoning process followed by the program interpreter.

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A Study on Scaling Up Multilingual News Framing Analysis
Syeda Sabrina Akter | Antonios Anastasopoulos

Media framing is the study of strategically selecting and presenting specific aspects of political issues to shape public opinion. Despite its relevance to almost all societies around the world, research has been limited due to the lack of available datasets and other resources. This study explores the possibility of dataset creation through crowdsourcing, utilizing non-expert annotators to develop training corpora. We first extend framing analysis beyond English news to a multilingual context (12 typologically diverse languages) through automatic translation. We also present a novel benchmark in Bengali and Portuguese on the immigration and same-sex marriage domains.Additionally, we show that a system trained on our crowd-sourced dataset, combined with other existing ones, leads to a 5.32 percentage point increase from the baseline, showing that crowdsourcing is a viable option. Last, we study the performance of large language models (LLMs) for this task, finding that task-specific fine-tuning is a better approach than employing bigger non-specialized models.

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ViGLUE: A Vietnamese General Language Understanding Benchmark and Analysis of Vietnamese Language Models
Minh-Nam Tran | Phu-Vinh Nguyen | Long Nguyen | Dien Dinh

As the number of language models has increased, various benchmarks have been suggested to assess the proficiency of the models in natural language understanding. However, there is a lack of such a benchmark in Vietnamese due to the difficulty in accessing natural language processing datasets or the scarcity of task-specific datasets. **ViGLUE**, the proposed dataset collection, is a **Vi**etnamese **G**eneral **L**anguage **U**nderstanding **E**valuation benchmark developed using three methods: translating an existing benchmark, generating new corpora, and collecting available datasets. ViGLUE contains twelve tasks and encompasses over ten areas and subjects, enabling it to evaluate models comprehensively over a broad spectrum of aspects. Baseline models utilizing multilingual language models are also provided for all tasks in the proposed benchmarks. In addition, the study of the available Vietnamese large language models is conducted to explore the language models’ ability in the few-shot learning framework, leading to the exploration of the relationship between specific tasks and the number of shots.

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Exploring the Trade-off Between Model Performance and Explanation Plausibility of Text Classifiers Using Human Rationales
Lucas Resck | Marcos M. Raimundo | Jorge Poco

Saliency post-hoc explainability methods are important tools for understanding increasingly complex NLP models. While these methods can reflect the model’s reasoning, they may not align with human intuition, making the explanations not plausible. In this work, we present a methodology for incorporating rationales, which are text annotations explaining human decisions, into text classification models. This incorporation enhances the plausibility of post-hoc explanations while preserving their faithfulness. Our approach is agnostic to model architectures and explainability methods. We introduce the rationales during model training by augmenting the standard cross-entropy loss with a novel loss function inspired by contrastive learning. By leveraging a multi-objective optimization algorithm, we explore the trade-off between the two loss functions and generate a Pareto-optimal frontier of models that balance performance and plausibility. Through extensive experiments involving diverse models, datasets, and explainability methods, we demonstrate that our approach significantly enhances the quality of model explanations without causing substantial (sometimes negligible) degradation in the original model’s performance.

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Unlocking Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning for Low-Resource Language Translation
Tong Su | Xin Peng | Sarubi Thillainathan | David Guzmán | Surangika Ranathunga | En-Shiun Lee

Parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) methods are increasingly vital in adapting large-scale pre-trained language models for diverse tasks, offering a balance between adaptability and computational efficiency. They are important in Low-Resource Language (LRL) Neural Machine Translation (NMT) to enhance translation accuracy with minimal resources. However, their practical effectiveness varies significantly across different languages. We conducted comprehensive empirical experiments with varying LRL domains and sizes to evaluate the performance of 8 PEFT methods with in total of 15 architectures using the SacreBLEU score. We showed that 6 PEFT architectures outperform the baseline for both in-domain and out-domain tests and the Houlsby+Inversion adapter has the best performance overall, proving the effectiveness of PEFT methods.

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ADaPT: As-Needed Decomposition and Planning with Language Models
Archiki Prasad | Alexander Koller | Mareike Hartmann | Peter Clark | Ashish Sabharwal | Mohit Bansal | Tushar Khot

Large Language Models (LLMs) are increasingly being used for interactive decision-making tasks requiring planning and adapting to the environment. Recent works employ LLMs-as-agents in broadly two ways: iteratively determining the next action (iterative executors) or generating plans and executing sub-tasks using LLMs (plan-and-execute). However, these methods struggle with task complexity, as the inability to execute any sub-task may lead to task failure. To address these shortcomings, we introduce As-Needed Decomposition and Planning for complex Tasks (ADaPT), an approach that explicitly plans and decomposes complex sub-tasks as-needed, i.e., when the LLM is unable to execute them. ADaPT recursively decomposes sub-tasks to adapt to both task complexity and LLM capability. Our results demonstrate that ADaPT substantially outperforms established strong baselines, achieving success rates up to 28.3% higher in ALFWorld, 27% in WebShop, and 33% in TextCraft – a novel compositional dataset that we introduce. Through extensive analysis, we illustrate the importance of multilevel decomposition and establish that ADaPT dynamically adjusts to the capabilities of the executor LLM as well as to task complexity.

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Guiding Large Language Models to Post-Edit Machine Translation with Error Annotations
Dayeon Ki | Marine Carpuat

Machine Translation (MT) remains one of the last NLP tasks where large language models (LLMs) have not yet replaced dedicated supervised systems. This work exploits the complementary strengths of LLMs and supervised MT by guiding LLMs to automatically post-edit MT with external feedback on its quality, derived from Multidimensional Quality Metric (MQM) annotations. Working with LLaMA-2 models, we consider prompting strategies varying the nature of feedback provided and then fine-tune the LLM to improve its ability to exploit the provided guidance. Through experiments on Chinese-English, English-German, and English-Russian MQM data, we demonstrate that prompting LLMs to post-edit MT improves TER, BLEU and COMET scores, although the benefits of fine-grained feedback are not clear. Fine-tuning helps integrate fine-grained feedback more effectively and further improves translation quality based on both automatic and human evaluation.

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Non-contrastive sentence representations via self-supervision
Duccio Pappadopulo | Marco Farina

Sample contrastive methods, typically referred to simply as contrastive are the foundation of most unsupervised methods to learn text and sentence embeddings. On the other hand, a different class of self-supervised non-contrastive loss functions and methods have been considered in the computer vision community and referred to as dimension contrastive. In this paper, we thoroughly compare this class of methods with the standard baseline for contrastive sentence embeddings, SimCSE. We find that self-supervised embeddings trained using dimension contrastive objectives can outperform SimCSE on downstream tasks without needing auxiliary loss functions.

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Semantically-Prompted Language Models Improve Visual Descriptions
Michael Ogezi | Bradley Hauer | Grzegorz Kondrak

Language-vision models like CLIP have made significant strides in vision tasks, such as zero-shot image classification (ZSIC). However, generating specific and expressive visual descriptions remains challenging; descriptions produced by current methods are often ambiguous and lacking in granularity. To tackle these issues, we propose V-GLOSS: Visual Glosses, a novel method built upon two key ideas. The first is Semantic Prompting, which conditions a language model on structured semantic knowledge. The second is a new contrastive algorithm that elicits fine-grained distinctions between similar concepts. With both ideas, we demonstrate that V-GLOSS improves visual descriptions and achieves strong results in the zero-shot setting on general and fine-grained image-classification datasets, including ImageNet, STL-10, FGVC Aircraft, and Flowers 102. Moreover, these descriptive capabilities contribute to enhancing image-generation performance. Finally, we introduce a quality-tested silver dataset with descriptions generated with V-GLOSS for all ImageNet classes.

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GenTKG: Generative Forecasting on Temporal Knowledge Graph with Large Language Models
Ruotong Liao | Xu Jia | Yangzhe Li | Yunpu Ma | Volker Tresp

The rapid advancements in large language models (LLMs) have ignited interest in the temporal knowledge graph (tKG) domain, where conventional embedding-based and rule-based methods dominate. The question remains open of whether pre-trained LLMs can understand structured temporal relational data and replace them as the foundation model for temporal relational forecasting. Therefore, we bring temporal knowledge forecasting into the generative setting. However, challenges occur in the huge chasms between complex temporal graph data structure and sequential natural expressions LLMs can handle, and between the enormous data sizes of tKGs and heavy computation costs of finetuning LLMs. To address these challenges, we propose a novel retrieval-augmented generation framework named GenTKG combining a temporal logical rule-based retrieval strategy and few-shot parameter-efficient instruction tuning to solve the above challenges, respectively. Extensive experiments have shown that GenTKG outperforms conventional methods of temporal relational forecasting with low computation resources using extremely limited training data as few as 16 samples. GenTKG also highlights remarkable cross-domain generalizability with outperforming performance on unseen datasets without re-training, and in-domain generalizability regardless of time split in the same dataset. Our work reveals the huge potential of LLMs in the tKG domain and opens a new frontier for generative forecasting on tKGs. The code and data are released here:

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A Transformer with Stack Attention
Jiaoda Li | Jennifer White | Mrinmaya Sachan | Ryan Cotterell

Natural languages are believed to be (mildly) context-sensitive. Despite underpinning remarkably capable large language models, transformers are unable to model many context-free language tasks. In an attempt to address this limitation in the modeling power of transformer-based language models, we propose augmenting them with a differentiable, stack-based attention mechanism. Our stack-basedattention mechanism can be incorporated into any transformer-based language model and adds a level of interpretability to the model. We show that the addition of our stack-based attention mechanism enables the transformer to model some, but not all, deterministic context-freelanguages.

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InstructEval: Systematic Evaluation of Instruction Selection Methods
Anirudh Ajith | Chris Pan | Mengzhou Xia | Ameet Deshpande | Karthik Narasimhan

In-context learning (ICL) performs tasks by prompting a large language model (LLM) using an instruction and a small set of annotated examples called demonstrations. Recent work has shown that precise details of the inputs used in the ICL prompt significantly impact performance, which has incentivized instruction selection algorithms. The effect of instruction-choice however is severely underexplored, with existing analyses restricted to shallow subsets of models and tasks, limiting the generalizability of their insights. We develop InstructEval, an ICL evaluation suite to conduct a thorough assessment of these techniques. The suite includes 13 open-sourced LLMs of varying scales from four model families, and covers nine tasks across three categories. Using the suite, we evaluate the relative performance of seven popular instruction selection methods over five metrics relevant to ICL. Our experiments reveal that using curated manually-written instructions or simple instructions without any task-specific descriptions often elicits superior ICL performance overall than that of automatic instruction-induction methods, pointing to a lack of generalizability among the latter. We release our evaluation suite (at for benchmarking instruction selection approaches and enabling more generalizable methods in this space.

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RecMind: Large Language Model Powered Agent For Recommendation
Yancheng Wang | Ziyan Jiang | Zheng Chen | Fan Yang | Yingxue Zhou | Eunah Cho | Xing Fan | Yanbin Lu | Xiaojiang Huang | Yingzhen Yang

While the recommendation system (RS) has advanced significantly through deep learning, current RS approaches usually train and fine-tune models on task-specific datasets, limiting their generalizability to new recommendation tasks and their ability to leverage external knowledge due to model scale and data size constraints. Thus, we designed an LLM-powered autonomous recommender agent, RecMind, which is capable of leveraging external knowledge, utilizing tools with careful planning to provide zero-shot personalized recommendations. We propose a Self-Inspiring algorithm to improve the planning ability. At each intermediate step, the LLM “self-inspires” to consider all previously explored states to plan for the next step. This mechanism greatly improves the model’s ability to comprehend and utilize historical information in planning for recommendation. We evaluate RecMind’s performance in various recommendation scenarios. Our experiment shows that RecMind outperforms existing zero/few-shot LLM-based recommendation baseline methods in various tasks and achieves comparable performance to a fully trained recommendation model P5.

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GOLD: Generalized Knowledge Distillation via Out-of-Distribution-Guided Language Data Generation
Mohsen Gholami | Mohammad Akbari | Tianxi Hu | Vaden Masrani | Z. Wang | Yong Zhang

Knowledge distillation from LLMs is essential for the efficient deployment of language models. Prior works have proposed data generation using LLMs for preparing distilled models. We argue that generating data with LLMs is prone to sampling mainly from the center of original content distribution. This limitation hinders the distilled model from learning the true underlying data distribution and to forget the tails of the distributions (samples with lower probability). To this end, we propose GOLD, a task-agnostic data generation and knowledge distillation framework, which employs an iterative out-of-distribution-guided feedback mechanism for the LLM. As a result, the generated data improves the generalizability of distilled models. An energy-based OOD evaluation approach is also introduced to deal with noisy generated data. Our extensive experiments on 10 different classification and sequence-to-sequence tasks in NLP show that GOLD respectively outperforms prior arts and the LLM with an average improvement of 5% and 14%. We will also show that the proposed method is applicable to less explored and novel tasks. Code is available in the Appendix.

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How Lexical is Bilingual Lexicon Induction?
Harsh Kohli | Helian Feng | Nicholas Dronen | Calvin McCarter | Sina Moeini | Ali Kebarighotbi

In contemporary machine learning approaches to bilingual lexicon induction (BLI), a model learns a mapping between the embedding spaces of a language pair. Recently, retrieve-and-rank approach to BLI has achieved state of the art results on the task. However, the problem remains challenging in low-resource settings, due to the paucity of data. The task is complicated by factors such as lexical variation across languages. We argue that the incorporation of additional lexical information into the recent retrieve-and-rank approach should improve lexicon induction. We demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed approach on XLING, improving over the previous state of the art by an average of 2% across all language pairs.

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Fumbling in Babel: An Investigation into ChatGPT’s Language Identification Ability
Wei-Rui Chen | Ife Adebara | Khai Doan | Qisheng Liao | Muhammad Abdul-Mageed

ChatGPT has recently emerged as a powerful NLP tool that can carry out a variety of tasks. However, the range of languages ChatGPT can handle remains largely a mystery. To uncover which languages ChatGPT ‘knows’, we investigate its language identification (LID) abilities. For this purpose, we compile Babel-670, a benchmark comprising 670 languages representing 23 language families spoken in five continents. Languages in Babel-670 run the gamut from the very high-resource to the very low-resource. We then study ChatGPT’s (both GPT-3.5 and GPT-4) ability to (i) identify language names and language codes (ii) under zero- and few-shot conditions (iii) with and without provision of a label set. When compared to smaller finetuned LID tools, we find that ChatGPT lags behind. For example, it has poor performance on African languages. We conclude that current large language models would benefit from further development before they can sufficiently serve diverse communities.

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Targeted Augmentation for Low-Resource Event Extraction
Sijia Wang | Lifu Huang

Addressing the challenge of low-resource information extraction remains an ongoing issue due to the inherent information scarcity within limited training examples. Existing data augmentation methods, considered potential solutions, struggle to strike a balance between weak augmentation (e.g., synonym augmentation) and drastic augmentation (e.g., conditional generation without proper guidance). This paper introduces a novel paradigm that employs targeted augmentation and back validation to produce augmented examples with enhanced diversity, polarity, accuracy, and coherence. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed paradigm. Furthermore, identified limitations are discussed, shedding light on areas for future improvement.

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Asking More Informative Questions for Grounded Retrieval
Sedrick Keh | Justin Chiu | Daniel Fried

When a model is trying to gather information in an interactive setting, it benefits from asking informative questions. However, in the case of a grounded multi-turn image identification task, previous studies have been constrained to polar yes/no questions (White et al., 2021), limiting how much information the model can gain in a single turn. We present an approach that formulates more informative, open-ended questions. In doing so, we discover that off-the-shelf visual question answering (VQA) models often make presupposition errors, which standard information gain question selection methods fail to account for. To address this issue, we propose a method that can incorporate presupposition handling into both question selection and belief updates. Specifically, we use a two-stage process, where the model first filters out images which are irrelevant to a given question, then updates its beliefs about which image the user intends. Through self-play and human evaluations, we show that our method is successful in asking informative open-ended questions, increasing accuracy over the past state-of-the-art by 14%, while resulting in 48% more efficient games in human evaluations.

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Efficient Citer: Tuning Large Language Models for Enhanced Answer Quality and Verification
Marzieh Tahaei | Aref Jafari | Ahmad Rashid | David Alfonso-Hermelo | Khalil Bibi | Yimeng Wu | Ali Ghodsi | Boxing Chen | Mehdi Rezagholizadeh

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in utilizing external knowledge to reduce hallucinations in large language models (LLMs) and provide them with updated information. Despite this improvement, a major challenge lies in the lack of explicit citations, which hampers the ability to verify the information generated by these models.This paper focuses on providing models with citation capabilities efficiently. By constructing a dataset of citations, we train two model architectures: an FID-style FLAN-T5 model for efficient answer composition and a 13B model known for its success in instruction following after tuning. Evaluation on fluency, correctness, and citation quality is conducted through human assessment and the newly introduced Automatic LLMs’ Citation Evaluation (ALCE) benchmark.Results demonstrate significant improvements in answer quality and efficiency, surpassing the performance of the popular ChatGPT on some of the metrics. The models exhibit exceptional out-of-domain generalization in both human and automatic evaluation. Notably, the FID-style FLAN-T5 model with only 3B parameters performs impressively compared to the 13B model.

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Addressing Healthcare-related Racial and LGBTQ+ Biases in Pretrained Language Models
Sean Xie | Saeed Hassanpour | Soroush Vosoughi

Recent studies have highlighted the issue of Pretrained Language Models (PLMs) inadvertently propagating social stigmas and stereotypes, a critical concern given their widespread use. This is particularly problematic in sensitive areas like healthcare, where such biases could lead to detrimental outcomes. Our research addresses this by adapting two intrinsic bias benchmarks to quantify racial and LGBTQ+ biases in prevalent PLMs. We also empirically evaluate the effectiveness of various debiasing methods in mitigating these biases. Furthermore, we assess the impact of debiasing on both Natural Language Understanding and specific biomedical applications. Our findings reveal that while PLMs commonly exhibit healthcare-related racial and LGBTQ+ biases, the applied debiasing techniques successfully reduce these biases without compromising the models’ performance in downstream tasks.

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ATG: Benchmarking Automated Theorem Generation for Generative Language Models
Xiaohan Lin | Qingxing Cao | Yinya Huang | Zhicheng Yang | Zhengying Liu | Zhenguo Li | Xiaodan Liang

Humans can develop new theorems to explore broader and more complex mathematical results.While current generative language models (LMs) have achieved significant improvement in automatically proving theorems, their ability to generate new or reusable theorems is still under-explored. Without the new theorems, current LMs struggle to prove harder theorems that are distant from the given hypotheses with the exponentially growing search space.More advanced theorem proving is if an agent (for instance, a generative LM) can leverage its creativity to generate new but also reasonable theorems that properly substitute part of a proof and also be saved as reusable knowledge for future theorem proving.Therefore, this paper proposes an Automated Theorem Generation (ATG) benchmark that evaluates whether an agent can automatically generate valuable (and possibly brand new) theorems that are applicable for downstream theorem proving as reusable knowledge. Specifically, we construct the ATG benchmark by splitting the Metamath library into three sets: axioms, library, and problem based on their proving depth.We conduct extensive experiments to investigate whether current LMs can generate theorems in the library and benefit the problem theorems proving. The results demonstrate that high-quality ATG data facilitates models’ performances on downstream ATP. However, there is still room for current LMs to develop better ATG and generate more advanced and human-like theorems. We hope the new ATG challenge can shed some light on advanced complex theorem proving.

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Benchmarking Generation and Evaluation Capabilities of Large Language Models for Instruction Controllable Summarization
Yixin Liu | Alexander Fabbri | Jiawen Chen | Yilun Zhao | Simeng Han | Shafiq Joty | Pengfei Liu | Dragomir Radev | Chien-Sheng Wu | Arman Cohan

While large language models (LLMs) can already achieve strong performance on standard generic summarization benchmarks, their performance on more complex summarization task settings is less studied. Therefore, we benchmark LLMs on instruction controllable text summarization, where the model input consists of both a source article and a natural language requirement for desired summary characteristics. To this end, we curate an evaluation-only dataset for this task setting and conduct human evaluations of five LLM-based systems to assess their instruction-following capabilities in controllable summarization. We then benchmark LLM-based automatic evaluation for this task with 4 different evaluation protocols and 11 LLMs, resulting in 40 evaluation methods. Our study reveals that instruction controllable text summarization remains a challenging task for LLMs, since (1) all LLMs evaluated still make factual and other types of errors in their summaries; (2) no LLM-based evaluation methods can achieve a strong alignment with human annotators when judging the quality of candidate summaries; (3) different LLMs show large performance gaps in summary generation and evaluation capabilities. We make our collected benchmark InstruSum publicly available to facilitate future research in this direction.

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NeuroComparatives: Neuro-Symbolic Distillation of Comparative Knowledge
Phillip Howard | Junlin Wang | Vasudev Lal | Gadi Singer | Yejin Choi | Swabha Swayamdipta

Comparative knowledge (e.g., steel is stronger and heavier than styrofoam) is an essential component of our world knowledge, yet understudied in prior literature. In this paper, we harvest the dramatic improvements in knowledge capabilities of language models into a large-scale comparative knowledge base. While the ease of acquisition of such comparative knowledge is much higher from extreme-scale models like GPT-4, compared to their considerably smaller and weaker counterparts such as GPT-2, not even the most powerful models are exempt from making errors. We thus ask: to what extent are models at different scales able to generate valid and diverse comparative knowledge?We introduce NeuroComparatives, a novel framework for comparative knowledge distillation overgenerated from language models such as GPT-variants and LLaMA, followed by stringent filtering of the generated knowledge. Our framework acquires comparative knowledge between everyday objects, producing a corpus of up to 8.8M comparisons over 1.74M entity pairs - 10X larger and 30% more diverse than existing resources. Moreover, human evaluations show that NeuroComparatives outperform existing resources in terms of validity (up to 32% absolute improvement). Our acquired NeuroComparatives leads to performance improvements on five downstream tasks.We find that neuro-symbolic manipulation of smaller models offers complementary benefits to the currently dominant practice of prompting extreme-scale language models for knowledge distillation.

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Emotion-Anchored Contrastive Learning Framework for Emotion Recognition in Conversation
Fangxu Yu | Junjie Guo | Zhen Wu | Xinyu Dai

Emotion Recognition in Conversation (ERC) involves detecting the underlying emotion behind each utterance within a conversation. Effectively generating representations for utterances remains a significant challenge in this task. Recent works propose various models to address this issue, but they still struggle with differentiating similar emotions such as excitement and happiness. To alleviate this problem, We propose an Emotion-Anchored Contrastive Learning (EACL) framework that can generate more distinguishable utterance representations for similar emotions. To achieve this, we utilize label encodings as anchors to guide the learning of utterance representations and design an auxiliary loss to ensure the effective separation of anchors for similar emotions. Moreover, an additional adaptation process is proposed to adapt anchors to serve as effective classifiers to improve classification performance. Across extensive experiments, our proposed EACL achieves state-of-the-art emotion recognition performance and exhibits superior performance on similar emotions. Our code is available at

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SUQL: Conversational Search over Structured and Unstructured Data with Large Language Models
Shicheng Liu | Jialiang Xu | Wesley Tjangnaka | Sina Semnani | Chen Yu | Monica Lam

While most conversational agents are grounded on either free-text or structured knowledge, many knowledge corpora consist of hybrid sources.This paper presents the first conversational agent that supports the full generality of hybrid data access for large knowledge corpora, through a language we developed called SUQL (Structured and Unstructured Query Language). Specifically, SUQL extends SQL with free-text primitives (\smallSUMMARY and \smallANSWER), so information retrieval can be composed with structured data accesses arbitrarily in a formal, succinct, precise, and interpretable notation. With SUQL, we propose the first semantic parser, an LLM with in-context learning, that can handle hybrid data sources.Our in-context learning-based approach, when applied to the HybridQA dataset, comes within 8.9% Exact Match and 7.1% F1 of the SOTA, which was trained on 62K data samples. More significantly, unlike previous approaches, our technique is applicable to large databases and free-text corpora. We introduce a dataset consisting of crowdsourced questions and conversations on Yelp, a large, real restaurant knowledge base with structured and unstructured data. We show that our few-shot conversational agent based on SUQL finds an entity satisfying all user requirements 90.3% of the time, compared to 63.4% for a baseline based on linearization.

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On Evaluating the Integration of Reasoning and Action in LLM Agents with Database Question Answering
Linyong Nan | Ellen Zhang | Weijin Zou | Yilun Zhao | Wenfei Zhou | Arman Cohan

This study introduces a new long-form database question answering dataset designed to evaluate how Large Language Models (LLMs) interact with a SQL interpreter. The task necessitates LLMs to strategically generate multiple SQL queries to retrieve sufficient data from a database, to reason with the acquired context, and to synthesize them into a comprehensive analytical narrative. Our findings highlight that this task poses great challenges even for the state-of-the-art **GPT-4** model. We propose and evaluate two interaction strategies, and provide a fine-grained analysis of the individual stages within the interaction. A key discovery is the identification of two primary bottlenecks hindering effective interaction: the capacity for planning and the ability to generate multiple SQL queries. To address the challenge of accurately assessing answer quality, we introduce a multi-agent evaluation framework that simulates the academic peer-review process, enhancing the precision and reliability of our evaluations. This framework allows for a more nuanced understanding of the strengths and limitations of current LLMs in complex retrieval and reasoning tasks.

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CARE: Extracting Experimental Findings From Clinical Literature
Aakanksha Naik | Bailey Kuehl | Erin Bransom | Doug Downey | Tom Hope

Extracting fine-grained experimental findings from literature can provide dramatic utility for scientific applications. Prior work has developed annotation schemas and datasets for limited aspects of this problem, failing to capture the real-world complexity and nuance required. Focusing on biomedicine, this work presents CARE—a new IE dataset for the task of extracting clinical findings. We develop a new annotation schema capturing fine-grained findings as n-ary relations between entities and attributes, which unifies phenomena challenging for current IE systems such as discontinuous entity spans, nested relations, variable arity n-ary relations and numeric results in a single schema. We collect extensive annotations for 700 abstracts from two sources: clinical trials and case reports. We also demonstrate the generalizability of our schema to the computer science and materials science domains. We benchmark state-of-the-art IE systems on CARE, showing that even models such as GPT4 struggle. We release our resources to advance research on extracting and aggregating literature findings.

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Personalized Federated Learning for Text Classification with Gradient-Free Prompt Tuning
Rui Wang | Tong Yu | Ruiyi Zhang | Sungchul Kim | Ryan Rossi | Handong Zhao | Junda Wu | Subrata Mitra | Lina Yao | Ricardo Henao

In this paper, we study personalized federated learning for text classification with Pretrained Language Models (PLMs). We identify two challenges in efficiently leveraging PLMs for personalized federated learning: 1) Communication. PLMs are usually large in size, e.g., with hundreds of millions of parameters, inducing huge communication cost in a federated setting. 2) Local Training. Training with PLMs generally requires back-propagation, during which memory consumption can be several times that of the forward-propagation. This may not be affordable when the PLMs are trained locally on the clients that are resource constrained, e.g., mobile devices with limited access to memory resources. Additionally, the proprietary PLMs can be provided as concealed APIs, for which the back-propagation operations may not be available. In solving these, we propose a training framework that includes an approach of discrete local search for gradient-free local training, along with a compression mechanism inspired from the linear word analogy that allows communicating with discretely indexed tokens, thus significantly reducing the communication cost. Experiments show that our gradient-free framework achieves superior performance compared with baselines.

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SGSH: Stimulate Large Language Models with Skeleton Heuristics for Knowledge Base Question Generation
Shasha Guo | Lizi Liao | Jing Zhang | Yanling Wang | Cuiping Li | Hong Chen

Knowledge base question generation (KBQG) aims to generate natural language questions from a set of triplet facts extracted from KB. Existing methods have significantly boosted the performance of KBQG via pre-trained language models (PLMs) thanks to the richly endowed semantic knowledge. With the advance of pre-training techniques, large language models (LLMs) (e.g., GPT-3.5) undoubtedly possess much more semantic knowledge. Therefore, how to effectively organize and exploit the abundant knowledge for KBQG becomes the focus of our study. In this work, we propose SGSH — a simple and effective framework to Stimulate GPT-3.5 with Skeleton Heuristics to enhance KBQG. The framework incorporates “skeleton heuristics”, which provides more fine-grained guidance associated with each input to stimulate LLMs to generate optimal questions, encompassing essential elements like the question phrase and the auxiliary verb.More specifically, we devise an automatic data construction strategy leveraging ChatGPT to construct a skeleton training dataset, based on which we employ a soft prompting approach to train a BART model dedicated to generating the skeleton associated with each input.Subsequently, skeleton heuristics are encoded into the prompt to incentivize GPT-3.5 to generate desired questions. Extensive experiments demonstrate that SGSH derives the new state-of-the-art performance on the KBQG tasks.

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Biomedical Entity Representation with Graph-Augmented Multi-Objective Transformer
Andrey Sakhovskiy | Natalia Semenova | Artur Kadurin | Elena Tutubalina

Modern biomedical concept representations are mostly trained on synonymous concept names from a biomedical knowledge base, ignoring the inter-concept interactions and a concept’s local neighborhood in a knowledge base graph. In this paper, we introduce Biomedical Entity Representation with a Graph-Augmented Multi-Objective Transformer (BERGAMOT), which adopts the power of pre-trained language models (LMs) and graph neural networks to capture both inter-concept and intra-concept interactions from the multilingual UMLS graph. To obtain fine-grained graph representations, we introduce two additional graph-based objectives: (i) a node-level contrastive objective and (ii) the Deep Graph Infomax (DGI) loss, which maximizes the mutual information between a local subgraph and a high-level graph summary. We apply contrastive loss on textual and graph representations to make them less sensitive to surface forms and enable intermodal knowledge exchange. BERGAMOT achieves state-of-the-art results in zero-shot entity linking without task-specific supervision on 4 of 5 languages of the Mantra corpus and on 8 of 10 languages of the XL-BEL benchmark.

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Cross-Lingual Summarization with Pseudo-Label Regularization
Thang Le

Cross-Lingual Summarization (XLS) aims to summarize a document in the source language into a condensed version in the target language, effectively removing language barriers for non-native readers. Previous approaches, however, have the same limitation that only a single reference (gold summary) is exploited during model training, making the base model exposed to an underrepresented hypothesis space since the actual number of possible hypotheses is exponentially large. To alleviate this problem, we present a study adopting pseudo-labels in regularizing standard cross-lingual summarization training. We investigate several components leading to the gains in regularization training with verified experiments involving 8 diverse languages from different families. Conclusively, we show that pseudo-labeling is a simple and effective approach that significantly improves over standard gold reference training in XLS.

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On the Way to Gentle AI Counselor: Politeness Cause Elicitation and Intensity Tagging in Code-mixed Hinglish Conversations for Social Good
Priyanshu Priya | Gopendra Singh | Mauajama Firdaus | Jyotsna Agrawal | Asif Ekbal

Politeness is a multifaceted concept influenced by individual perceptions of what is considered polite or impolite. With this objective, we introduce a novel task - Politeness Cause Elicitation and Intensity Tagging (PCEIT). This task focuses on conversations and aims to identify the underlying reasons behind the use of politeness and gauge the degree of politeness conveyed. To address this objective, we create HING-POEM, a new conversational dataset in Hinglish (a blend of Hindi and English) for mental health and legal counseling of crime victims. The rationale for the domain selection lies in the paramount importance of politeness in mental health and legal counseling of crime victims to ensure a compassionate and cordial atmosphere for them. We enrich the HING-POEM dataset by annotating it with politeness labels, politeness causal spans, and intensity values at the level of individual utterances. In the context of the introduced PCEIT task, we present PAANTH (Politeness CAuse ElicitAion and INtensity Tagging in Hinglish), a comprehensive framework based on Contextual Enhanced Attentive Convolution Transformer. We conduct extensive quantitative and qualitative evaluations to establish the effectiveness of our proposed approach using the newly constructed dataset. Our approach is compared against state-of-the-art baselines, and these analyses help demonstrate the superiority of our method.

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Leveraging Summarization for Unsupervised Dialogue Topic Segmentation
Aleksei Artemiev | Daniil Parinov | Alexey Grishanov | Ivan Borisov | Alexey Vasilev | Daniil Muravetskii | Aleksey Rezvykh | Aleksei Goncharov | Andrey Savchenko

Traditional approaches to dialogue segmentation perform reasonably well on synthetic or written dialogues but suffer when dealing with spoken, noisy dialogs. In addition, such methods require careful tuning of hyperparameters. We propose to leverage a novel approach that is based on dialogue summaries. Experiments on different datasets showed that the new approach outperforms popular state-of-the-art algorithms in unsupervised topic segmentation and requires less setup.

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LLaMA-Rider: Spurring Large Language Models to Explore the Open World
Yicheng Feng | Yuxuan Wang | Jiazheng Liu | Sipeng Zheng | Zongqing Lu

Recently, various studies have leveraged Large Language Models (LLMs) to help decision-making and planning in environments and try to align the LLMs’ knowledge with the world conditions. Nonetheless, the capacity of LLMs to continuously acquire environmental knowledge and adapt in an open world remains uncertain. In this paper, we propose an approach to spur LLMs to explore the open world, gather experiences, and learn to improve their task-solving capabilities. In this approach, a multi-round feedback-revision mechanism is utilized to encourage LLMs to actively select appropriate revision actions guided by feedback information from the environment. This facilitates exploration and enhances the model’s performance. Besides, we integrate sub-task relabeling to assist LLMs in maintaining consistency in sub-task planning and help the model learn the combinatorial nature between tasks, enabling it to complete a wider range of tasks through training based on the acquired exploration experiences. By evaluation in Minecraft, an open-ended sandbox world, we demonstrate that our approach LLaMA-Rider enhances the efficiency of the LLM in exploring the environment, and effectively improves the LLM’s ability to accomplish more tasks through fine-tuning with merely 1.3k instances of collected data, showing minimal training costs compared to the baseline using reinforcement learning. The code is available at

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Contrastive Learning as a Polarizer: Mitigating Gender Bias by Fair and Biased sentences
Kyungmin Park | Sihyun Oh | Daehyun Kim | Juae Kim

Recently, language models have accelerated the improvement in natural language processing. However, recent studies have highlighted a significant issue: social biases inherent in training data can lead models to learn and propagate these biases. In this study, we propose a contrastive learning method for bias mitigation, utilizing anchor points to push further negatives and pull closer positives within the representation space. This approach employs stereotypical data as negatives and stereotype-free data as positives, enhancing debiasing performance. Our model attained state-of-the-art performance in the ICAT score on the StereoSet, a benchmark for measuring bias in models. In addition, we observed that effective debiasing is achieved through an awareness of biases, as evidenced by improved hate speech detection scores. The implementation code and trained models are available at

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PoLLMgraph: Unraveling Hallucinations in Large Language Models via State Transition Dynamics
Derui Zhu | Dingfan Chen | Qing Li | Zongxiong Chen | Lei Ma | Jens Grossklags | Mario Fritz

Despite tremendous advancements in large language models (LLMs) over recent years, a notably urgent challenge for their practical deployment is the phenomenon of "hallucination”, where the model fabricates facts and produces non-factual statements. In response, we propose PoLLMgraph—a Polygraph for LLMs—as an effective model-based white-box detection and forecasting approach. PoLLMgraph distinctly differs from the large body of existing research that concentrates on addressing such challenges through black-box evaluations. In particular, we demonstrate that hallucination can be effectively detected by analyzing the LLM’s internal state transition dynamics during generation via tractable probabilistic models. Experimental results on various open-source LLMs confirm the efficacy of PoLLMgraph, outperforming state-of-the-art methods by a considerable margin, evidenced by over 20% improvement in AUC-ROC on common benchmarking datasets like TruthfulQA. Our work paves a new way for model-based white-box analysis of LLMs, motivating the research community to further explore, understand, and refine the intricate dynamics of LLM behaviors.

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Improving Health Question Answering with Reliable and Time-Aware Evidence Retrieval
Juraj Vladika | Florian Matthes

In today’s digital world, seeking answers to health questions on the Internet is a common practice. However, existing question answering (QA) systems often rely on using pre-selected and annotated evidence documents, thus making them inadequate for addressing novel questions. Our study focuses on the open-domain QA setting, where the key challenge is to first uncover relevant evidence in large knowledge bases. By utilizing the common retrieve-then-read QA pipeline and PubMed as a trustworthy collection of medical research documents, we answer health questions from three diverse datasets. We modify different retrieval settings to observe their influence on the QA pipeline’s performance, including the number of retrieved documents, sentence selection process, the publication year of articles, and their number of citations. Our results reveal that cutting down on the amount of retrieved documents and favoring more recent and highly cited documents can improve the final macro F1 score up to 10%. We discuss the results, highlight interesting examples, and outline challenges for future research, like managing evidence disagreement and crafting user-friendly explanations.

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DecoderLens: Layerwise Interpretation of Encoder-Decoder Transformers
Anna Langedijk | Hosein Mohebbi | Gabriele Sarti | Willem Zuidema | Jaap Jumelet

In recent years, several interpretability methods have been proposed to interpret the inner workings of Transformer models at different levels of precision and complexity.In this work, we propose a simple but effective technique to analyze encoder-decoder Transformers. Our method, which we name DecoderLens, allows the decoder to cross-attend representations of intermediate encoder activations instead of using the default final encoder output.The method thus maps uninterpretable intermediate vector representations to human-interpretable sequences of words or symbols, shedding new light on the information flow in this popular but understudied class of models.We apply DecoderLens to question answering, logical reasoning, speech recognition and machine translation models, finding that simpler subtasks are solved with high precision by low and intermediate encoder layers.